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A YISITATION 



OF THE 



SEATS AND ARMS OP THE NOBLEMEN AND GENTLEMEN 



OF 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



A VISITATION 



Of 



TfiE SEHTS hn% UE 



OF m 



NOBLEMEN AND GENTLEMEN 



or 



GEE AT BRITAIN AXD IIJELAXD. 



SIB BEENAED BUBKB, 

UuTiB Knro ov Abmb, 
Aulkar tf "Tke Lamded OmUry," "Famiiy Mmamee,** Jte. 



VOL. 11. 



LONDON: 

HUE8T AND BLACKETT, BUBLI SU EIi^>, 

(SIFCCE8S0ES TO HENET COLBUEN,) 

IS OBKAT MABLBOROUQH STREET. 

MDCCCLV. 



/ >» . ': < , J^ ^ 




LONDON : 
PBIHTEA BT SSACOim 4HX> JACK, 18, OBKAT WIMDHILL 8TB£ST. 



TO 



THE RIGHT HONOURABLE 



EDWARD.(tRANVILLE, EAUL of ST. GERMANS, 



TBI DIBTUffOUISHSD BIFBBSBNTATIVB OF A LONG LUTK OF ANOSSTBT, 
AHD THB HONOUBXD IHHERITOB OF ONE OF THB 



HI6T0BI0 HOMES OF ENOLAHD, 



THIS VOLUME OP 

Cljt i»iriitatian nf c^ntiit %n\m mi^ ^nkii\ 



IS, 



WITH THE AUTHORS GRATITUDE AND ESTEEM, 



MOST RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED 



JUeord Tower, DMm OtuUe, 
IM October, 1855. 



VIEWS OF SEATS 



PAOB. 

Abbobftbld, Bebks ...... 228 

Badbt House, oo. Nobthamfton - 19 

Bbamshtll, Hants- lg4 

Dtmoestow Coubt, 00. Monmouth ..... 209 

DovKNBT Hall, Gumbebland ..... 147 

Etwall Hall, 00. Debbt - - - . 107 

G00DNE8TONE Pabk, Kent --.... 226 

Hall Plaob, Kent ...... 19^ 

InGWELL, CxTMBEBLAND - - . . ]4Q 

KiLLiNET Castle, go. Dubun ..... 140 

Knookbbin Castle, 00. Westhsath - - - 163 

Manlet Hall, 00. Staefobd- - - . . . 79 
PoBT Eliot, 00. Cobnwall - - - . . FrontUpieoe. 

Steephill Castle, Isle of Wight - . - , , 209 

Stowlangtoft Hall, Suffolk - - . 2 16 

Thbtbebor Pabk, go. Yobk - - - - - 122 

TODDINOTON, 00. OloUCESTEB --.-►- I 



ITATION 



6LEMEN AM) GEISTLEMEN 



TAIN AND lEELAND. 



.inlidigow, 
I'JdinbuTgh, 
C. DalyeU, 

ntUBted on 

i the Firth, 

id park, with 

g plsntationi. 

.iter of B mils 

round lower, 

/ view of the 

I! aide, u)d of 

.^thian on the 



pan for an excellent tpecimen of the reaidence 
of a considerable Scottish country gentleman 
of the middle of the seTenteenth centurv, 
HoncTer, the house dates from a considerably 
older period, and the roof of the ancient and 
spacious dtatring-room is ornamented with a 
profusion of old-fashioned stucco mouldings, 
in which the impaled arms of Dalyell and 
Bruce are prominent. Thu marks the time 
of the father and mother of the general, viz., 
the reign of Charles I., or the latter part of 
that of James I. of Great Britain. It is even 
not improbable that some portion of the build- 
ing may be at old as the original proprie- 
tors of the ancient bouse of Meldrum. 

Binns has had the honour of being the abode 
"'*"" "ery eminent men, of whom the first 
^brated as a hero of romance, and the 
a diitinguished historical character. 
de to" Esquire Meldrum" and General 
DalyeU. The history of " Esquire 
n," written in verse by SirDavid Lin d- 
:he Mount, in the year 15S0, may be 
edthe last romance of chivalry, though 
nothing in it that is extravagant or be- 
obability. It is the life of a gallant feu- 
te of the end of the fifteenth, or the be- 
of the sixteenth century, drawn up 
9 own recital, by an affectionate friend 
npanion, and that no less a statesman, 
nd courtier than Sir David Lindsay, 
lion King-of-arma, the preceptor of 
V. of Scotland. 



A VISITATION 



Of 




E SEiiTs hn^ hm 



Of VBM 



NOBLEMEN AND GENTLEMEN 



OF 



GEE AT BPJTAIX AXD lUELAXD. 



SIB BEENAED BUBKE, 

Ulrib Kmo ov Abms^ 
AfUkor of " Th€ Lamded OaUry," "FamUif Bmamx," Ac. 



VOL. II. 



LONDON: 

HUEST AND BLACKLTT, PULLI SUEIiS, 

(8TJ0CESS0BS TO HENRY COLBTIBN,) 

18 OBKAT MABIiBOROUQH STREET. 

MDCCCLV. 



.• '^ . 



« I fy ft 




\.Al (xtf ft *L, Jr« 



X- 



LONDON : 
PRIXTSO BI UACOMBB 4BI> JACK, 16, OIBAT WISDIIIXX 8TB£KT. 



TO 



THE BIGHT HONOURABLE 



EDWARD-QRANVILLE, EAIIL OF ST. GERMANS, 



THl DI8TIN0UISHSD BIFBBSEKTATIVB OV A LONO LIKE OF AKOEBTBT, 
AHD THB HONOUSSD IHHEBITOB OF OKE OF THE 



HI8T0BIC HOMES OF ENOLAKD, 



THIS VOLUME OF 



IS, 



WITH THE author's GRATITUDE AND ESTEEM, 



MOST RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED 



Iteeord Tower, DMm Oatile, 
lOti^ October, 1855. 



VIEWS OF SEATS 



Arborfikld, Bebkb 

BaDBT HoUSS, CO. NOBTHAMPTON 

Bramshill, Hants- 
Dtnoebtow Coubt, 00. Monmouth 
DoYXNBiT Hall, Cumberland 
Etwall Hall, oo. Derby 

GOODNBSTONE PaRK, KeNT - 

Hall Place, Kent 
Inowell, Cumberland 
K1LI.INET Castle, co. Dubun 
Knockdbin Castle, 00. Westmeath 
Manjlet Hall, 00. Statfdrd- 
Port Eliot, co. Cornwall - 
Stebphill Castle, Isle of Wight 
Stowlangtoft Hall, Suffolk 
Thrtberoh Park, co. York - 
toddington, go. gloucester 



PAOB. 

228 

19 

164 

200 

147 

167 

226 

196 

148 

146 

163 

70 

FrofUupiece. 

209 

216 

122 

I 



vir 1 rrmt 



CBM 



A VISITATION 



OF THE 



SEATS OF THE NOBLEMEN AND GENTLEMEN 



OF 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



BZiniB HOITBS, in the co. of Linlithgow, 
about fifteen miles to the west of Edinburgh, 
is the seat of Sir William C. C. Dalyell, 
Bart. Captain in the Royal Navy. This 
b a place of great beauty, situated on 
the slope of a hil^ commanding the Firth, 
and surrounded bv a well-wooded park, with 
extensive shrubberies and thriving plantations. 
On the summit of the hill, a quarter of a mile 
above the house, stands a high round tower, 
from which there is a lovely view of the 
Firth of Forth on the one side, and of 
the fertile plains of West Lothian on the 
other. The House is a very ancient mansion, 
of great height and considerable extent; 
which was enlarged and improved in its inte- 
rior accommodation about twenty-five years 
since, by the elder brother of the present 
baronet, a man of considerable taste and ac- 
quirements, who, however, failed in his archi- 
tectural design. He removed the ancient 
pointed windows, so characteristic of an old 
Scottish chdteau, and replaced them with 
battlements, which are entirely out of keeping. 
At the same time he built handsome public 
rooms on the ground-floor, and enlarged the 
gardens, and added much to the beauty of the 
park, by plantations and tasteful approaches. 
In former times, before these recent changes, 
Binns House remained very much in the 
state in which it was inhabited by its distin- 
suiahed proprietor in the reign of King Charles 
XL, General Thomas Dalyell, and it might 



pass for an excellent specimen of the residence 
of a considerable Scottish country gentleman 
of the middle of the seventeenth century. 
However, the house dates from a considerably 
older period, and the roof of the ancient and 
spacious drawing-room is ornamented with a 
profusion of old-fashioned stucco mouldings, 
m which the impaled arms of Dalyell and 
Bruce are prominent. This marks the time 
of the father and mother of the general, viz., 
the reign of Charles I., or the latter part of 
that of James I. of Great Britain. It is even 
not improbable that some portion of the build- 
ing may be as old as the original proprie- 
tors of the ancient house of Meldrum. 

Binns has had the honour of being the abode 
of two very eminent men, of whom the first 
was celebrated as a hero of romance, and the 
other as a distinguished historical character. 
We allude to" Esquire Meldrum" and General 
Thomas Dalyell. The histoiy of ^* Esquire 
Meldrum," written in verse by Sir David Lind- 
say of the Mount, in the year 1550, may be 
considered the last romance of chivalry, though 
there is nothing in it that is extravagant or be- 
yond probability. It is the life of a gallant feu- 
dal squire of the end of the fifteenth, or the be- 
ginning of the sixteenth century, drawn up 
from his own recital, by an afiectionate friend 
and companion, and that no less a statesman, 
poet, and courtier than Sir David Lindsay, 
Lord Lion King-of-arms, the preceptor of 
James V. of Scotland» 



SEATS OF OKEAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



William Meldnini, laird of Binns, was 

•* Of noblenfie lincallr deioenilit, 
M'hOk their gude nune has aye defcndit, 
Code William Mrldnam be waa named. 
Whose honour bricht was ne'er defamed." 

We cannot minutely follow the fortunes 
of this Scottish knight. His historian 
intends to represent in him the mirror of a 
gentleman of that period, and it is prohahle 
that he adheres very closely to facts, as all 
that '' Esquire Meldnim" says and does is 
within the strict bounds of probability . He com- 
menced his career under the Karl of Arran, 
whom James IV. sent, with 3,000 men, to as- 
sist the King of France affaiust Henry VIII., 
In passing, he made a descent on Ireland, 
where he had some singular adventures in 
love and in war ; and in some respects his 
Irish story might seem to be the original of 
the baUad of *' the Spanish Lady's love.'* In 
France he greatly distinguished himself, and 
returned home to Scotland in triumph, where 
he was beloved and esteemed as the pattern 
of an accomplished knight. Soon after his 
return, he had another love adventure, which 
exercised a more lasting influence on his future 
life than that in Ireland. He had gained 
the Section of a lovelv and wealthy widow, 
to whose late husband he was related. And 
whfle waiting for a disMnsation from Home, 
his hopes were cruelly blighted by Stirling of 
Keir, a neighbouring baron, who, having 
planned to marry the fair widow to one of his 
own inends, caused Meldrum to be waylaid, 
and after a desperate contest, left him for 
dead in the fielcl. He was rescued, and re- 
stored to life, by the ^at French knight 
the Seieneur De la Uastie, Vice-Govemor of 
Scotland, under the Scoto-French Regent, the 
Duke of Albany, who, happening to pass that 
way, found the unfortunate hero apparently 
in a hopeless state. He not only saved the 
life of NIeldrum, but apprehended the cowardly 
assassin. But before the trial came on, the 
brave French knight was himself most cruelly 
waylaid and murdered by Hume of Wedder- 
bum. The sick-room of Meldrum u now 
described as minutely as had previously been 
his lady's bower, and the assiduous care of his 
physicians is detailed. But his slow recovery 
was r<>tanled by learning that his lovely miv 
tress had been compelled to marry his mortal 
enemy, whom the assasi nation of l)e la Bastie 
had liberated from prison. On the restora- 
tion of his health, Meldrum was invited, by 
his dear friend the aged Patrick Lord Lindsay 
of the Byres, to live with hint ; and he ol>- 
tained the honourable office of Sheriff of Fife, 
wherein he approved himself an equal judge 
and a generous friend to the poor. lie 
vowed celibacy for the sake of the beauteous 
lady to whom ne had been betrothed. After 
some years he died ; and the account of bis will, 



his funeral, and his funeral-feastis most quaint 
and singular, as well as sumptuous, and gives 
a curious picture of the manners of the 
times. 

Soon after the death of ** Esquire Mel- 
drum," the hero of this old romance, the estate 
of Binns was purchased by a person of the 
name of Dalvell, who had previously pos- 
sessed a small property near the suburbs of 
Edinburgh, and had acquired money. His 
aon, Thomas Dalyell, of Binns, bom 1571, 
married into one of the best families in Scot- 
land, Bruce of Kinloss, and, to judge from the 
present mansion-house of Binns, which was 
undoubtedly inhabited by him, he must have 
been a country-gentleman of good fortune. 
We have already alluded to the heraldic 
blazon which ornamented the ceiling of his 
drawirg-room at a time when coat-armorial 
was not so arbitrarily adapted as at present. 
But the family of Dalyell of Binns owes its 
celebrity to the third laird, Thomas Dalyell, a 
man of bold, energetic character, who, while 
faithful to his sovereign, was a cruel and un- 
comprisine foe to all Uie enemies of the Royal 
cause. His name is, even now, held in horror 
throughout Scotland for the barbarity which 
he exercised on the misguided fanatics of the 
reign of Charles II., who, however, in their 
sufferings, displayed a singleness of purpose and 
heroism, which have gained for them the 
sympathy of posterity. 

Tnomas Dalyell was early imbued with 
sentiments of devoted loyalty to King 
Charles I., and all his influence was exerted 
on the King's side. He succeeded to the estates 
of Binns in 1642; but had previously entered 
the military service. After the death of 
Charles, he adhered to the fortunes of his son ; 
was appointed Major-General in 1651, and in 
that capacity, served at the Battle of Wor- 
cester, where he was made prisoner. He 
afterwards escaped, and carried on a struggle 
for sometime in the Royal cause in the North 
of ScoUand. The afiairs of Charles II. 
having become desperate. General Dalyell 
ofTcred his services to the Cxar of Russia, 
Alexis Michaelowitch. By him he waa 
quickly made a General, ana displayed great 
bravery in his wars against the Tvak» and 
Tartars. He was a stem, commanding old 
soldier, with high notions of military dis- 
cipline, strict views of what he regarded as 
duty, and a loyalty that could not be shaken. 
Although his rank was high, and his power 
great at the court, and in the camp of the 
Czar, he could not resist the impulse of his 
loyal feelings, which urged his return to his 
native country, on the refltoration of the 
Stuart line. He accordingly came back to 
Scotland, an old and war-wora veteran. The 
diploma which he received from the Csar 
shows the value which was entertained for 
his services, and how mnch he was appreciated 



I^ATB OF C^REAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, 



by that aovereign. He also acciunidated 
much wealth in the Russian service, and his 
descendants still preserve the inventories of 
the rich and oosuy plate with which he re- 
plenished the hufiet at Binns, cups of gold 
and vessels of silver in profuse ahundfmce. 
He waa made Commander-in-Chief of the 
Forces in Scotland, and a privy-councillor in 
1666. He exercised his military authority so 
strictly, as to cause him to he branded with 
the charge of unmerciful cruelty. He quelled 
an insurrection in the West, and defeated 
the rebels on the Pentland Hills. In 1666, he 
raised a foot regiment, and shortly afterwards, 
the Scots' Greys. 

After he had gained a lasting name in war, 
he fixed his old age at his seat at Binns, which 
he adorned with avenues, parks, and gardens, 
and where he cultivated curious trees and 
plants. He died, at an advanced age, in 1685. 
His long residence in foreign countries, his 
outlandish appearance and habits, his vener- 
able white flowing beard, which he never had 
shaved since the murder uf Charles I., and a 
certain reserve and mystery in his manners 
and deportment, contributed to environ him 
with superstitious awe, and he was noted far 
and wide as a necromancer and wizard. He 
enjoyed the wonder and dread with which this 
reputation inspired his country neighbours. He 
surrounded his pleasure grounds with walls, in 
which he formed iKcret passages, and in the 
house of Binns, there are hidden stairs and 
concealed doors, which enabled the General to 
maintain a character for ubiquity as well as pre- 
ternatural knowledge. There are two portraits 
of him preserved at Binns. In one he is 
beardless, and clothed in complete armour, 
with a battle-field in the distance. In the 
other he is represented as dead, with his white 
beard, long, and flowing far down his breast, 
covering his coat of mail. It is diiiicult to 
look upon this portrait of the wizard, painted 
after his death, and hanging in his accustomed 
sitting room, without a shudder of awe. 
About 1685, after the General's death, his 
son, Thomas, was created a Baronet of Nova 
Scotia, with remainder to his heirs of entail 
succeeding to the estate of Binns. This in- 
cluded his eldest daughter Magdalen, heiress 
of Binns, on her brother's death. She mar- 
ried James Menteith of Auldcathy, descended 
from the family of Menteith of Kerse, who 
claim a descent from the old Earls of Men- 
teith* Her son. Sir James Menteith Dalyell, 
succeeded his uncle. Sir Thomas, the second 
Baronet, who died unmarried. Sir James's 
grandson, Sir James, the fifth Baronet, greatly 
adorned and improved this seat He was 
succeeded by his brother. Sir John, who had 
previously been knighted, and was a man of 
some literary and scientific eminence. He 
waa succeeded by his brother, Sir William, 
the present, and seventh baronet. 



DOmnKGTOH PBIOXY, Berkshire, near 
Speen, and about a mile fh)m Newbury ; the 
seat of John Hughes, Esq., descended from 
a Flintshire family connected in late years 
with that of Salusbury of Llanwem. bon- 
nington Priory is at present occupied for a 
torm by the Earl of Arundel and Surrey. 

This seat formerly belonged to the family 
of the Cowslades, which seems to have pos- 
sessed it from time immemorial, and probably 
from the era of the Reformation. 

The last of this name residing here was an 
old bachelor, from whom it passed — ^by inhe- 
ritance — to a former vicar of Speen, by name 
Parry. By his widow, Mrs. Parry, it waa 
sold to Mr. Hughes, cousin to the late Dr. 
Penrose, of Shaw House. 

The present mansion occupies the site of an 
old conventual establishment, mentioned by 
Camden as the " Friary." That the site of 
the two structures is precisely the same, may 
be inferred with tolerable certainty from the 
evidence of certain bricks and encaustic tiles, 
which were found, though few in number, at 
the time when alterations were being made in 
the north side of the structure. The more 
modem mansion would seem, from some 
account, to have been built out of the ruinous 
parts of Donnington Castle, which stands on 
the brow of the hill, and had sufiered consi- 
derably from the cannon of the Parliamen- 
tarian army in the great civil war. The 
neighbourhood of this castle lends an addi- 
tional interest to the whole vicinity, not 
merely from its having been a place of impor- 
tance both to Cavaliers and Roundheads, but 
still more, because it was once the abode of 
Geoffrey Chaucer, the greatest of English 
poets after Shakspeare. Stories indeed are 
told of an old oak, under which the venerable 
bard composed many of his poems ; but cer- 
tain matteivof-fact folks have been at great 
pains to destroy this Dalilah of the imagina- 
tion, but those who have any fancy, may feel 
as little disposed to part with this belief as the 
good monk was to exchange his established 
and time-honoured ** mumpsimusy" for the 
reformed ^^ sumpaimus,** At all events, a 
noble grove of oaks, about half-way down the 
hill, on which the castle stands, has always 
borne the name of " Chaucer's Grove ;" and 
*' Chaucer's Head " served as the sign of an 
old public-house that still existed during the 
present century. It would seem probable 
that the present mansion was built soon after 
the termmation of the civil wars ; but since 
* then it has undergone considerable alterations 
and improvements. It stands at the bottom of 
the hill above-mentioned, and part of the land 
attached to it is situated in the parish of Speen, 
where, in the time of Mr. Hughes' great great 
grandfather, his maternal ancestors, — the 
Watts's of that place,— had an estate of 
larger amount. 



SEATS OF aBEAT BRTTAIM AND IBELAKD. 



The neighbourhood of the Priory has some 
beautiful scenery ; but b yet more remarkable 
for the yarious places around of historical 
notoriety. A field near the castle yet retains 
the name of *^Dalbier*s Meadow" m remem- 
brance of a parliamentary leader, so called, 
who had established a battery there. Shik«T 
House, and the bright little nyer, Lambome, 

fassing through its grounds and those of the 
^riory, are siso connected with the chro- 
nicles of those troubled times ; while, at no 
yery great distance, Newbury, were it only 
for its celebrated ''Jack of Newbury," be- 
comes a place of interest at least, if not of 
importance. Altogether, it is a spot well 
smted to the poet and the scholar ; and its 
present possessor is both. Miss Mitford, in 
ner " Literary Reminiscences/' cites a pas- 
sage from Mr. Hughes' '' Lays of rast 
Days," and Sir Walter Scott, in the preface 
to Quentin Durward, alludes to his ** Pro- 
yenceandthe Rhone." The Essay on Poetry, 
in the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, is from 
Mr. Hughes' pen. 

OLABSKOHT, Claremorris, Ireland, the seat 
of James Browne, Esq. The proprietor in 
fee of this estate is Lord Oranmore. The 
late possessor of the lease (for ever) was the 
father of the present owner, the Right Hon. 
Denis Browne, brother of the first Marquess 
of Sligo. 

The mansion was built about two hundred 
years ago by the grandfather of the present 
Lord Oranmore and Browne. It is a solid 
structure of grey stone, in the Palladian 
style of architecture, and stands on the top of 
a gentle hill, facing the town of Clare. The 
approach to it is by a noble avenue of beech 
trees, that coyer aoout two-and-twenty (sta- 
tute) acres. 

According to an old legend, this house, like 
so many outers in Ireland, is, or was, fa- 
voured by the occasional visits of a Banshee. 
It used to occupy the leads in a stormy night, 
and it once made its appearance over the 
window of the present Mr. Browne. The 
peasant considers it as ominous of good. 

BOHnUROVS HOTIB, South Wales, in 
the CO. of Glamorgan, near Cardiff, and about 
four miles from Cowbridge, the seat of 
Richard Bassett, Esq. 

This property has been held by the Bas- 
ietts for a very long period, the family having 
resided here, uninterruptedly, since the year 
1450, when a branch of the Beaupr^ Basaetts 
came to Bonvilstone. 

In 1838, the old house was pulled down, 
and the present mansion erected on its 
site. The new house is of the Grecian style 
of architecture, and is pleasantly situated in a 
very interesting pnrt oi the country, the sofl 
of which abounds in excellent limestone. 



HABDSHHUISH, Wiltshire, about a mQe 
north of Chippenham, the seat of Edmund 
Lewis Clutterouck, Esq. 

The appellation of this house is said to have 
been derived from the name of one of its 
early possessors — ^Ewyas, corrupted into 
huith. The manor itself has, in the course of 
time, passed through the families of Ewyas, 
Chetereux, Scudamore, Reynes, Himgerford, 
and Botreaux ; while in more modem days it 
has been held by the Colboumes and the 
Hawkins', from the last of whom it was bought 
by Thomas Clutterbuck, Esq., the father of 
tne gentleman now possessing it 

It IB not known whether any mandon 
existed here before the present one, which 
was buOt by the famQy or Colboume, though 
since that time greatly improved by Mr. T. 
Clutterbuck. Tne building is in the Palladian 
style of architecture, and exceedingly conve- 
nient, possessing all the accommodations 
re^uirea in a country dwelling. Annexed to 
it IS a well- wooded park, occupying the slope 
and summit of an undulating rid^. At 
a little distance, within the grounds, is the 
village church, built in 1779, by Wood, the 
Bath architect In the churchyard are buried 
Thomas Thorpe, the author of ''Rccistrum 
Rofiense," and Mr. David Ricardo, the cele- 
brated financier, who was grandfather to the 
present owner. 

At this mansion, in 1815, died Christopher 
Anstey, the well-known author of the *< Bath 
•Guide." His brother-in-law, Henry Bosan- 
quet, Esq., was then residing here. 

LOTA PABK, Cork, Ireland, the seat of 
Lieutenant-Colonel North Ludlow Beamish, 
K.H., F.R.S., a magistrate for the county of 
Cork. 

Lota Park was the original deer park of the 
extensive domain of Lota, or Loitghta, and 
since the year 1600, the property, in fec^ 
simple, of the ancient family of GaJway, or 
de Ualway, by whom it was leased in 1694, 
to the ancestor of W. R. Rogers, Esq., High 
Sheriff of the City of Cork, 1844. By the father 
of the latter occupant it was again leased in 
1799, for 893 years to the late John Cour- 
tenay, Esq., of Ballyedmond, and by him in 
1801, the park portion of the estate was let 
for a t€rm of seven hundred year»— -to John 
Power, of Cork, Esq. We next find it in the 
possession of James Roche, Esq., the cele^ 
brated <' J. R.," of the GenOeman'i Mojftt- 
SMie, whose contributions to that periodical 
obtained so much favour with the public Uiat 
they were re-printed and publishea at Cork, 
in two octavo volumes, under the title of 
*' Critical Essays of an Octogenarian." 

From this gentleman. Lota Park succeo- 
nvely passed through the hands of J<^n 
Molony, Esq., Wflbam Ware, Esq., and 
Jeremisih Jamea Murphy, Esq., till, in 1850, 



BEATS OF OBEAT BRITAIN AND ZBELAND. 



it was bought of the last-named owner by 
Colonel Beamish. 

The house of Lota Park is of the simple 
Crrecian s^le of architecture, consisting of a 
centre and two wines. The centre comprises 
two stories, with a basement, and was erected 
in 1 801, by the John Power already mentioned, 
as having purchased the long lease of the Cour- 
tenay family ; the cost of it is said to have been 
not less than four thousand pounds, in addition 
to the large sums expended upon the grounds 
and plantations. Wines were added to this 
nuun body by Mr. Roche, at a cost of about 
three thousand pounds. They contain, the 
one a ballr-room, the other a libranr, each 
being thirtv-five feet long, twenty-five feet 
wide, and nfteen feet high. The entrance is 
by a stone portico from the rear, where a steep 
rise of the ground shelters the building from 
the north. The frtmt has a southern aspect, 
and is decorated with an iron balcony, over- 
hanging a terrace two hundred feet in length, 
and commanding a view of the river. At a 
subsequent period, a conservatory was at- 
tachea to the building, and yet more recently 
Mr. Murphy completed the work of his pre- 
decessors by erecting a handsome entrance- 
lodge, and by various other improvements, of 
less or greater magnitude. 

In point of situation. Lota Park is one of 
the most delightful residences upon the far- 
famed river of Cork — 

** The BBTMding Lee, that, like en i«Iead f&ir, 
Endaeech Oork with its divided flood." 



The house commands a view of the Lee, from 
the village of Blackrock, on the west, to Pas- 
sage Reach on the east, and embraces in the 
distance the high lands of Maryborough, Old 
Court, and the various country seats and re- 
sidences that occupy and adorn the opposite 
side of the river. In the intermediate dis- 
tance are seen the picturesque promontory of 
Lakelands, Hop island, and the Douglas 
Channel, while immediately in front stands, 
upon a projecting cliff, the ancient castle of 
Blackrock, erected by the Lord Deputy 
Mountioy, in the reign of James I.; but 
since men matly extended and beautified by 
the artistic hand of Pain. From a terrace in 
front may be seen crowds of shipping on their 
way between Cork and Queenstown, from the 
stately merchantman to the small river 
steamer, fl^wnft^ng yacht, or humbler fishing- 
boat. In lively contrast to this scene unon the 
river, is the Passage railway train, which is 
almost constantly in action; the pauses of 
rest, like the poet's angel-visits, bemg " few 
and £ur between." 

Colonel Beamish can trace a descent from 
Chariemagne, Emperor of the West, thiough 
his gnmdmother, Alice, daughter of Major 
Nwth Ludlow Bernard, of Castle Benuurd, 



ancestor of the Earl of Bandon, which descent 
through William the Conqueror has been duly 
recorded in the Heridds' College, London. 

XXLCOSHAH, Ireland, in the county of Gal- 
way, the seat of Sir Thomas Nicholas Reding- 
ton, K.C.B., a magistrate and deputy-lieu* 
tenant for that county. 

The present mansion was commenced in 
1837, by Sir T. N. Redington. The castle, 
which is of very ancient date, was the resi- 
dence of a younger branch of the Clanricarde 
family, viz.: — ^the Burkes, of Kilcoman, from 
whom it passed to their representatives, the 
Redingtons. The last proprietor of the Burke 
family was Christopher Burke, grandfather of 
thepresent owner. 

Tne building is of the Tudor style of archi- 
tecture, and stands in the middle of an exten- 
sive park. 

MAB8K HALL, Yorkshire, near Richmond, 
the seat of Timothy Hutton, Esq. 

Marsk originally belonged to the family of 
Cleseby, and passed, with the heiress of that 
name, in the fifteenth century, to the Conyers, 
a branch of the great house of Conyers of 
Hornby. They held it until the end of the 
sixteenth century, when it passed, with the 
heiress of Conyers, to Arthur Phillip, of Brig- 
nal, from whose descendants Sir Timothy 
Hutton purchased it in the year 1598. It 
still continues in the possession of the last- 
named family. 

The old Hall, which was erected by Sir Wm. 
Pennyman, in the reign of Charles I., was 
pulled down and rebuilt about a hundred 
years ago. The present is a large and con- 
venient mansion, m the style of architecture 
peculiar to what has been called the Georgian 
era, and contains some handsome apartments. 
There are to be seen several interesting family 
portraits, including several of the Darcies, and 
a portrait of Lady Raleigh and her son. 
Some splendid old family plate deserves also 
to be remembered, amongst which is the co- 
vered cup of gold that was given by Queen 
Elizabeth to ner god-daughter, Elizabeth 
Bowes, who afterwards became the wife of 
Sir Timothy Hutton. The apartments are 
wainscoted throufi;hout. 

Attached to the mansion is a laree deer 
park. The gardens are laid out wi& much 
taste, and contain some of the finest speci- 
mens of the silver fir to be seen in England. 

Mr. Hutton possesses, also, 

CLUnoH 0A8ILB, Yoriuhire, near Bedale. 
This is amodem structure, as rejrards the date 
of its erection, having baen built by the pre- 
sent owner. It is situated about fourteen miles 
from Thirsk, in the liberty of Bichmondshire. 

LAWBSHVY PASX, in the county of Pem- 
broke, the seat of Geoige Lort Phillips, Esq. 



BRATS OF GREAT BKTTAIH AKD IBELAIVD. 



This seat, which has hy some heen called 
Lawrennv Hall, was in the possession of the 
Barlows for some hundred years. The last of 
this name died in 1802, and was succeeded, as 
heir-at-law, hy the father of the present pro- 
prietor. 

The old Hall was erected in 1680, hy one of 
the family of Barlow ; hut has lately heen 

EuUed down, and is in the course of heing re- 
mit hy Mr. Phillips, in the castellated style 
of architecture. It stands upon an eminence, 
in the midst of a fine park of about five hun- 
dred acres, on a point of land that has Milford 
haven upon the west, and on the south a wide 
creek branching from it in a north-easterly 
direction towards Cresswell. The views around 
are lovely in the extreme ; the ruined castle of 
Carew forming a picturesque and most inte- 
resting object in tne distance ; and from the 
terrace may be seen the church, which stands 
in the grounds, and lifts its fine old tower on 
high amidst the woods. 

The living is in the gift of the owner of the 
estate. 

PAIB OAK PABK, Hampshire, the seat of 
James Edward Bradshaw, £sq. 

This gentleman traces his descent in a direct 
line from Sir John de Bradshaw, to whom 
William the Conqueror extended his protec- 
tion, allowing him to retain possession of his 
estate. 

In addition to this seat, Mr. Bradshaw also 
possesses 

DABOY LSVEE HALL, Lancashire, built by 
the Bradshaws in the last century, though the 
estate has been possessed by the family since 
the reign of King Edward IV. 

This mansion is a handsome brick edifice, 
and had formerly extensive gardens. The 
whole district is in a thriving condition, the 
soil producing coal in abundance, while the 
Bolton canal affords great facilities to manu- 
facturing and mining enterprise. 

eTBV CA8TLB, co. Flint, the seat of 
James Spence, Esq., by whom the estate was 
purchased from the executors of the late John 
Douglass, Esq. 

The mansion stands on a bold elevation, 
overiooking the Dee and the opposite coast of 
Cheshire. Having been extended and added 
to at several periods, the lines of the principal 
front are varied, advancing or recessed. The 
angles thus formed are supported by but- 
trssses, and the whole bemg clothed with 
luxuriant ivy, which climbs to the summits of 
the towers, the contrasts of light and shadow 
produee an effect of picturesque beauty which 
a more studied architectiire inight hava fiuled 
to «ve. 

Prom the top of the massiTe clock tower, 
the file of Han may ba diaearaed, and ooca» 



sionally the mountains of Cumberland. The 
south front contains a picture gallery, the pro- 
portions of which are admired, being GO feet 
oy 30, with a coved ceiling, rising to a height 
of 28 feet. The late owner possessed here a 
fine collection of paintings or the Italian and 
Spanish schools, which was dispersed at his 
death. The walls are now hung with Flemish 
tapestry of the sixteenth century. 

This front of the building overhangs a 
richly-wooded ravine, in which several large 
sheets of water follow successively the decu- 
vity of the surface. Pursuing the course of 
the stream that runs through them, other 
woody glens open to the right, of much natural 
and sequestered beauty. Gym is distant (nm 
Holywell seven, from St. Asaph nine miles. 
The ancient parish church of Llanaaa adjoins 
the estate, it contains the stained glass win- 
dows formerly at Basingwerk Abbey, and in 
the churchyard are many curious and remark- 
able tombs. In the neighbourhood are the 
ruins of Dyserth Castle. Numerous tumuli 
and other remains of the ancient Britons 
give interest to the locality, and the Saxon 
work, so well known as '* Offa'sdike,'* can be 
traced very distinctly over a lengdi of two 
miles. 



LOGKO PABX, Derbyshire, about two milea 
and a half from the Derby and Nottingham 
turnpike road, and from the Spondon station 
on tne Midland Railway, is the seat of 
William Drury Lowe, Esq. 

This mansion is a handsome stone edifice, 
with an architectural front, of good design, 
flanked on one side by a chapel, which was 
erected in 1669, and consecrated in 1673, and 
which has sculptured on its parapet, " Domus 
mea vocahitur domut orationu.** On the other 
side is a wing containing a drawing-room, 
with the inscription, *' Doctu$ et Pkabt ekonu 
et MmenHJR ducere laude$,** The house is de- 
lightfully situated in a secluded valley, sui>> 
rounded by an extensive deer-park and pas- 
ture lands, that, from the undulating character 
of the ground, are extremely picturesque. 
The whole is well wooded, and enlivened with 
a fine sheet of water, with many delightful 
views breaking upon the various glades and 
openings. The gardens, too, are laid out with 
much taste, and are in the course of being 
ornamented with fountains; and the house 
itself is also undergoing a thorough repair, 
with the addition of a tower, which, when 
completed, will form a handsome architectural 
picture in the landscape. 

Locko was for many centuries the seat of 
the Gilberts, and was purchased from them by 
John Lowe, Evq., early in the eighteenth cen- 
tury. It has since been the seat of the Lowea, 
instead of Denby, the old fiunily mansion, 
wbidi 



J 



A VISITATION 



OP THE 



SEATS OF THE NOBLEMEN iND GENTLEMEN 



OF 



GEEAT BEITAIN AND IRELAND. 



Unre E01TSS, in the co. of Linlithgow, 
about fifteen miles to the west of Edinburgh, 
is the seat of Sir William C. C. Dalyell, 
Bart. Captain in the Royal Navy. This 
b a place of great beauty, situated on 
the slope of a hil^ commandmg the Firth, 
and surrounded b^ a well-wooded park, with 
extensive shrubbenes and thriving plantations. 
On the summit of the hill, a qiuirter of a mile 
above the house, standB a high round tower, 
from which there is a lovely view of the 
Firth of Forth on the one side, and of 
the fertile plains of West Lothian on the 
other. The House is a very ancient mansion, 
of great height and considerable extent; 
which was enlarged and improved in its inte- 
rior accommodation about twenty-five years 
since, by the elder brother of the present 
baronet, a man of considerable taste and ac- 
quirements, who, however, failed in his archi- 
tectural design. He removed the ancient 
pointed windows, so characteristic of an old 
Scottish ch&teau, and replaced them with 
battlements, which are entirely out of keeping. 
At the same time he built handsome pubbc 
Tooma on the ground-floor, and enlarged the 
gardens, and added much to the beauty of the 
park, by plantations and tasteful approaches. 
In former times, before these recent changes, 
Binns House remained very much in the 
state in which it was inhabited by its distin- 

r' bed proprietor in the reign of King Charles 
, General Thomas Dalyell, and it might 



pass for an excellent specimen of the residence 
of a considerable Scottish country gentleman 
of the middle of the seventeenth century. 
However, the house dates firom a considerably 
older period, and the roof of the ancient and 
spacious drawing-room is ornamented with a 
profusion of old-fashioned stucco mouldings, 
m which the impaled arms of DalyeU and 
Bruce are prominent. This marks the time 
of the father and mother of the general, viz., 
the reign of Charles I., or the latter part of 
that of James L of Great Britain. It is even 
not improbable that some portion of the build- 
ing may be as old as the original proprie- 
tors of tne ancient house of Meldrum. 

Binns has had the honour of being the abode 
of two very eminent men, of whom the first 
was celebrated as a hero of romance, and the 
other as a distinguished historical character. 
We allude to" Esquire Meldrum" and General 
Thomas Dalyell. The histoiy of ** Esquire 
Meldrum," written in verse by Sir David Lind- 
say of the Mount, in the year 1550, may be 
considered the last romance of chivalry, though 
there is nothing in it that is extravagant or be- 
yond probability. It is the life of a gallant feu- 
dal squire of the end of the fifteenth, or the be- 
ginning of the sixteenth century, drawn up 
from his own recital, by an affectionate friend 
and companion, and that no less a statesman, 
poet, and courtier than Sir David Lindsay, 
Lord Lion King-of-arms, the preceptor of 
James V. of Scotland. 



B 



8 



BEATS OF GBEAT BBITAIN AND IRELAND. 



which is stocked with deer, occupies a range 
of fertile hills, rising with much rapidity from 
the eastern side of the Fal, and commanding 
a variety of heautiful scenes over its navigahle 
waters. A coach-road runs through the 
grounds for several miles, commanding a 
series of the most delightfiil prospects. 

OROMB COUXT, Worcestershire, about four 
miles from Upton^-upon-Sevem, and near the 
village of EarVi Crome, the seat of the Earl 
of Coventry. 

This estate at one time formed a part of 
the extensive possessions of Urso d Abtot, 
Earl of Worcester. In the year 1543, the 
lordship of Crome,— or Cromb d' Abtot, the 
name of the parish, — was possessed by the 
Clare family; from them it was bought in 
1563, by Sir Thomas Coventry, who m the 
third year of James I., was made a Judge of 
the dourt of Common Pleas, and died in 
1606 ; when he was succeeded by his son and 
heir, Thomas. The latter followed in the 
steps of his father, till he, at lengtii, went 
beyond; and after successively mlinff the 
offices of Recorder of London, Solicitor- 
General, and Attorney-General ; was ad- 
vanced in the first year of Charles I., to be 
Keeper of the Great Seal. In the fourth 
year of the same reign, he was created a 
Deer, b v the title of Baron Coventry of Ailes- 
Dorough. His youngest daughter, Lady 
Packineton, has, by many, been considered 
to be ue authoress of the *' Whole Duty of 
Man;" but, however general the belief, the 
matter is somewhat doubtful. 

At the commencement of the Isst century, 
the greater part of the old house at Crome 
was taken down, and replaced by the present 
mansion, which was partly erected on its 
foundations. In few places has nature done 
so little, or art so much, to produce a great 
result What was at one time a barren heath, 
IS now a wood, or cultivated fields; and a 
dreary level has been changed by the hand of 
art, into a semblance of mil and dale. All 
this has been the work of less than half-a- 
century, and does great credit to the architect, 
Brown; but, perhaps, still more to the late 
Eari, who was the life and soul of all these 
improvements; he '* planted the slopes, . 
drained the morasses, drew the belts of 
plantations round lands rendered fertile by 
nis skill and honourable perseverance; and 
has thus left a praiseworthy memorial of his 
own abilities, and an example to succeeding 
generations. In short, as a late surveyor 
(1814) of this country has observed, the 
wh<de demene b now kept in the highest 
style of neatness, well watered, and better 
wooded; the soil, indeed, is not rich, being 
often moist cravel or clav ; but being welt 
drained, and aided by other agricultiffal im- 
provenentSi such as good roads, the covering 



an indifferent soil with good turf, and stock- 
ing it well with valuable cattle, all these have 
come in unison with the more elegant branches 
of landscape gardening, and with all that 
neatness and picturesque effect fVom judicious 
planting, for which this place is so cel^ 
brated.^' 

The scene is still farther enlivened by a 
sheet of water, that has been carried on for 
about a mile and a half, and which b not 
only ornamental but useful, as it is the great 
receptacle of the various drains, wiUiout 
which the whole tract must still have re- 
mained a barren waste. Upon the ground, 
which is now a lawn, formerly stood the old 
purish church ; this was pullea down in 1763, 
and a new church having been erected, to 
supply its place, upon a commanding emi- 
nence, thither all the monuments, coffins, &c, 
were removed. 

The mansion is built of stone but b in a 
plain, unpretending style of architecture, be- 
speaking comfort rather than magnificence, 
in the south front b a handsome portico of the 
Ionic order. Within, are many valuable pic- 
tures, amongst which may be particularly 
enumerated, portraits of the Lord Keeper 
Coventry ; Tnomas, Lord Coventry ; the 
Duchess of Hamilton, and Lady Coventry. 
In the drawing-rooms are some paintings of 
more general mterest, from their higher pro- 
tensions as works of art, as a brilliant land- 
scape in imitation of Claude Lorraine, if not 
by the hand of the great master himself; 
four heads admirably painted ; an exquisite 
Madonna; an Italian landscape; a singular 
picture of a Cabinet of Curiosities, well 
drawn, and in the most lively colours, but 
which, instead of offending the judicious eye 
by sharp and violent contrasts, melt and 
blend harmoniously into each other ; a beau- 
tiful piece of " Venus in retirement *' attended 
by Cupid, and with a Satyr peeping ; two 
pictures of Cleopatra, the one m all the Joy- 
ous bloom of life, the other suffering from 
deroair and the bite of the aspic. 

A second drawing-room b remarkable for 
being hung with the finest tapestry now in 
England. It is the Gobelin manufacture ; of 
crimson ground, with coloured figures and or- 
naments, and the name of Boucher on it as 
the artist. The library contains some antique 
modeb. The hall b supported by elegant 
columns, and b floored with a handsome mai^ 
ble. The long room b a gallery of admirable 
proportions, extending along one entire side of 
the mansion, and commanding a fine view of 
the lake and adjacent ground of which we 
have already spoken, as a noble specimen of 
what may be effected by taste and ingenuity in 
adorning lands of the least promise. We 
conclude with a brief extract from the agri- 
cultural survey of one who was an undoubted 
judge in snch matten ; hb remarks containing 



BEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



some useful hints for those disposed to follow 
in the same tract of improvement, although 
his work was written so far back as the year 
1794. 

"The most skilful drainer I know/' says 
Mr. Darke, " is the Earl of Coventry. His 
part of the country was a morass not half-a- 
century back, and is at this present time (1794) 
though formerly a moorish, fetid soil, perfectly 
dry, sound for sheep and other cattle. He has 
but few under-drains. His principal drains are 
open-formed, and turfed to the bottom, so that 
cattle can graze without any loss of herbage. 
No water ever stands; and Croome is now 
noted for its dryness, as well as being well 
kept ; and although the house is surrounded 
with fourteen hundred acres under his own 
inspection, you do not see a tree, bush, or 
thistle, growing upon it, undesigned, or out of 
place. It may ver}* justly be called a pattern 
farm to this kingdom, from its well-formed 

Slantations, and its judicious and extensive 
rains. 

BVDOINOSTOtni, in West-Lothian, the seat 
of the Earl of Hopetoun, belonged formerly to 
G. Hamilton Dundas, Esq. 

No scenery in Scotland is more lovely than 
the southern coast of the Frith of Forth. The 
shore of West-Lothian forms a high ridge 
overhanging the sea, adorned by cultivation, 
and exhibiting a great variety of most beauti- 
fiil marine views. The Forth assumes a 
variety of aspects; promontories, bays, vil- 
lages, seats, and cultivated fields, all bordering 
upon a fine sheet of water, which has the ap- 
pearance of a great lake, a noble river, or a 
broad estuary, according to the point from 
which it is seen. 

West-Lothian was the ancient seat of the 
great family of Dundas, many branches of 
which possessed extensive estates there, but 
most of which have passed away to other 
families. Besides Dundas of Dundas, who 
still retains the estate which has been handed 
down to him since the 11th century, Dudding- 
stoun, New Liston, Philipston, and SUnie Hill 
Tower, all belonged to branches of this family, 
snd all have passed away from them, the 
three last having been absorbed by the Earl 
of Hopetoun. 

The estate of Duddingstoun anciently be- 
loneed to a family of the name of Lindsay, an 
early branch of the great house whose chief is 
the Earl of Crawford. In the beginning of 
the 1 6th century it passed, by marriage, to a 
branch of the family of Dundas. The old 
mansion of Duddingstoun was a long low 
range of ancient building, with two projecting 
wingi, forming three sides of a quadrangle, 
surrounded by a park, which on one side was 
bounded by an extensive and beautiful natural 
wood. Thouffb within a few hundred yards 
of one of the finest marine views in Scotland, 



it was built in a hollow, so as to be sheltered 
from the sea, and to command no view but 
that of its own woods. About the end of last 
century, this ancient mansion was destroyed 
by fire, and to supply its place, a' lofty castel- 
lated building was erected in its immediate 
vicinity, but on a height commanding a view 
of extraordinary beauty. The estuary of the 
Forth, making a sweep, presents the appear- 
ance of a wide lake, interspersed with islands, 
and enlivened with shipping. 

About the year 1820, extensive additions 
were made to Duddingstoun, in the same 
castellated style of architecture ; wings were 
built which were fliinked with round towers, 
and numerous turrets were added to the ori- 
ginal building. It had altogether a very 
massive and imposing appearance, and the 
interior containea a handsome suite of public 
rooms of large dimensions, and a great extent 
of excellent accommodation. At the same 
time that the last improvements were made 
on the house, the park was enlarged and 
beautified with judicious plantations; extensive 
shrubberies were formed, and a large and fine 
set of offices were built in the same castellated 
style with the house. Altogether Dudding- 
stoun, with its fine situation, its extensive 
wood, and the improvements which had 
been made upon it, was one of the most 
striking seats on the West-Lothian bank of 
the Frith of Forth. 

About the year 1839, this estate was sold to 
the Earl of Hopetoun, and as it is now incor- 
porated with his extensive domains, and will 
no longer be the residence of a separate 
family, the place has, within the last two or 
three years, been partially dismantled. 

The family of Dundas is among the most 
ancient in, Scotland, and boasts of the noblest 
dfscect, being, in its origin, one and the same 
with the powerful and illustrious house of 
Dunbar, Earl of March. Its remote ancestor 
was Crinan, a great noble who flourished long 
before the Norman Conquest. His son, Mal- 
dred, married Elgitha, daughter of Uchtred, 
Earl of Northumberland, by Elgiva, daughter 
of Ethelred, King of England ; and his son, 
Cospatrick was, in 1068, Earl of Dunbar. 
His erandson, the third Earl of Dunbar, had, 
besides his eldest son, Cospatrick, 4th Earl, 
the ancestor of the illustrious line of the Earls 
of Dunbar and March, who played so great a 
part in Scottish history, a younger son, 
Uchtred, who, in the reign of King David I., 
acquired the lands of Dundas in West- 
Lothian. His son, Helias de Dundas, died in 
1166, and was father of Serlo de Dunda8| 
who died in 1214. His son Helias died in 
1240, and his son Ranulphus flourished about 
1256, and was father of two sons, — Serlo, who 
swore fealty to Edward I., and Saer de Dun- 
daf, who died before 1300. The son of tlie 
latter, Hugo, was an ally and companion of 

c 



10 



SEATS OF OBEAT BUTAIN AMD IRELAND. 



the renowned Sir William Wallace. Hia aon 
Hanulphus was the father of James, whose son 
John Dundas of Dundas, in 1364, obtained 
the barony of Fingask, in addition to his an- 
cient possession of Dundas. His son James 
Dundas of Dundas and Fingask died in 1430, 
having married Christian Stewart, daughter of 
the Lord of Lorn and Innermeath. He had 
four sons. His eldest, Sir James, married 
Elizabeth Livingstone, daughter of Sir Alex- 
ander Livingstone, who performed so very 
Srominent a part in the minority of King 
ames IL, and at one time was seated on the 
hicfhest pinnacle of power in Scotland. His 
subsequent faU involved that of his son-in-law. 
Sir James Dundas, whose extensive estates 
were forfeited, and his line failed. II. Sir 
Archibald, of whom hereafter. III. Duncan, 
ancestor to Dundas of New Liston, now repre- 
sented, in the female line, by the Earl of Stair. 
IV. Alexander, who, in 1423, obtained the 
estate of Fingask. He is ancestor to the 
existing family of Dundas, of Fingask, with 
its younger branches, the Earl of Zetland, and 
the extinct Lord Amesbury. 

Sir Archibald Dundas, Uie second son, ob- 
tained a grant of the forfeited estates of Dun- 
das through the favour of the Earl of Douglas, 
and, consequently, in compliment to that 
family, his descendants, the subsequent Lairds 
of Dundas, have invariably borne the Douglas 
crest — a Salamander in flames proper, on a 
compartment below their shield of arms. Sir 
Archibald Dundas of Dundas, carried on the 
line of the family by his wife, a daughter of 
the Lord Borthwick. His son, Sir John 
Dundas of Dundas, was a great favourite of 
King James III., and was created bv him 
Earl of Forth, a very short time before he lost 
his crown and his life. This Earldom, how- 
ever, was not lecognixed by his successor. 
Sir John died in 1494, and was succeeded by 
his son, Sir William Dundas of Dundas, who, 
by his wife, Margaret Wauchope, daughter of 
the ancient house of Niddrie-Af arischal, had 
two sons; first, Sir James, ancestor of the 
existing family of Dundas of Dundas, and its 
great and distinguished branch, Dundas of 
Armston, with its younger branch, Dundas 
Viscount Melville, and Dundas, Bart., of 
Dunira. Second, William, who bv his wife, 
Marjory Lindsay, heiress of Dudidingstoun. 
was ancestor to this ianiily. His son, David 
of Duddinffstoun, married Marjory, daughter 
of John Hamilton, of Orbiston, great-srand- 
son of Gavin, fourtli son of Sir James Hamil- 
ton, Lord of Cadzow. Bv her he had two 
sons; first, James; second, Gcom, ancestor 
6f the family of Dundas of Manor, from 
whom are descended Sir Dand Dundas, late 
Solicitor-General, and Sir John Dundas, Bart., 
of Richmond. James Dundas of Dudding- 
stoun, married 2.'>tli May, 1G07, Isabella Maule, 
daughter of William Maule, brother of Lord 



Panmure, and by her had a son, George Dun* 
das of Duddingstoun, who married, 23rd Feb. 
1836, Catherine, daughter of John Money- 

Senny of Pitmillie, and maternally descended 
'om the house of Colville of Ochiltree, and 
Colville of Culross. By her he had a son, 
John Dundas of Duddingstoim, who married, 
17th Feb., 1670, Anne, only child of Sir David 
Carmichael, Bajronet, of Balmedie, and the 
Hon. Anne, daughter of the Lord Carmichael. 
She died 1711. Their son, George Dundas 
of Duddingstoun, married Magdalen Lindaiy 
Craufurd, second surviving &ughter of the 
Hon. Patrick Lindsay Crawford, son of John, 
seventeenth Earl of Crawford, by Lady Mar- 

faret Hamilton, sister of James and William, 
)ukes of Hamilton. Magdalen's mother 
was Margaret Crawfurd, daughter and heiress 
of Sir John Crawfurd, Bart., of Kilbimie, 
by the Hon. Magdalen Carnegie, daughter 
and heiress of David Lord Carnegie, and 
heiress of line of the Earls of Southesk. 

George Dundas and Masdalen Lindsay 
Crawford had a son, John, who had no issue 
by his wife, Ladv Margaret Hope, daughter 
of the first Earl of Hopetoun ; and a daughter, 
Agnes, heiress of Duddingstoun, who married 
Gabriel Hamilton of Westbum, representa- 
tive of Hamilton of Torrance, a great branch 
of the Duke of Hamilton's family. She had 
a numerous family, but only three who left 
descendants: I. John Hamilton Dundas^ 
of Duddingstoun and Westbum, bom 1745, 
married a daughter of Hamilton of Bams, 
representative of the great Raploch branch of 
the Hamilton family; by whom he had a 
son, Gabriel Hamilton Dundas, of Dudding« 
stoun and Westbum. He married Isabella, 
eldest daughter of James Dennibtoun of Col- 
graine, and heiress, through her mother, of 
Ruchil and other valuable estates in the 
neighbourhood of Glasgow. Mr. Hamilton 
Dundas became, along with the Earl of Glas- 
gow, co-heir of the great house of Crawford 
and Lindsay in 1833, on the death of his re- 
lation, l^ady Mary, the sister and heiress of 
the twenty-second Earl of Crawford. In 
1839 he sold Duddingstoun to the Earl of 
Hopetoun. II. Christian, wife of the 
Hon. Charles Napier, of Merchiston Hall, 
second son of Francis, fifth Lord Napier, 
by whom she had issue, Admiral Sir Charles 
^fapier, K.C.B., Count Cape St Vincent, and 
Grandee of Portugal of the first class; and 
Major-Genera] Thomas Erskine Napier. 
III. Mary Anne, wife of Robert Gray, of 
Camtyne, by whom she had the Rev. John 
Hamilton Gray of Camtyne, in the county 
of Lanark. 

OXIOTSR, near Ashboume, in the co. of 
Stallbrd, the seat of Charles Okeover, Esq. 

This is a line specimen of the mansion of 
an old English squire, surrounded by vencr- 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



11 



able trees, adorned with extensive and 
ancient wardens and shrubberies, and en- 
jojring aU the advantages which the imme- 
diate neighbourhood, uie most picturesque 
scenery of Derbyshire, can bestow. Dovedale 
is close at hand, and all around, fertile and 
well-wooded vales, beautiful country seats, 
smiling villages, and venerable churches, con- 
tribute to make this spot one of the most 
bighly-favoured in England. 

Okeover Hall is a spacious old mansion, 
which, though it possesses no architectural 
beauty, wears the thorough stamp of the old 
English country aristocracy. It is not with- 
out some artistic treasures. Among other 
paintings, there is a Holy Family of great 
beauty, which has generally been attributed 
to Raphael, and, at any rate, is a very fine 
specimen of his school. 

The present Mr. Okeover inherits his 
estates from a very remote and distinguished 
ancestry, from whom they have descended to 
htm in dvect succession, though not invariably 
in the male line. But the heirs of line have 
assumed the ancient name of Okeover, and 
thus the family has been kept up. Besides 
Okeover, he possesses a considerable estate in 
Warwickshire, near Atherstone, on which are 
situated the ruins of a very extensive and im- 
portant old castle, and also the well-preserved 
remains of a Roman camp. 

Mr. Okeover's mother was daughter of 
General Sir George Anson, and cousm of the 
Earl of Lichfield. Her second husband was 
the late distinguished Robert Plumer Ward, 
Esq., the author of " The Law of Nations," 
"Tremaine,*' "De Vere," &c., &c. We 
cannot better illustrate the subject of Okeover 
than by adding quotations from his life and 
correspondence, as lately published by the 
Hon. Edmund Phipps : — 

"Among the most pleasing passages in 
' De Vere ' is the descnption of the man of 
content, the * master of Okeover Hall.' By 
one of the coincidences which are stranger 
than fiction, Mr. Ward, while searching for 
an appropriate name for the abode of this, one 
of his favourite characters, had fixed on 
Okeover Hall. Years after this, and by 
events subsequent to his marriage, he saw 
himself, in rignt of his wife, as the guardian 
of her only son, ' the master of Okeover 
Hall;' and, most assuredly, in the peaceful 
life and social circle there established, he 
realized, in the best sense, the 'man of 
content.' " 

In a letter dated 28th October, 1838, Mr. 
I^umer Ward thus describes Okeover Hall : 

" I feel more comfortably off in this delight- 
ful, as well as respectable old abode, man 
ever I was in my life ; and far happier than 
at Gilston. One thing quite surprises me 
as well as pleases. There is reallv a comer 
in Englana left, in which the old-fashioned 



feeling of attachment from well-used tenants 
to an old landlord's family, is still preserved. 
I never saw it so exemplified as among all 
the tenants of this beautiful estate upon our 
arrival, and, indeed, ever since. Had our 
boy been a prince of the blood, they could 
not have shown more regard than for 
Okeover of Okeover. As his mother, my 
wife comes in for her share, and as her hus- 
band, I come in for mine. The family is far 
more ancient than I thought; the pedigree 
deiiving them from Ormus, one of William 
the Conqueror's soldiers, who being endowed 
with this place, his descendants styled them- 
selves De Okeover, and have continued its 
representatives ever since. There are tombs 
in the church with Saxon inscriptions, which 
I don't understand ; but they are of the cha- 
racters of the oldest Henries, and have the 
Okeover arms upon them." 

OABSOUBE, in the county of Dumbarton, 
near Glasgow, the seat of Sir Archibald Hay 
Campbell, Bart., M.P. for the county of Ar- 
gyle. 

This beautiful seat is situated within four 
miles of Glasgow, on the banks of the river 
Kelvin, and though in the immediate vicinity 
of the second city of the empire, it possesses 
the beauty, as well as retirement, of the most 
remote country scenery. Within the park 
no one could imagine the possibility of being 
so near the hurry and bustle of the greatest 
mart of British trade. 

This mansion was built about thirty-five 
years ago, by the grandfather of the present 
proprietor. The former house was of consider- 
able antiquity, and a portion of it has been 
incorporated in the present building. It is in 
the Tudor style of architecture, according to 
the taste displayed during the reign of Henry 
VIII., and It may be said to be one of the 
most beautiful specimens of that style in Scot- 
land. The outer hall is entered from the 
carriage porch, and opens into the great hall^ 
which is a noble apartment, rising to the en- 
tire height of the house, and burrounded by 
galleries. The staircase is handsome. The 
principal public rooms are entered from the 
great nail, and are of verv large dimensions, 
forming a fine suite ; boucloir, morning-room, 
billiard-room, library, drawing-room, and di- 
ning-room. The drawing-room opens into a 
handsome conservatory. The interior of the 
house is finished in the same beautiful style 
wish the exterior, and it is decorated and 
furnished with the greatest taste. There are 
many costly and beautiful objects, such as an- 
tique chandelabra, magnificent cabinets, and 
valuable paintings. These are distributed in 
the drawing-room, billiard-room, and morning 
sitting-room. Among them is a portrait of 
uncommon beauty, which has generally been 
attributed to Leonardo Da Vinci ; and a land- 



12 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



scape which is the chef d'ceuvre of Hob- 
biina. 

Garscube is surrounded by an extensive 
park, through which flows the beautiful river 
Kelvin, about a stone^s throw from the terrace 
upon which the principal suite of apartments 
opens. Both sides of the river are planted 
with a profusion of fine woods, and the 
shrubberies and walks extend for about a cou- 
ple of miles on each side of the stream. The 
only drawback to this beautiful place is its 
immediate proximity to Glasgow. Not that 
its picturesque retirement is thereby injured 
at present. But the value of property so near 
such a city is too great to admit of a doubt, 
that within half a century, squares and cres- 
ceuts will be built where troves of oak and 
masses of evergreen now delight the eye. 

The family of Sir Archibald Hay Campbell 
is descended from an early branch of the house 
of Argvle. His immediate ancestor was Ar- 
chibald Campbell, who was bred to the law, 
and held the office of one of the principal 
clerks of the Court of Session. He died in 
1790, and was succeeded in his estate by his 
eldest son, Hay Campbell, who was admitted 
a member of the Scottish bar in 1757, and 
made such progress in the performance of his 
legal duties, that he speedily became a bright 
ornament of his profession. No man possessed 
a knowledge of the law more profound than 
his ; and his oratory, from his perspicuous 
mode of illustrating a case, interested tne feel- 
ings by its energy, at the same time that it 
carried conviction by irrefragable arguments. 
In 1783 Mr. Campbell was appointed Solicitor 
Genera) of Scotland, and in 1 7S4 Lord Advo- 
cate. He was member of Parliament for the 
Glasgow district of boroughs. In 1789 he was 
advanced to the liigh situation of Head of the 
Scottish Bar, as Lord President of the Court of 
Session. His great experience and legal know- 
ledge, joined to his integrity and assiduity, 
enabled him to fill this distinguished office m 
a manner eaually advantageous to the country 
and honorable to himself until 1808, when 
bemg advanced in years, he resigned ; and at 
the same time he was created a Baronet. 

Sir I lav Campbell died in 1823, and was 
succeeded by his only son Sir Archibald, who, 
like his father, having been bred to the bar of 
Scotland, was in 1849 appointed one of the 
Judges of the Court of Session, with the hono- 
rary title of Lord Succoth, which he took, as 
u usual in such cases, from the landed estate 
which had been longest in his familv. He 
retired, in 1824, and died in 1846. Sir Archi- 
bald married Elizabeth, eldest daughter of 
John Balfour, of Balbimie, in the county of 
Fife, by whom he had numerous is^ue. Among 
his sons, the eldest, John, who predeceased his 
father, was member of parliament for the 
county of Dumbarton, and by his wife Anna 
Jane Sit well, niece of Sir Sit well Sitwell, 



baronet, and cousin of Sir George SitweU vX 
Renishaw, in the county of Derby, was father 
of the present baronet. One of his younger 
sons, the Rev. Ramsay Campbell, is Rector of 
Aston, in the countv of York, and married 
Mary, daughter of the late John Anstmther 
Thomson, of Charleton, in the county of Fife. 
One of his daughters, Elizabeth, married Da- 
vid Earl of Leven and Melville, by whom she 
has issue. And another, Susan, married 
William Grant, of Congalton, bv whom she 
has an onlv child, who married Lord Charles 
Pelham CUnton, son of the late Duke of New- 
castle. Sir Archibald was succeeded by his 
grandson, Sir Archibald Hay Campbell, third 
baronet and member of Parliament for the 
county of Argyle. 

KULEBMOHT, in the co. of Dumbarton, 
the seat of John Campbell Colquhoun, Esq. 

This handsome seat is situated on the pic- 
turesque banks of the river Kelvin, about 
four miles from Glasgow. An approach on 
the river side, half a mile in length, con- 
ducts to the house, which is commodious, 
though without any claim to architectural 
beauty. Mr. Campbell Colquhoun *s original 
family name is Coates. His ancestors were 
among the more respectable families of Glas- 
gow merchants, during last century. His 
grandfather, John Coates, a merchant in 
Glasgow, held the office of Lord-Provost of 
that city in the year 1784. This gentleman 
succeeded to the property of Clathick, in the 
CO. of Perth, on which occasion he assumed 
the name of Campbell. His son, and heir, 
was bred to the Scottish bar, and made a dis- 
tinguished figure there. He was appointed 
Lord Advocate of Scotland, and represented 
the CO. of Dumbarton in Parliament. He 
was afterwards appointed Lord Register of 
Scotland, an office which he held until his 
death, about the year 1819 or 1820. Some 
years previous to his death, Mr. Campbell 
nad succeeded to the estate of Garacadden, 
in the co. of Dumbarton, on the extinction of 
the family of Colquhoun, of Garscadden, a 
cadet of the ancient house of Luss. In con- 
sequence of this succession, he assumed the 
name of Colquhoun. Garacadden is a valu- 
able estate situated not many miles from Kil- 
lermont, which had been the original property 
of Mr. Coates, Provost of Glasgow. Mr. 
Campbell Colquhoun represented the co. of 
Dumoarton, and afterwards the borough of 
Kilmarnock in Parliament. In 1827, he 
married the Hon. Henrietta Maria Powys, 
eldest daughter of Thomas, aecond Lord 
Lilford, by whom he has issue. 



B, in the co. of Aberdeen, the teat of 
Sir Charles Forbes, Bart, of Newe and 
Edinglassie. 
On the north bank of the river Don, and 



SEATS OF GBEAT BBITAIN AND IBELAKD. 



13 



added to the old mansion of the family, erected 
in 1604, stands the stately castellatea house of 
CasUe News, built in 18S1, by Sir Ohas. Forbes, 
Bart The old house has been retained as 
part of the building, and neither impairs the 
external appeurance nor the internal conve- 
nienoe of the edifice. The architecture is high- 
ly appropriate to the situation and the circum- 
Btanoes of the house, being in the simple and 
masslTe style of an old Scottish mansion, with 
many gabj[e ends, slender towers with pointed 
roofs, and solid and substantial round towers 
ai the comers. It is wall adapted to the severe 
and grand sunroimding scenery. To the north 
of the house rises the mountain Ben Newe, 
and to the south is a lawn extending to the 
noble river Don. About four miles from 
Newe, stands the old house of Edinglassie, 
which was for some time the abode of the 
&mily, and which belonged to the maternal 
ancestors of the first Sir Charles, a very old 
family of the name of Stewart. 

^Newe has been for centiuies in the pos- 
session of the Forbes*. William, the first pro- 
prietor of that name, was a younger brother 
of Alexander Forbes of PitsLigo, ancestor of 
the Lords Pitsligo. The house of Pitdigo is 
an early branch of the Lords Forbes, and is 
now represented, in the male line, by Sir 
Charles Forbes. The family of Newe 
branched ofi*, about the year 1500, from that 
of PitaligOf which became extinct in the 
direct mue line on the death of the master of 
Pitsligo, the heir of the attainted Peer of 
that name,in 1781. Then the branch of Newe 
became the sole male representative of the 
family ; While Sir William Forbes, Bart, of 
Monymuik, became the heir in the female 
line, and Assumed Pitsligo as his designation. 
The £unily of Forbes of Newe diverged 
into two branches. The last heir male of 
the elder branch was Me^or John Forbes of 
Newe, who died without male issue in 1792. 
His only child was Lady Grant, mother of 
the present Baronet of Monymusk. On the 
deatn of Mi^or Forbes, the family of Newe 
was represented hj his cousin^ the Bev. 
George Forbes, and since his death in 1 770, by 
bis son Sir Charles. This gentleman, in early 
life, went to India, where his father's brother, 
John Forbes, had already laid the foimda- 
tions of a great fortune, which he himself 
completed. He was a man of princely mag- 
nificence : and his acts of hberality and 
chari^, as well in Bombay as in London, will 
long DO remembered with gratitude. A 
nilaidid colossal statue, by Chantrey, records 
the sense entertained of ms benefits by the 
inhabitants of Bombay. Sir Charles suo- 
eeeded to extensive estates, in Aberdeenshire, 
from his uncle. He was long a member of 
Parliament, and was created a Baronet in 
1828. In 1888, he was served by a jury, heir 
male of Alexander, Lord Forbes of Pital^. 



His eldest son, John, one of the best and 
most amiable of men, and long an able and 
distinguished director of the East India Com- 
pany and member of Parliament, was re- 
moved from this world, prematurely, by death 
in 1840, to the inexpressible sorrow ofa large 
circle of attached mends, and sincerely re- 
gretted by all who had an opportunity of 
appreciating his worth, wisdom, and benevo- 
lence. He was educated at Magdalen College, 
Oxford, and, soon after he was of age,- he 
became a member of Parliament ; and, on 
beiog elected an £ast India Director, devoted 
himself to the business of that important 
situation. In 1828, he married the daughter 
of H. L. Hunter of Beech Hill, in the co. 
of Berks, by whom he had, among other 
children, an only son, Charles, who succeeded 
to the Baronetcy and family estates, at the 
death of his grandfather. Sir Charles, the 
first Baronet, in 1849. Sir Charles, the 
second Baronet, died in Madeira in 1853, 
and was succeeded by his uncle, Sir Charles, 
the present and thira Baronet, late a captain 
in tnat distinguished corps, the seventeenth 
Lancers, and heir male of the ancient house 
of Pitsligo. Sir Charles is one of Uiose High- 
land ffentlemen who still promote and mam- 
tain the customs of the Gael. He annually 
assembles the dan " Forbes," by commission 
firom their chiefs Lord Forbes, and marching 
them to Braemar, the head-quarters of the 
district in which they dwell, encamps them 
during the gathering of the Dufi*, Foroes, and 
Farquharson clans. His camp, complete in 
all its details as to Highland arms and equip- 
ments, has been twice honoured by the visit 
of Her Majesty, who, upon the last occasion, 
presented a banner to tne " Forbes " clan. 

JQBBAH-HILL, Benfrewshire, about four 
miles west of Glasgow, the seat of James Smith, 
Esq., formerly a captain in the Renfirewshire 
mihtia, and now a ma^strate for the counties 
of Renfrew, Lanark, Sturling, and Dumbarton. 

This estate was anciently possessed by the fa- 
mily of Crawford, cadets of the Crawiords of 
Kilbumy. Sir Hew Crawford PoUok repre- 
sents bodi families. Captain Crawford, of 
Jordsn-hill, is celebratea for the capture of 
Dumbarton Castle. In the year 1750, the 
place was sold to Alexander Houston, Esq. ; 
and in 1860, to Archibald Smith, Esq., father 
of the present proprietor. 

The house of Jordan-hill stands, beauti- 
fully situated, upon an eminence, commanding 
an extensive view of the valley of the Clyde. 
It is a substantial square building, and was 
erected by Colonel Houston, in 1780. 

BUBWOOB PABS, in the co. of Suirey, the 
seat of Sir Richard Frederick, Bart, whose 
family descends from Christopher Frederick, 
seijeant-surgeon to King James I. 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



15 



valley, npon the north of the Aled. The 
modern mansion stands nearly opposite to it, 
on a rising gromid, ahout two hundred feet 
ahove the nver, and presents a very pic- 
turesque appearance. It washuilt, in 1777, 
hv Diana, daughter and heiress of Piers 
Wynne, which lady was twice married ; first, 
to kidgeway Meyrick, of Bodorgan, Anglesey ; 
and secondly, to Philip Yorke, of Erddig, 
Denbighshire. In the same year, also, were 
erected both the parish-church and the bridge 
across the Aled, which are still extant. 

The mansion of Dryfiyd Aled is built of 
fine Portland stone. It consists of a centre 
and two wings, connected to the main body 
by two intervening lesser buildings. It has 
something of the Grecian character, though 
it cannot be said to decidedly belong to any 
particular style of architecture. 

The neighbouring country has the usual 
features of Welsh scenery, which is rarely 
without its peculiar charms for the poet and 
the painter. 



BSAD8T0H BBOOX, in the co. of Surrey, 
near Shalford, the seat of George Carew Gib- 
son, Esq., a magistrate for Surrey and Sussex, 
and a deputy-lieutenant for the co. of Sussex. 

This gentleman married, first, in 1841, 
Eliza, youngest daughter of the late Robert 
Pardoe, Esq., of Poole House, Bewdlev, Wor- 
cestershire, deputy-lieutenant and Major of 
The Militia for tnat coimty; and secondly, 
in 1849, Anna Maria Arabella, daughter of 
the late John Locker, Esq., chief magistrate 
in Malta, and registrar of the admiralty in 
that Island. By the Queen's royal license 
and authority, dated July 10, he assumed the 
surname of Carew, in addition to, and before, 
that of Gibson, in consequence of his descent 
from the Carews of Carew Castle and Crow- 
combe Court in Somersetshire. 

The house of Bradstone Brook is a plain, 
square edifice built of red brick, in the midst 
of a small park, well covered with timber, 
though not much above forty acres in extent. 
It was erected upon some family property, in 
1791, by Thomas Gibson, Esq., descended 
from the Gibsons of Durie, in Fueshire. 



EOTOHTOir HALL, in the co. of Norfolk, 
the seat of the Marquess Cholmondeley. 

This mansion was built by Sir Robert Wal- 
pole during the time when he was Prime Mi- 
nister, liie original design was by Colin 
Campbell, the author of the *' Vitruvius 
Britannicus;" but the execution of it was 
entrusted to the Architect Ripley, so severely 
satirized by Pope ; but who is said to have 
greatly improved upon Campbell's plan. The 
aate of the building is ascertained by an in- 
scription over the south entrance : — 



" RoBERTus Walpole Has ^des Anno 
S. M:D:CC:XXII. Incboavit. Anno 
MD.CC.XXXV. Perfecit." 

It is a noble edifice, of freestone, with two 
fironts, ornamented at each comer with a cu- 
pola and lantern. The west front, which is 
the principal, has a double balustraded flight 
of steps, leading up to a rustic basement 
story. The pediment over the entrance, con- 
tainmg the arms, is supported by Ionic pillars. 
The entablature is continued round. The 
centre, or main building, is quadrangular, and 
is one hundred and sixty-six feet square. The 
offices are in the wings, connected with the 
centre by handsome balustraded colonnades, 
of the Tuscan order, the extent of the whole 
front being four hundred and fifty feet. 

The interior of this noble mansion is sump- 
tuously fitted up, and has many noble apart- 
ments. The great hall is a cube of forty feet, 
with a gallery running three parts round it. 
The ornaments of the ceiling are by Altari, 
as also the frieze, in which are has reliefs of 
Sir Robert Walpole, and of Catherine, his 
first wife, as well as of Robert Lord Walpole, 
their eldest son, and Margaret Rolla, his lady. 
Over the chimney is a bust of the Earl of Or- 
ford, by Rysbrach ; opposite, is a cast of the 
Laocoon, in bronze, by Girardon, for which 
the Empress of Russia ofiered the Earl of 
Orford five thousand pounds. The figures 
over the great door, and over the lesser doors, 
are by Rysbrach. In and round the hall ai'e 
the following pieces of sculpture : — Busts of 
Marcus Aurelius, Trajan, Septimius Severus, 
and Commodus, all antiques ; a young Her- 
cules, Faustina Senior, Jupiter, a young Com- 
modus, a Philosopher, Hadrian, and Pallas, 
which also are antiques ; Homer and Hesiod, 
modern ; and Baccio Bandinelli, by himself. 
On the tables are the Tiber and the Nile, 
executed in bronze ; two vases, of the same 
material; busts of a Roman Empress and a 
female, both antique. 

The great staircase is painted in chiaro ob- 
scuro, by Kent. In the centre, four Doric 
columns support a cast of the Gladiator, in 
bronze, executed by John of Boulogne, and 
presented to Sir Robert Walpole by Thomas, 
Earl of Pembroke. 

The saloon, which is entered from the hall, 
is forty feet in length, in width thirty feet, 
and in height forty feet. The ceiling was 
painted by Kent. The chimney-piece and 
tables are of block marble. Amongst the 
other rarities of this room are principally to 
be noticed a whole length portrait of the Em- 
press of Russia, by Brompton ; an (Edipus 
Colon us. Castor and Pollux, and Philos- 
tates. 

The drawing-room is of somewhat less di- 
mensions, being only thirty feet long and 
twenty-one feet wide. The ceiling was trans- 
ferred hither from the dining-room at the old 



IG 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



houBe, built by Sir Edward Walpole, grand- 
father to the minister. 

The library is a spacious apartment, though 
not so large as the rooms already mentioned. 

At one time, this mansion contained a 
■plendid collection of pictures, alike honour- 
able to the owner and the country. These, 
however, were sold, in 1779, by George, Earl 
of Orford, to the Empress Catherine of Russia, 
for forty 'five thousand pounds, a sum much 
below what they had cost the original col- 
lector. 

The plantations annexed to this noble man- 
sion are extensive, and laid out with much 
taste and judgment. The grounds are most 
advantageous^ seen on the road from Syder- 
stone. 

8TAFLEF0BD HALL, in the co. of Leices- 
ter, bordering upon Rutlandshire, about four 
miles from Melton Mowbray, is the seat of 
the Earl of Harborough. 

In ancient writings, the parish, from which 
the seat derives its name, is variously spelt, 
Stahlefordf Stapelford, St»pUford, and Sto- 
piUford, In the ecclesiastical division of the 
county, it is within the deanery of Framland, 
and is about nineteen miles firom Leicester. 
The estate at one time belonged to a family 
called Hauberk, from whom it passed, 
A.D. 1402, by marriage with Agnes Hauberk, 
to Robert Sherard, Esq., an ancestor of the 
preiient noble owner. 

The mansion stands upon a gentle eminence 
in the mid^t of an extensive park. It con- 
sists of three distinct portions, erected at 
diiTerent times, each retaining the character of 
its age. Of these, the most ancient was 
raised in the year 1500, as we learn from a 
date upon the eastern front. A second in- 
scription tells us that, ^* ITt/^iam, Lord Sher- 
ard, Baron of Letrym^ repaired this buiiding, 
An. Do, 1631." It displays a very curious 
specimen of the English domestic architecture 
of the time, has square-headed windows with 
mullions, and is ornamented with fifteen 
statues, each in its appropriate niche. These 
statues are intendea to represent different 
persons, ancestors, or founders of the 
family, six of them being inscribed with 
the following names, — Schirard, Lord of 
ChfUerton ; King H'iliiam the Conqueror; 
Oiiitert de Clare, Earl of Gloueetter ; Ber- 
tram, Lord Verdon ; Walter de Lacy, Baron of 
Trim, and Earl of UUter; Jamet de Bra- 
banxan, the celebrated warrior. In addition 
to these statues, there are several coats of 
arms, and pieces of sculpture in basso relievo. 

There is a tradition, extant from generation 
to generation, '* That the long bridge across 
the river Eye, (which divides the lurdfthip of 
SCapleford firom the precincts of Wymondham, 
Whissendine, Saxby, Frcebv, Wyverby, and 
Brendngby, in its course to Melton Mowbray) 



consisting of seven arches, was built by seven 
brothers and seven sisters of the house of 
Sherard ; and that of the seven brothers, each 
constructed one arch, and the seven sisters 
completed the other part of the bridge for 
the use of the publick ; and that their gene- 
rosity at that time has fixed a perpetuiu ex- 
pense on the proprietors of this manor, at 
whose expense it has been repaired, within his 
[Healy'sJ memory, without any levy or 
charge upon the parish for that purpose.'* — 
The narrator of this, a Mr. Healv, adds that 
''at this bridge was a passable ford for 
wheel-carriages through the water, in his 
memory [1756] ; but for want of attention, 
or rather through negligence somewhere, it is 
now choked up for want of scouring and 
cleaning." Healy was an ancient inhabitant 
and native of Stapleford, about seventy years 
old at the time when he made these communica- 
tions to Sir Thomas Cave. Since then, in 1773, 
the bridge, which had also become much impair- 
ed, was pulled down, and a new one built in its 
place, by the Earl of Harborough, about forty 
yards from the site of the old structure. The 
present bridge has one large, handsome arch, 
the span of which, within, is thirty-two 
feet. 

WAYEBLET ABBET, in the co. of Surrey, 
about three miles from Famham, the seat of 
George Thomas Nicholson, Esq. 

Upon this estate was situated, at one time, 
a convent of Cistercian monks, which was 
founded in the year 1 128, by William GifTard, 
bishop of Wincnester, and which in its ruined 
state, still lends a peculiar interest to this 
spot. It was for a time considered the prin- 
cipal monastery of the Cistercians, from its 
having been, if'^not the first, amongi^ the fi r^t, 
of that order established in England. This 
priority, however, was contested by the abbej- 
of Fumess, in Lancashire, but with no great 
show of right, for although Fumess was un- 
questionably the older establishment, yet it 
was for a long time a house of Benedictines, 
being an offset from the Benedictine monastery 
of Savigni, in France. The fourth abbot of 
Savigni, in a general chapter, surrendered his 
convent to Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux, in 
order that it might become Cistercian, a 
change so strongly opposed by the abbot and 
monks of Fumess, that they appealed to Pope 
Eugenius III., and obtained from that Pontiff 
a confirmation of the Benedictine rule within 
their own walls. On the retum of the abbot 
from this mission, he passed through France, 
when he was arrested by the monks of Savigni, 
compelled to resign his office, and to become 
a Cistercian in their convent. His succesor 
at Fumess submitted, in consequence, to the 
dictates of the older house, and was converted 
to the Cistercian discipline. Hence arose tlie 
subsequent disputes for suptemacy between 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



17 



the abbots of Furnera and Waverley, which 
was finally pacified by an agreement that, 
*' the abbot of Fumess should have precedence 
through the whole generation of the houses of 
Eleniosyna in England, and the daughters of 
Savigni, in EngUnd only ; and that Uie abbot 
of Warerley should have precedence as wdl 
in the chapters of the abbots throughout 
England, as also a superiority over the whole 
order/; 

Additions would appear to have been made 
to the original builamg in the year 1179, at 
which time the aqueduct and lavatory were 
completed, the water being brought from a 
spring, called Ludewell, in Moor-park, about 
half a mile from the abbey! In the AtmaU 
of Waverley, we are told that **m 1216, llie 
fountain of Ludewell, which had for a series 
of years supplied abundantly the lavatory of 
the abbey, numishine water for all purposes, 
was almost entirely dried up. Brother Sunon, 
one of the monks, after carefully considering 
the cause of this misfortune, laid open the 
ground in search of new sprinn, which with 
much difiBcul^ he discovered; and having 
united them with great labour and industry, he 
conducted them, by a subterranean channel, 
to one spot, where the waters spring up in a 
copious perennial fountain; this was called 
St. Marys fVeU:* 

Up to the time of Henry VIII., this abbey 
went on increasing in wealth and honour, 
having received various benefactions, as weU 
as having sent out from its bosom several 
abbots, or priors, of other Cistercian monas- 
teries. King Henry, however, in 1536, sup- 
preswd the abbey, and in the following year — 
''alien! appetens, sui profusus" — ^bestowed 
the royal plunder upon Sir William Fitzwil- 
liam, treasurer of his household, and after- 
wards created Earl of Southampton, who set- 
tled his newlv-acquired lands upon himself 
and the Lady Mabel, his wife, and their issue ; 
with remainder to his half-brother. Sir An- 
thony Brown. Waverley Abbey thus devolved 
to Sir Anthony's son, Lord Viscount Mon- 
tagu, by whofte grandson it was sold^ in the 
time of James I., to the Coldham family. By 
them it was again disposed of to William Ais- 
labie, a director of the East India Company, 
whose representatives sold it to an attorney 
at Guildford, named Child. In 1747, the 
successor of Mr. Child parted with it to 
Thomas Orby Hunter, Esq. ; and in 1771 it 
was made over to the trustees of Field-Marshal 
Sir Robert Rich, Bart., then deceased. His 
son died in 1786, without male issue, leaving 
a daughter and heiress, Mary Frances, mar- 
ried to the Rev. Charles Bostock. The latter, 
having succeeded to the estate in risht of his 
wife, assumed the surname of Rich, and in 
17d2 waa made a baronet by George III. 
About four yean afterwards, this family sold 
the estate to a Russian merchant^--John 



Thomson, Esq.— who, by sign manual of 
George IV., took the name of Poidett, in 
1820, in honour of his mother, the heiress of 
the PouletU, of Goathurst, in Somersetshire. 
Waverley, however, would appear to have 
remained but a short time in this family, for 
some time between 1832 and 1840, it was 
again sold, and to its present owner. 

Aubrey, to whom, with all his gossin, the 
antiquarian world is so much indebted, has 
left us the following descri]^tion of the mo- 
nastic ruins, as they existed in the year 1673. 

"Here is a fine rivulet runs under the 
house, and fences one side, but all the rest is 
walled. By the lane are stately rocks of 
sand. Within the walls of the abbey are sixty 
acres ; the walls are very strong, and are 
chiefly of rag-stones, ten feet high. Here 
also remain walls of a fair church ; the walls 
of the cloyster, and some part of the cloysters 
themselves, within and without, are yet 
remaining ; within the quadrangle of the 
cloysters was a pond, but now it is a marsh. 
Here was also a handsome chapel (now a 
stable), lai^ger than that at Trinity College, 
Oiford. "Hie windows are of the same fashion 
as the chapel-windows at Priory St. Maries 
(Kington), m Wiltshire. There are no escut- 
cheons or monuments remaining ; only in the 
parlour, and chamber over it (built not long 
since), are some roimdels of painted glass, viz., 
St Michael fighting with the Devil ; St. Dun- 
stan, holding the Devil by his nose with his 
pincers, his retorts, crucibles, and chymical 
mstruments about him ; with several others ; 
but so exactly drawn, as if they were done 
from a good modem print, they are of about 
eight mches diameter. The hall was very spa- 
cious and noble, with a row of pillars m the 
middle, and vaulted over head. The very 
long building, with long narrow windows, 
in all probability was the dormitory ; there 
are many more ruins." 

Cobbett, also, who was employed upon this 
estate when a boy, speaks rapturously in his 
*< English Gardener," of the old monastic 
kitchen-p^arden. "The peaches," he says, 
" nectarmes, apricots, and fine plums, never 
failed; and although I have seen, and ob- 
served upon, as many fine gardens as any 
in England, I have never beheld a ^den 
eaual to that of Waverley." True it is, that 
wnen Cobbett came to write of this same 
place at a later period, his enthusiasm had 
somewhat cooled ; but perhaps we ought not 
for this to blame him, or to accuse him of 
inconsistency ; every one, who reflects at all, 
must be conscious how very different have 
been the feelings suggested at difierent times 
by the same object. 

These venerable ruins were considerably 
dilapidated when in the possession of the 
Coldhams. They were yet farther injured 
by Sir Robert Rich, who used them as mate- 

D 



18 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



rinh for building, with a species of economy 
that will find scant praise from any lover of 
the ancient or the picturesnue. 

Of the old mansion at Waverlev, the cen- 
tral portion was built by Thomas Orby Hun- 
ter, jvsq.j in the reign of George II. The 
wings were added by Sir Robert Rich. This 
house, however, was in part destroyed by 
fire in 1833, and the present mansion is a 
restoration of the old building by Mr. Nichol- 
son. It stands upon a gently-rising knoll, 
surrounded by woods and shrubberies. 
Through the grounds, which include an area 
somewhat exceeding five hundred and twenty 
acres, runs a branch of the river Wey. They 
are besides ornamented by two large sheets 
of water, one of which is known under the 
designation of the Black Lake, and stands 
in the midst of a plantation of fir-trees. A 
greater portion of the ground is arable, the 
soil being exceedingly productive. 



EA8T0V HALL, near Grantham, in the co. 
of Lincoln, the seat bf Sir Montague John 
Cholmeley, Bart. 

The old Hall of Easton has been the resi- 
dence of this ancient branch of the great 
Cheshire house of Cholmondeley for upwards 
of two centuries. While Marquis Cholmon- 
deley* the head of the family, has retained 
the original orthography of the name, the 
branches which have settled in Yorkshire and 
Lincolnshire, have adopted a different way 
of spelling it. This ditierence does not be- 
token a different origin, and the family of 
Sir Montague Cholmeley is an undoubted 
branch of the mat Norman stock. His 
ancestors have been settled in Lincolnshire 
since the becrinning of the seventeenth century. 
Sir Henry Cholmelev, Knight, son of Chol- 
meley of Copenhall, in Staffordshire, was 
seated at Ktrkby Underwood, in the co. of 
Lincoln, and died 1620. His son, Henry 
Cholmeley of Easton, was, it is said, created 
a Baronet by King Charles I. However, 
owing to the troubles of the times, the patent 
was never made out. He married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir Richard Sondes, Baronet, of 
Throwley, and sister to Sir George Sondes, 
created Karl of Feversham in 1676. Her 
mother was Susan Montague, daughter of Sir 
Edward Montapie, Bart., of Bough ton, son of 
tiie Chief Justice Montngue, and maternally 
d^.>scended from Sir James Harington, of 
Kxton, bv Lucy, his wife, sister of Sir Henry 
Sidney, K.G. The son of this marriage was 
Montague Chohneley of Easton, who married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Edward Hartopp, 
Bart, His son, Montague, married Alice, 
daughter of Sir Richard Brownlow, Bart., of 
Great Humbv, and was grandfather of John 
C*holtneley, who married Penelope, daughter of 
Joseph Heme, and mmt«mally aetccnded irom 



the Baronetical families of Mordaunt and War- 
burton. His son, Montague, married a 
daughter of the family of Sibthorp of Can- 
wick, near Lincoln, by whom he had a nu- 
merous family. One of his daughters mar- 
ried the eldest son of Mr. Austin of Kipping- 
ton, in Kent; and another marriea Mr. 
Johnstone of Alva, in Scotland. His eldest 
son, Montague, was for many years M.P. for 
Grantham, and in 1806 was created a bar- 
onet. He married Elizabeth, daughter and 
heiress of John Harrison of Norton Place, 
in the co. of Lincoln, by whom he had issue : 
the present baronet, James, who married a 
daughter of Mr. Johnstone of Alva ; Henry, 
who married Miss Way ; and two daughters, 
the wives of Sir John Jacob Buxton, Bart^ 
of Shadwell Court, and of Sir Glynne Earl 
Welby, Bart., of Denton Hall. Sir Montague 
Cholmeley was long in Pariiament, first for 
the borough of Grantham, and subsequently 
for the CO. of Lincoln. He marriea Ladv 
Georgiana Beauclerk, daughter of the eighth 
Duke of St. Albans. 

Easton was an old HaU surrounded by ex- 
tensive farm offices, and a considerable vil- 
lage inhabited by the servants of the family. 
The grounds were pleasantly diversified, and 
there were many good trees, and an old- 
fashioned garden with a river and yew-hedges. 
The late Sir Montague made considerable 
alterations in this old Hall and grounds, but 
in doing so he injured their quaintness, 
which was their only claim to notice. The 
present baronet has completely changed the 
place. Retaining the best portions, boUi of the 
original building and of the later alterations 
he nas given something of a feudal charac- 
ter to uie whole ; and has made extensive 
additions in excellent taste. The village and 
farm offices have been removed. New offices 
have been built in keeping with the manorial 
character which has been given to the house. 
A stone court has been constructed in front, 
which is entered under a gate tower, and 
through an arched gateway. The old gar- 
den has been restored, and terraces have 
been constructed descending from the houae 
to the stream. Many great additions have 
been made to the internal accommodation. 
The entrance hall has been panelled with 
carved oak, and raised to the height of the 
second story, and there is a handsome suite 
of dining-room, library, two drawing-rooms, 
and conservatory. The fitting-up of the in- 
terior has been made as much as possible to 
correspond with the style of the exterior, 
which is intended to represent the Elixa- 
bethan age. 



VOBTOV PIAGS, about ten mUea to the 
north of Lincoln, U also the property of Sir 
Montague Cholmeley, Bart. 



BEATS OF QBEAT BRITAIM AND IRELAND. 



19 



This estate belonged to John Harrison, 
£^., M.P. for Grimsby and Thetford, and he 
was succeeded in its possession by his daugh- 
ter, Lady Cholmeley, from whom it descended 
to her son. Norton Place is a handsome 
house, built about a hundred years ago, and 
situated in the midst of a small park, with 
extensive pleasure grounds and a piece of 
water at one side of it The public rooms 
are of moderate dimensions, and there is con- 
siderable accommodation. 

BALLTCUBBDI GASTLS, Mayo, Ireland, 
the seat of Charles Lynch, Esq., High Sheriff 
for the county. 

In the olden time this property belonged to 
a family of the name of Currin, from which 
it received ^e appellation that it still retains. 
Ad old house stood here, built, according to 
the current tradition, about the middle of the 
seventeenth century, by Maurice Lynch, 
Esq., who was great great grandfather of the 
present owner, and is believed to have been 
a captain in the army. The more modem 
mansion was erected in 1828, by Captain 
Peter Lynch. It is a commodious building, 
of an oblong form, upon the banks of Lou^ 
Corrib, with stone quoins, base, parapets, and 
chimney-shafts, and is three stories in height, 
including the basement story. The rooms are 
large and well-proportioned, and the situation 
of the house deligntful. From the drawing- 
room windows may be seen the lake, with its 
numerous islands stretchinir as far as Oughter- 
ard, a distance of eight miles across, and the 
picturesque chain of tne Connaught mountains. 
The islands of the lake have, in many in- 
stances, been tastefully laid out and planted 
by the present owner, and add greatly to the 
general beauty of the scene. Much attention, 
also, has been paid to the arrangement and 
planting of the grounds, besides which is a 
well-enclosed, extensive garden, abounding 
in all the natural products of the island. 

To the westward of the house, and within 
■bout sixty yards from it, stands one of these 
fine old ruins called a double castle. It is in 
good preservation, but clothed with ivy from 
Ease to summit, and forms a prominent fear 
ture in the landscape. 

Henry — commonly called Harry — Lynch, 
Esq., of Ballycurrin, the grandfamer of the 
present owner, was High Sheriff for the co. of 
Mayo in 1772. 



IflLAHD, Castlb Connell, in the co. 
of Limerick, the seat of Sir BLichard de 
Buigho, Bart. 

Tne Island, upon which Castle Connell 
stands, is partly occupied by the ruins of a 
monastery of the Conventual Franciscans, 
founded m the year 1291 — ^reign of Henry 
III. — ^by William Fion de Burgh, or De 
Burgho, Baron of Castle Connell. He mar- 



ried Ania, daughter to Donald O'Brien, King 
of Limerick. This site, however, was granted 
to Edmond Seaton, and now belongs to the 
Percy family, under the name of St. Francis' 
Abbey. 

This estate has been for time immemorial 
in the possession of the De Burghs, a family 
of the noblest Norman origin. The present 
mansion, which is of the Doric style of 
architecture, was erected in 1815 by Sir John 
Allen de Burgho. It is situated on the most 
elevated position of a picturesque Island 
in the nver Shannon, and has a com- 
munication with the main-land by means 
of a battlemented causeway. Both the houso 
and grounds command a near view of the 
ancient Castle Connell, once the seat of the 
Kings of Munster, subsequently granted to 
Richard de Burgho, Earl of Ulster, and dis- 
mantled in the year 1691. Ferrars, the 
historian of Limerick, tells us, "Brigadier 
Stuart was sent to take Castle Connell ; this 
was a strong fortress, and would have given 
the English much trouble to reduce it, if the 
Governor, Captain Bamwall, who had one- 
hundred and twenty-six men under his com- 
mand, had defended it properly. But he 
immediately surrendered at oiscretion, and, 
with his garrison, were [was] brought 
prisoners [prisoner] to the camp." 

BADBT HOUSE, in the co. of Northampton, 
near Daventry, the seat of Charles William 
Watkins, Esq. 

This seat is so called from the neighbouring 
village of Badby ^or, as it was anciently 
written, Badebi — which, says Baker, "may 
be derived from the Saxon, Bad, or Bade, a 
pledge, and Bye, a dwelling or hMtation ;" in 
allusion possibly to circumstances now forgot^ 
ten, in connection with its original foundation. 

Mr. Watkins traces his descent from Wil- 
liam of Wykeham, through the families of 
Rushworth and Danvers. 

In the parish of Badby are numerous 
springs ; and several quarries of a hard blue 
stone, known by the name of rug-stone, and 
very serviceable for building as well as paving. 

CASnS 8HAHE, Ireland, in the parish, 
barony, and county of Monaghan, the seat uf 
the Right Honourable Edward Lucas, a ma- 
gistrate for the county, which he represented 
in three parliaments. 

This gentleman belongs to a family, of 
which several members migrated from Eng- 
land to Ireland in the early part of the 
seventeenth century. The various branches 
may still be foimd in the counties of 
Clare, Cork, King's County, and Monaghan. 
In the last named district they acquired, 
partly by* purchase, and partly by Royal 
grant, considerable estates, vrhich were erected 
mto a manor by patent of Charles II., in 



BEATS OF OmSAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



81 



corroded nor decomposed by the weather, so 
that it might even be used for the cutting of 
bas relie£i and statues." 

Brybivgh Abbey ** was purchased in the 
vear 1786, by the Earl of Auchan, from the 
heirs of Colonel Tod, who boueht it from 
Haliburton of Newmains, the heir of the 
antient family of Haliburton of Mertoun, a 
very old cadet of the chief family of Haly- 
burtons of Piteur, and of Halyburton of 
Halyburton." 

When Pennant visited Dryburgh, though 
little remained of the church, a considerable 
portion of the convent still existed, — '^the 
refectory supported by two pillars, several 
vaults, and other offices ; part of the cloister- 
walls, and a fine radiated window of stone- 
work." But since his time, the refectory has 
fallen, though the gable ends are stUl re- 
maining. 

Sir Walter Scott, who represented the 
ancient barons of Newmains, was buried here, 
by the side of his wife, and in the sepulchre 
of his ancestors, on the 26th of September, 
1832, and has thus lent to the locality an 
imdying interest. 

GRAWFOBB FBIOBT, in the co. of Fife, the 
seat of the Earl of Glasgow. 

This is a new name, which has superseded 
the original one of Struthers, a place which 
was for many centuries the abode of the great 
family of Lindsay, Lord Lindsay of the Byres, 
and Earl of Ltndesay, and afterwards Earl of 
Crawford, from whom it has descended to the 
present proprietor. John, tenth Lord Lind- 
say, was created an Earl by King Charles I., 
and he afterwards became seventeenth Earl of 
Crawford, having obtained the Earldom of the 
elder branch of his family. He married the 
Lady Margaret Hamilton, daughter of the 
second Marquis of Hamilton, and sister of the 
two first Dukes of that family. One of the 
daughters of this marriage was the Duchess 
of Kothes. William, the eldest son, carried 
on the immediate line of the family. From 
Patrick, the younger son, the last Earls of 
Crawford and Lindsay were descended. 

In the latter days of the seventeenth Earl 
of Crawford, durine the reign of King Charles 
II., Struthers is uius described: — *' It is a 
very large old house, with magnificent gar- 
dens, great orchards, and vast enclosures and 




The late Lady Mary Lindsay Crawford, 
from whom this estate passed to the present 
proprietor, was imbued with a great reverence 
for feudal times, and for the memory of her 
ancestors, a feeling which prompted her to 
erect Crawford Priory near the ancient seat 
of Struthers, which had fallen into such decay 
that very little remains of ruined grandeur are 
visble ; the greater portion of the building, 
with its towers and oattlements, having been 



removed. Indeed, only a few gable waUs re- 
main ; the site of the extensive gardens being 
occupied by a farm-house and offices. How- 
ever, the vestiges of a very fine avenue may 
still be traced. Lady Mary erected an ex- 
pensive, but tasteless, modem building, which 
she called a Priory, instead of reproducing 
the old Scottish castellated abode of her an- 
cestors. This was her habitual residence, and 
it may not be out uf place here to quote the 
descnption of her funeral in 1833, from the 
pen oi Lord Lindsay, in his *' Lives." 

" It was in the Gothic hall of Crawford 
Priory that the funeral service of the Church 
of England was read over her remains. 
About the middle of the service, the 8un*s 
rays suddenly streamed through the painted 
glass, on the groined roof and on the trophies 
of ancient armour disposed round the walls, 
and lighted up the very pall of death with the 
gules and azure of the Lindsay cogniaance 
emblazoned on the window, and then died 
away again. The service over, the proces- 
sion moved slowly from the priory door, 
ascending by a winding road, cut through a 
wood of pines, to the nuuisoleum, on the sum- 
mit of a lofty eminence, where her brother. 
Earl George, was buried. Numbers of the 
tenantry and of the townspeople of Cupar and 
Ceres attended, and the hills were covered 
with groups of spectators. A more impres- 
sive scene I never vritnessed. And thus, 
amidst a general subdued silence, we com- 
mitted to ttie dust the last of the long line of 
the Lindsays of the Byres." 

No family in Scotland is more ancient, and 
few are so royally aUied as that of Lindsay. 
They can boast of four direct intermarriages 
with the family of the reigning monarch — 1st, 
Sir William de Lindsay, who died in 1200, 
married Marjory, grand-daughter of David 
I., and sister of Mucolm IV., and William, 
the Lion King of Scotland. 2nd, Sir William 
de Lindsay, who died 1283, married Ada, 
sister of John Balliol, King of Scotland. 3rd, 
Sir Alexander Lindsay, whodied 1382, married 
Egidia the sister of Robert II.,King of Scotland. 
And 4tli, David Lindsay, first Earl of Craw- 
ford, married Elizabeth, daughter of Robert 
II.» and sister of Robert III., Kings of Scot- 
land. Lady Mary Lindsay Crawford, the 
builder of Crawford Priory, was the last direct 
descendant of her immediate branch of this most 
illustrious line. The last remaining descen- 
dants of that branch are — ^the Earl of Glasgow, 
who, as eldest heir of line, inherited the en- 
tailed estates ; the Right Honourable David 
Boyle, Lord Justice-General of Scotland; Mr. 
Hamilton Dundas ; Admiral Sir Charles Na- 
pier, and Mr. Hamilton Gray. 

We have said that John, seventeenth Earl 
of Crawford and Lindsay, who was seated in 
splendour at Struthers, in the reign of Charles 
L, during the Commonwealth, and in the 



28 



SEATS OF OBEAT BRITAIN AMD ULELAMD. 



that of her beautiful pTedeceasorin ihe former 

? generation. The female alliances of this 
amily have been strangely eventful. An 
intrigue with a princess first raised it from 
obsciurity. Its existence, as a great family, 
was put in jeopardy by the witcncraft of one 
dowager, who perished at the stake. And in 
its later generations, two other dowagers have 
through their unfortunate adventures, become 
the b^-words of their time. The present 
propnetor of Glamis Castle is the twelfth Earl 
of Strathmore, who succeeded his grandfather 
in 1846. 

In coBclusion, we recommend any one who 
desires to see the beau-ideal of a grand old 
Scottish castle, to visit Glamis. Its square 
towers, round towers, breastwork of stone, and 
numerous turrets, form a most imposing, pic- 
turesque, and loft^ centre, while Inigo Jones' 
wings are so contrived as to harmonize with the 
older building. It is moreover surrounded by 
a lordly domain, and is altogether a most 
worthy specimen of mansions of its class. 
The many historical associations which it has 
been our endeavour to recal, as connected 
with the place, will it is hoped add to the 
interest which its venerable and noble appear- 
ance, even independent of them, would be sure 
to excite in the lover of the domestic archse- 
ology of his country. 

BERTWQBTH HALL, Hampshire, the seat 
of J. Robert Ives, Esq., High-dheriff, 1854. 

This estate was in the family of the Fitx- 
herberts for upwards of a century. The man- 
sion was erected in 1 830 by R. Horman Fisher, 
Esq., and was purchased, m 1848, by its present 
owner, who has recently added a considerable 
wing to the west of the main building. Such 
m specimen of black flint^work is rarely to be 
seen, every flint being cubed. The coping is of 
Portland stone; and the mansion is entered by 
aporch of considerable architectural beauty. 
Tne gardens and pleasure-grounds enclose 
about six acres, and the park extends to about 
one hundred and fifty. The entrance lodge, 
about half a mile from the house, is very 
pretty, and is built in exactly the same 
style. 

MOBTHIST CASXLI, near Dunkeld, m the 
CO. of Perth, the seat of Sir William Drum- 
mond Stewart, Baronet, of Grandtully. 

Murthley is situated on the banks of the 
river Tay , four miles from Dunkeld. Towards 
the east, the view extends above twenty miles, 
0% . r a rich champaign country, and on the 
west and north rise the Grampian Mountains. 
From different points of the ground are to be 
seen magnificent views of the Tay, winding 
majestically round the richly-wooded emi- 
nence on which the house stands. An ancient 
avenue of lime-trees leads to the lawn before 
the mansion. The bouse u large, very old. 



and extremely irregular. One of the towers 
was erected upwar£ of 600 years a^o. The 
character of the whole building is of^a quaint 
and curious antiquity, reaching back beyond 
the period of Uie Scottish chateau derived from 
the French. There are, it is true, both 
gable-ends and turrets, but these are 
combined with masses of more ancient 
building. Adjoining the house is a very old 
garden, formal and correctly laid out, in 
strict correspondence with the character of 
the place. 

Aoout twenty years since, the late Baronet 
built, by the side of the former house, a moat 
magnificent mansion, in the eariy English 
styfe, of great sixe and much architectural 
beauty ; but of this the waUs alone have been 
completed ; audit has remained in its present 
unfinished state for about fifteen years. If it 
be ever finished, it will be one of the finest 
mansions in this part of Scotland. The pre>- 
sent baronet has made some additions to the 
ancient house, in great good taste ; particu- 
larly a dining-hall, whidi is a noble room, 
and' is beautiftilly fitted up. Between the 
house and the river, on a rising ground, em- 
bowered among dark fir-trees, stood formerly 
a Roman Catholic Chapel, which had fallen 
to decay, and had been converted into a 
family bury ing-place. Sir William D. Stewart, 
who some years ago conformed to the Church 
of Rome, has rebuilt this ancient chapel with 
great magnificence. It is a fine specimen of 
a place of worship, in the Byzantine strle. 
It has cost a considerable outlay, and has 
been effected with much good taste. At- 
tached to it is the family mausoleum ; and on 
the day of its consecration, the funeral rites 
were performed for the Rev. Thomas Stewart, 
Sir William's brother, a well-known and 
respected priest of the Church of Rome, who 
resided for many years in Italy, and was there 
assassinated 

The family of Stewart of Grandtully is of 
great antiqmty, and no less illustration. Its 
ancestor was Sir James Stewart, son of Sir 
John Stewart, of Bonkill, who fell at the 
battle of Falkirk, in 1298 ; and who was son of 
Alexander, sixth Lord High Steward of 
Scotland. Sir James Stewart's direct de- 
scendant, Alexander, obtained a grant of the 
lands of Grandtully in 1414, in the reign of 
James I., King of Scotland. His descendant 
was Sir William Stewart of Grandtully, 
Gentleman of the Bedchamber to King Jamea 
VI. This gentleman purchased the estate of 
Murthley about two hundred and fifty years 
ago. His younger son, Henry Stewart, had 
a son, Thomas, who was proprietor of Bal- 
caskie, in Fife, now the seat of Sir Ralph 
Anstruther, Bart He was a Lord of Sea- 
son, and was created a Baronet by Kbkg 
Charles II., in 1683. He mamcd the 
daughter of George, F«arl of Cromarty. His 



SEATS OF OREAT BRITAIN AMD IRELAND. 



23 



greater antiquity and magnificencei Glengar- 
nock, which, for several centuries, was the 
residence of a branch of the Cunninghams, 
but afterwards was acquired by the Craw- 
furds. These ruins present a bold and digni- 
fied aspect, and form a very prominent object 
in the surrounding country, and the prospect 
from them is beautifully varied and extensive. 

Kilbimey anciently belonged to the power- 
ful family of Barclay, who were settled there 
long before 1149. In 1165, Sir Walter Bar- 
clay of Kilbimey was made, by King William 
the Lion, Lord High Chamberlain of Scotland. 
In 1470, John Barclay of Kilbimey died 
without heirs male, and his great estate went, 
with his daughter Margaret, to Malcolm 
Crawfurd of Greenock, a descendant of Craw- 
furd of Loudon, who became the founder of 
the family of Crawfurd of Kilbimey. His 
descendant, John Crawfiird of Kilbimey, 
married into the ancient family of Blair of 
Blair, and died 1622. His son John married 
Lady Mary Cunningham, daughter of James, 
Earl of Glencaime, and sister of the Mar- 
chioness of Hamilton ; and in 1627 he rebuilt 
Kilbimey Castle in a style of great magnifi- 
cence. He was succeeded by his eldest son 
John, who was created a baronet in 1642, by 
King Charles I. He married the Hon. 
Magdalen Camegie, daughter and heiress of 
David, Lord Carnegie* and heiress of line of 
the Earls of Southesk ; and by her he had two 
daughters, co-heiresses, of whom, Anne was 
the wife of Sir Archibald Stewart, Baronet, of 
Blackball, and Ardgowan and Margaret was 
wife of the Hon. Patrick Lindsay. 

The issue of this marriage was numerous, 
but we will only mention a son and two daugh* 
ters, who alone left descendants. The eldest 
son, John, first Viscount Gamock, carried on 
the line of the family ; but, as his posterity is 
now extinct, the only remaining descendants 
of the great house of Lindsay Crawfurd are 
sprung from the two daughters — viz., Mar- 
garet, wife of David Boyle, Earl of Glasgow, 
and Magdalen, wife of George Dundas of 
Duddingstoun. The descendants of the latter 
are Mr. Hamilton Dundas, Admiral Sir Charles 
Napier, and Mr. Hamilton Gray, and they, 
together with the Earl of Glasgow 's family, are 
now the sole representatives of Lindsay 
Crawford. 

John Lindsay Crawford, bom in 1669, was 
a man of much political importance, and, in 
1703, he was created Viscount Gamock. He 
married a daughter of the first Earl of Bute, 
and in December, 1708, he died, and was 
succeeded by his son Patrick, second Viscount 
Gamock. He died in May, 1735, and his 
eldest son dying in 1738, his second son, 
George, became fourth Viscount Gamock ; 
and in 1749, he also succeeded to the Earl- 
dom of Crawford and Lindsay, on the death 
of his cousin, the twenty-first Earl. He mar- 



ried, in 1755, Miss Hamilton, co-heiress with 
her sister, the wife of Hugh, twelfth Earl of 
Eglinton, of Robert Hamilton, of Bourtree 
Hill. And he was living with his Countess 
and infant family at Kilbimey Castle, when 
an accident occurred which drove him away, 
and which consigned the ancient mansion to 
permanent ruin. 

On a Sunday morning, in April, 1757, 
when the family were unconscious of danger, 
a servant going to the stables observed smoke 
issuing from the roof of the mansion-house, 
and gave the alarm. Lord Crawford came 
instantly down, and, seeing the danger, ran to 
Lady Crawford's bed-room, and, seizing his 
infant daughter, hurried with her into the 
open air. The whole members of the family 
followed. The alarm soon spread. Crowds 
of people assembled to offer vain assbtance ; 
for, amidst the unavailing services of a lament- 
ing peasantry, the stately mansion of Kil- 
bimey was completely destroyed. It was 
never rebuilt, and its ruins remain in melan- 
choly contrast to its former grandeur. The 
cause of the fire was long involved in mystery ; 
and there are legends still floating in the 
neighbourhood which throw an air of romance 
over the destruction of this residence. Some 
years previous, when Lord Crawford was 
absent, the lower part of the house was in- 
habited by tenants. They used to hear 
strange sounds in the rooms above; the 
rustling of richly-attired dames pacing along 
the corridors; and when the clock struck 
twelve, shrieks and groans fell on their 
listening ears. As these were supposed to 
indicate secret crimes connected with the 
mansion, the destmction of the house was 
regarded by the superstitious as an act of re- 
tributive justice. 

No attempt was ever made by the family 
to restore this ancient seat. They then fixed 
their residence in Fifeshire, where, as has 
been already mentioned, a Gothic mansion, 
Crawford Priory, erected close to the old 
house of Struthers, forms a powerfnl and 
splendid contrast to the dilapidated Castle of 
Kilbimey. The Earl of Crawford, in whose 
time this fire occurred, had three sons and 
two daughters. Of these, the two younger 
sons predeceased their elder brother George, 
who, in 1781, became twenty-second Earl of 
Crawford, and died unmarried in 1808. The 
eldest daughter. Lady Jean, married, in 
1772, Archibald, eleventh Earl of Eglinton, 
and died without issue. The second. Lady 
Mary, was her brother's sole heir, and held 
the great family estates in Fifeshire and Ayr- 
shire from 1808 until her death, m 1833; 
when she was succeeded in them by her 
cousin, the eldest co-heir of her family, the 
Earl of Glasgow, who now possesses this mag- 
nificent fortune. 

The situation of Kilbimey is very beautiful 



22 



SEATS OP QBEAT BRITAIN AMD IRELAND. 



reign of Charles II. , had two sons. The line 
of his eldest son, William, eighteenth Earl, 
failed in the person of his distinguished grand- 
son, John, twenty-iirst Earl, a noble and 
heroic warrior, whose high deeds of arms 
added to the lustre of his great family. This 
nobleman had no children by his beautiful 
Countess, the eldest daughter and co-heiress 
of the second Duke of Athol, and djring on 
Christmas Day, 1749, he was succeeded by 
his kinsman, George, Viscount Garnock, de- 
scendant of his grand uncle, the Honourable 
Patrick Lindsay, second son of John, seven- 
teenth Earl of Crawford, and Lady Margaret, 
sister to the Duke of Hamilton. 

This Earl of Crawford and Lindsay had 
held the first place in his native country, as 
leader of the Presbyterian party. He had 
long filled the office of Lord High Treasurer, 
to which Charles II., on his accession, re- 
stored him. Released from the tedious im- 
prisonment in which he had been held in 
Windsor, durin? the Commonwealth, he re- 
turned to Scotland, where he was received 
with enthusiasm. His entrance into Edin- 
burgh was a triumphal procession. However, 
it was not long beiore it was discovered that 
Preabyterianism had few friends at court. 
Episcopacy was re-established as the form of 
religion in Scotland. Crawford and Lindsay, 
the sole hope of the Presbyterians, main* 
tained a gallant, but fruitless struggle for the 
Kirk and Covenant When desured by the 
King to renounce the covenant, he replied, 
" that he had suffered for his Majesty's sake 
nine years* imprisonment, forfeiture and ruin 
of fortune, so he was resolved to continue his 
Majesty's loyal and faithful subject, and serve 
him in what he could do with a good con- 
science ; but as for renouncing the covenant, 
that he could not do with a good conscience." 
He therefore resigned the olnce of Lord Hish 
Treasurer, and, givmgup the Court and public 
business, he finally returned to Scotlana, and 
retired to the Struthers, in November, 1663, 
aj)d spent the remainder of his days, until his 
death, when he was an octagenarian, in .the 
house of his ancestors. He was a nobleman 
of great virtue, high spirit, very good abilities, 
and a most exemplary life. He suffered much 
for his fidelity to the King, and his conscience 
prevented him from repairing his fortune by 
means of court favour ; so that the wealth of 
the Lindsay family, which in his person had 
reached its culmmating point, began with 
him, also, to decline. 

Providence, however, alleviated the mis- 
fortunes of the latter dsivs of the aged Earl, 
by providing for the wealth and pnM]>erity of 
his second son, whone line was destined ulti- 
mately to carry on the family ; and this piece 
of good fortune was the direct result of the 
honesty and consistency of the old peer. 
News of Lord Crawford's resignation of his 



Treasurership and retirement from Court, 
having reached Sir John Crawfurd, Baronet, 
of KiTbimey, a very wealthy gentleman of 
Ayrshire, he sent for the Countess of Craw- 
ford, who, being the Duke of Hamilton* a 
sister, was his own cousin-gcrman, and thu« 
addressed her — " I am glad to hear that my 
noble lord, your husband, has lost bis advan- 
tageous place, but kept his good old princi- 
fles. I have a fortune, and no son to enjoy it. 
will count it an honour if mv noble loid and 
your ladyship will consent that your second 
son shall marry my young daughter, and enjoy 
my estate." It may be supposed that this 
offer was joyfully accepted, sir John Craw- 
furd immediately delivered up to the Countestf 
the charters and rights of his great estates, 
along with his daughter, desiring that she 
might keep her and educate her until the re- 
turn of her second son from France. It must 
be admitted that Sir John Crawfurd 'a conduct 
was not altogether free from blame in thb 
proceeding, as he had an elder daughter, 
Anne, the wife of Sir Archibald Stewart, 
Bart., of Blackball, from whom the present 
Sir Michael Shaw Stewart, Bart., is Imeally 
descended. However, Sir John passed over 
this line of his descendants, in oraer to enrich 
the son of the house of Lindsay, who, on his 
marriage with the Kilbimey heiress, assumed 
the surname of Crawfurd. 

The Honourable Patrick Lindsay, thus pre* 
ferred to a fair young wife and rich estate, 
was a man of good parts and great worth* 
The wedding took place at Holyrood, on the 
27th December, 1604, and they lived in great 
happiness at Kilbimey until October, 1681, 
when they died within three days of each other 
of a pestilential fever. It was remarked, at 
the time of their death, that " in the day of 
the sickening of the laird and lady of Kil- 
bimey, whereof they shortly died, hb dogs 
went into the close, and an unco (strange) 
dog coming in amongst them, they all set up 
a barking, with their faces up to heaven, 
howling, yelling, and youping; and when the 
laird called upon them they would not come to 
him as in former times when he called on them. 
The same day the laird and lady sickened ! '* 
As Kilbimey became henceforward the 
most valuable possession of the Lind<iy 
Crawford family, it is fitting that here we 
should give some account of it. 

inTiRiRHItV CASTLE, in the co. of Ayr, 
the property of the Earl of Glasgow. 

Kilbimey Castle, now a ruin, consists of 
two parts; the square tower common in 
feudal times, and an addition to it the front in 
more modem style. Being situated on riang 

§ round, the mins are seen to a considerable 
istance, and have much imposing grandeur 
of appearance. On the kilbimey estates 
stand the mins of another castle, of itiU 



SEATS OF OBEA.T BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



23 



greater antiquity and magnificence, Glengar- 
nock, which, for several centuries, was the 
residence of a branch of the Cunninghams, 
but afterwards was acquired by the Craw- 
fiurds. These ruins present a bold and digni- 
fied aspect, and form a very prominent object 
in the surrounding country, and the prospect 
from them is beautifully varied and extensive. 

Kilbimey anciently belonged to the power- 
ful family of Barclay, who were settlea there 
long before 1149. In 1165, Sir Walter Bar- 
clay of Kilbimey was made, by King William 
the Lion, Lord High Chamberlain of Scotland. 
In 1470, John fiarclay of Kilbimey died 
without heirs male, and his great estate went, 
with his daughter Margaret, to Malcolm 
Crawfurd of Greenock, a descendant of Craw- 
furd of Loudon, who became the founder of 
the family of Crawfurd of Kilbimey. His 
descendant, John Crawfiird of Kilbimey, 
married into the ancient family of Blair of 
Blair, and died 1622. His son John married 
Lady Mary Cunningham, daughter of James, 
Earl of Glencaime, and sister of the Mar- 
chioness of Hamilton ; and in 1627 he rebuilt 
Kilbimey Castle in a style of great magnifi- 
cence. He was succeeded by his eldest son 
John, who was created a baronet in 1642, by 
King Charles I. He married the Hon. 
Magdalen Carnegie, daughter and heiress of 
David, Lord Carnegie, and heiress of line of 
the Earls of Southesk ; and by her he had two 
daughters, co-heiresses, of whom, Anne was 
the wife of Sir Archibald Stewart, Baronet, of 
Blackball, and Ardgowan and Margaret was 
wife of the Hon. Patrick Lindsay. 

The issue of this marriage was numerous, 
but we will only mention a son and two daugh- 
ters, who alone left descendants. The eldest 
son, John, first Viscount Garaock, carried on 
the line of the family ; but, as his posterity is 
now extinct, the only remaining descendants 
of the great house of Lindsay Crawfurd are 
sprung from the two daughters — viz., Mar- 
garet, wife of David Boyle, Earl of Glasgow, 
and Magdalen, wife of George Dundas of 
Duddingstoun. The descendants of the latter 
are Mr. Hamilton Dundas, Admiral Sir Charles 
Napier, and Mr. Hamilton Gray, and they, 
together with the Earl of Glasgow's family, are 
now the sole representatives of Lindsay 
Crawford. 

John Lindsay Crawford, bom in 1669, was 
a man of much political importance, and, in 
1703, he was created Viscount Gamock. He 
married a daughter of the first Earl of Bute, 
and in December, 1708, he died, and was 
succeeded by his son Patrick, second Viscount 
Gamock. He died in May, 1735, and his 
eldest son dying in 1738, his second son, 
George, became fourth Viscount Gamock ; 
and in 1749, he also succeeded to the Earl- 
dom of Crawford and Lindsay, on the death 
of his cousin, the twenty-first Earl. He mar- 



ried, in 1755, Miss Hamilton, co-heiress with 
her sister, the wife of Hugh, twelfth Earl of 
Eglinton, of Robert Hamilton, of Bourtree 
Hill. And he was living with his Countess 
and infant family at Kilbimey Castle, when 
an accident occurred which drove him away, 
and which consigned the ancient mansion to 
permanent ruin. 

On a Sunday morning, in April, 1757, 
when the family were unconscious of danger, 
a servant going to the stables observed smoke 
issuing from the roof of the mansion-house, 
and gave the alarm. Lord Crawford came 
instantly down, and, seeing the danger, ran to 
Lady Crawford's bed-room, and, seizing his 
infant daughter, hurried with her into the 
open air. The whole members of the family 
followed. The alarm soon spread. Crowds 
of people assembled to ofier vain assistance ; 
for, amidst the unavailing services of a lament- 
ing peasantry, the stately mansion of Kil- 
bimey was completely destroyed. It was 
never rebuilt, and its ruins remain in melan- 
choly contrast to its former grandeiur. The 
cause of the fire was long involved in mystery; 
and there are legends still floating in the 
neighbourhood which throw an air of romance 
over the destruction of this residence. Some 
years previous, when Lord Crawford was 
absent, the lower part of the house was in- 
habited by tenants. They used to hear 
strange sounds in the rooms above; the 
rustling of richly-attired dames pacing along 
the corridors; and when the clock struck 
twelve, shrieks and groans fell on their 
listening ears. As these were supposed to 
indicate secret crimes connected with the 
mansion, the destmction of the house was 
regarded by the superstitious as an act of re- 
tributive justice. 

No attempt was ever made by the family 
to restore this ancient seat. They then fixed 
their residence in Fifeshire, where, as has 
been already mentioned, a Gothic mansion, 
Crawford Priory, erected close to the old 
house of Stmthers, forms a powerful and 
splendid contrast to the dilapidated Castle of 
Kilbimey. The Earl of Crawford, in whose 
time this fire occurred, had three sons and 
two daughters. Of these, the two younger 
sons predeceased their elder brother George, 
who, in 1781, became twenty-second Earl of 
Crawford, and died unmarried in 1 808. The 
eldest daughter. Lady Jean, married, in 
1772, Archibald, eleventh Earl of Eglinton, 
and died without issue. The second. Lady 
Mary, was her brother's sole heir, and held 
the great family estates in Fifeshire and Ayr- 
shire from 1808 until her death, in 1833; 
when she was succeeded in them by her 
cousin, the eldest co-heir of her family, the 
Earl of Glasgow, who now possesses this mag- 
nificent fortune. 

The situation of Kilbimey is very beautiful 



24 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



and the lake of that name ii a fine feature in 
the Bcenery. The old parish church of Kil- 
himey contains some curious relics of family 
pride. Under the directions of the first 
Viscount Gamock, ahout 1700, that edifice 
was repaired, and the family seat was splen- 
didly ornamented with architectural decora- 
tions in oak. On the front of the gallery 
there are blazoned the armorial bearings of 
twelve distinguished houses with whom that 
of Kilhimey was allied ; and the other parts 
of the interior display much fanciful work- 
manship, which renders that church an object 
unique m its kind, and attracts the notice of 
the curious in heraldry and antiquities. 

The property which Lord Glasgow in- 
herited, as eloest co-heir of the house of 
Lindsay Crawford, is of very jgr^At value, and 
that value ia on the increase, from the mineral 
wealth contained in the Kilhimey estates in 
Ayrshire and Renfrewshire. The family of 
Boyle is undoubtedly one of great antiquity, 
but very inferior in illustration and importance 
to that of Lindsay Crawford, the representa- 
tion of which it is a high honour for the Earl 
of Glasgow to share. Therefore, as he has 
the good fortune to possess all the estates, by 
a special entail, it would be only natural that 
he should also adopt the surnames of Lindsay 
Crawford in addition to his own family name. 
The descendants of this pf^ house are now 
very few in number ; and it is unfortunate that 
he among them to whom the estates have 
fallen, does not pride himself in keeping up 
the name and arma of to illustrious a race. 

QLAMZS OUm, in the county of Forfar, 
the seat of the £arl of Strathmore. 

The castle of Glamis, situated in the centre 
of the vale of Strathmore (which signifies 
great valley), ia one of the most noble and 
venerable edifices in Scotland, and is rendered 
the more interestins from its being one of 
the most ancient habitable houses in the 
kingdom, while at the same time it has not 
been destroyed by the improvement* of 
vitiated taste. This castle may be regarded 
as the most remarkable monument of domestic 
antiquity in the part of the country where it 
is situated. It originally consisted of two 
rectangular towers of very great he^ht, with 
walls of fifteen feet in thickness. These tow- 
ers were connected by a square projection, 
and, together, formed a fieure like the letter 
*' Z," a form which aflTorded mutual defence to 
all parts of the building. The stone is a red- 
jsh grey fireestone, and a portion of the casUe 
u of great, though unknown, antiquity ; yet 
the storv of its having been the house where 
King Malcolm II. died, in 1033, is a mere 
fable. That prince is said to have received 
his death wound in the neighbourhood, and to 
have been conveyed afterwards to Glamis 
Castle to die. 1 he room where he expired b 



shown, and also the dagger with which he it 
falsely said to have been assassinated. Mal- 
colm II. appears however to have been con- 
nected, in some way, with this locality ; and 
he may, very probably, have died in a house 
on the site of which Glamis Castle now 
stands. But the present building, though 
very old, was probaolv not erected for several 
centuries after King Malcolm II. 's reign. 

The central tower contains a spacious spi- 
ral staircase, one end of the steps resting on 
a light hollow pillar, continued to the topmost 
story. The stairs consist of 143 steps. To the 
left of the staircase is a vaulted stone hall, 70 
feet in length, and 25 in breadth. At the sides 
of the windows are curious little rooms, cut out 
in the thick walls. Adjoining the atone hall 
is a library, and at the south end is a room 45 
feet in lenffth, and two stories hif h, intended 
for a drawmg-room. Immediately above the 
stone hall is the great hall of the castle, of the 
same dimensions. The arched ceiling is 30 
feet high, ornamented with heraldic blajEonry. 
Above the great fire place is rich stucco work 
eztendinff to the roof. The date of the finish- 
ing of this noble apartment is 1621. By the 
siae of the hall is the chapel, fitted up with 
dark oak, and ornamented with curious paint- 
ings of Uie apostles, and scripture subjects. 
A door in the side of the ena window of the 
hall, leads to the grand drawing-room, 00 feet 
by 30, and 24 feet high. The breakfast-room 
is wainscoted, and is partly hung with curioua 
tapestry. In an upper story is the room 
lanulously called by tne name of King Mal- 
colm ; probably on account of its havmg ^e 
royal arms above the fire place. Manv dTtlie 
bedrooms are fitted up witn antique beds, with 
heavy velvet hangings ; and in some of them 
the ponderous chairs are carved and gilded. 
The great kitchen is 60 feet b v 30, and 30 feet 
high ; and it contains eight fire places. 

Great alterations were made in this grand 
old house by Patrick first Earl of Kinghom, in 
1606. The architect whom he employed was 
Inigo Jones, and his work bears a resemblance 
to Ueriot's Hospital in Edinburgh, and har- 
monizes venr well with the ancient, lofty, 
central buHmng. This place is thus described 
in a work entitled "Journey through Scotland,** 
which was published in 1723. *' This palace 
as you approach it, strikes you with awe and 
admiration by its many turrets and gflded 
ballustrades at the top. It stands in the mid- 
dle of a weD-planted park, with avenues cnt 
through, in every way, to the house. The 
great avenue is thickly planted on each aide, 
at the entrance of which there b a neat stone 
gate, with oflices, on each side, of freestone, 
Bke a litde town, and it leads you in half a 
mile to the outer court, which lias a statue on 
each side as big as life. On the great gate of 
the inner court are ballustrades of stone finely 
adorned with statues. From this court, by 



X AND IRELAND. 27 

In 1543, John, the son of this unhappy 

man, was restored to his estates and rank, 

1 became Lord Glamis. His daughter 

- r^aret, was wife of John, first Marquess of 

• tail ton, and a favourite friend of Queen 

try, who gave her a watch, which is still in 

j)()ssession of one of her descendants. His 

., John, eighth Lord Glamis, perished in the 

' ts of Stirling, in an accidental encounter 

^ (cn his followers and those of the Earl of 

A ford, in March, 1578. This was the 

nd time that the head of the house of 

isay had been fatal to the Lyons, after a 

'' of two centuries. His son, Patrick, ninth 

1 Glamis, was, in 1604, created Earl of 

:l)om. He it was that made great altera- 

<> and additions to his ancient castle of 

lis. His grandson, Patrick, third Earl 

iiighorn, m 1677, obtained from King 

■<>s II. the title of Strathmore, in addition 

^ otlier titles, so that he became Earl of 

• more and Kinghom, and in the first 

ment of King James VIL, a decree of 

I'licy was passed in favour of the 

m of Strathmore. After the revolution 

s, he returned to his castle of Glamis, 

had been so much improved by his 

> ; h er, and he spent the remainder of his 

idding new embellishments to this noble 

i 1 also greatly improved and beautified 

i { iintley, the name of which he changed 

-^' Lyon. He died in 1695. 

oi), John, fourth Earl, is thus described 

tinporary 150 years ago. '* Heis well- 

1 good-natured, and hath not ye 

..r( d to get into the administration, 

tViend to Presbytery. He hath two 

'"u>st seats in Scotland, Glamis and 

on. Heis tall, fair, and fifty years 

'K> married the only child of the 

I' irriage of Philip, second Earl of 

(I, with the daughter of James, 

( >ruiond. By her he had six sons, 

icceeded each other, two as Lords 

iiid four as Earls of Strathmore. One 

thi> sixth Earl of Strathmore, married 

'<i'ul Lady Susan Cochrane, and, 

■ '^ after, was killed in a fray at For- 

. ioned by a drinking bout after a 

which followed the funeral of Mbs 

of Lour. The man by whose hand 

^ • athmore feU, was Carnegie of Fin- 

His Countess lived after his death at 

Lyon, and in 1745, married George 

, her groom. 

11, ninth Earl of Strathmore, nephew to 

..iHt mentioned peer, married in 1767, 

I y Eleanor Bowes, heiress of the extensive 

I valuable property of Streatlam Castle, 

'd Gibside, in the county of Durham. He 

• lied in 1776, and the Countess, two years 

after, married Andrew Robinson Stoney; a 

union little less miserable and unfortunate than 



26 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



slain in battle by Malcolm II. in 1020. Gruach 
was heiress of the elder line of Celtic sove- 
reigns, and her grandfather had been murdered 
by Malcolm II., the head of a younger line. 
His jealousy pursued her, and he burnt her 
father-in-law, Maolbride, the Maormer of 
Moray, and her husband, with fifty of their 
clan, within their castle in the year 1032. 
The lady Gruach fled with Lulach, her 
infant son, to the protection of Macbeth, who 
was her husband's cousin, and who ruled the 
neighbouring province of Ross. In the 
meantime the aged tyrant died, as seems 
probable, in the older castle of Glamis; 
leaving two daughters, his co-heiressess, the 
one wife of Crinan, Abbot of Dunkeld, and 
the other wife of Sigurd, the Scandinavian 
Earl of Orkney. Both of these princesses 
had issue, ana their descendants are, of 
course, joint co-heirs of the royal Celtic 
race. The inheritance of Malcolm's crown 
fell to Duncan, the son of his daughter who 
had married Crinan the Abbot. 

Meanwhile the injured Gruach was nursing 
vengeance. She had mamed her protector 
Macbeth ; and the policy of the young King 
invested him with the additional Maormership 
of Moray, which had belonged to his uncle 
Maolbride, in the hope of making him his 
friend. But Lady Macbeth was implacable, 
and before Duncan had reigned six years, she 
avenged upon him all the wrongs which his 
eranofather had heaped upon her and her 
house. Duncan was a young man at the 
time of his death, in 1039. His father 
Crinan, the Abbot of Dunkeld, attempted, 
unsuccessfully, to maintain the cause of his 
family. Macbeth was all-powerful, and 
reigned gloriously from 1039 to 1056; when 
he, in his turn, was slain by the son of Dun- 
can, then grown to man's estate, and aided by 
the Saxons. Yet, even after Macbeth 's death, 
his wife's son, Lulach, reigned for six months ; 
and according to our idea of succession, he 
was much better entitled to the crown than 
the posterity of Duncan, who now reign; 
because he was of the elder branch of the 
great Celtic royal house. This digression is 
not entirely out of place, considering that 
Glamis was probably the scene of the death 
of old King Malcolm ; and has been, though 
erroneously, claimed as the place where his 
much more estimable grandson, Duncan, paid 
the forfeit of the cruelties which had been 
unavenged upon himself. It is hoped that 
this sketch of true history will place Macbeth, 
and more particularly his Queen, in a less 
odious light ; and will enlist in their favour the 
sympathies of the readers of Shakspeare's 
master tragedy. 

We cannot distinctly trace the fate of Glamis 
for some centuries after the time of its original 
royal occupant. It seems to have been crown 
property. For the next account we have of it, 



is its being granted, under very romantic cir- 
cumstances, by Kixig Robert II., to Sir John 
Lyon in 1372. This John Lyon was an 
extremely handsome and accomplished youth, 
who was patronized by Sir James Lindsay of 
Crawford (at that time head of his family, and 
cousin of the first Earl), who presented him to 
King Robert II. This monarch, on Lindsay's 
recommendation, made him his private secre- 
tary. He had not been long in this situation, 
before he seduced the Princess Jean, second 
daughter of the King. As it was soon apparent 
that the consequences of this intrigue could not 
be concealed, the secretary entreated the as- 
sistance of his former patron, Lindsay ; who 
planned and executed a most ingenious way 
of saving, at once, the head of his prot^g^e, 
and the honour of the Princess. He induced 
another young gentleman, with whom he was 
familiar, to take the blame on himself, and to 
fly the country, as being guilty. And then, 
as he was very intimate with the King, he 
advised him to make the best of a bad lousi- 
ness by patchinff up a marriage between the 
frail faur one and the handsome young Lyon ; 
who, he dared to say, would not refuse to 
lend himself to the King's wishes, especially 
if his majesty would provide handsomely for 
him. The King being anxious to screen his 
daughter from infamy, thought this a wise 
proposal ; and thus Lyon obtained the hand 
of his mistress, and the lands of Glamis by 
way of a dowry. 

This is the origin of the Earls of Strath- 
more. His royal father-in-law treated John 
Lyon with mucn honour ; for he assigned him 
the double tressure of fleurs-de-lis round his 
shield of arms; and gave him, by way of crest, 
a lady, richly dressed, holding a Scots thistle 
in her hand, in order to commemorate his 
marriage with the princess. John Lyon's 
career, if happy and prosperous, was short. 
He fell by the very hand that had raised him. 
Lindsay of Crawford, his early patron, became 
dissatisfied with him, and thought him un- 
ffTBteful. Finding his own credit with the 
Ring to decrease, and that of Lyon to in- 
crease, and imputing this to his thankless 
ingratitude, he became hiehly incensed at 
him : and, one day, meeting him accidentally, 
not very far from Glamis Castle, at a place 
called the Moss of Balhall, he set upon him 
and slew him. 

By the princess, Lyon was father of a son, 
Sir John Lyon, who inherited Glamis, and 
carried on the line. He, too, made a royal 
alliance with the Lady Elizabeth Graham, 
daughter of Patrick, Earl of Stratheme, by 
Eupnemia Countess Palatine of Stratheme, 
only child and heiress of Prince David, 
Earl of Stratheme, eldest son of the second 
marriage of Robert II., king of Scotland 
Those acquainted with Scottish history, know 
how very dangerous the pretensions of the 



SEATS OF aKEAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



27 



House of Stratherne were considered for many 
generations by the Kings of Scotland. They 
claimed a better right to the crown than that 
possessed by King Robert III. who was 
son of Robert II. by his first marriage, 
which was said to have been contracted within 
the prohibited degrees, and without a regular 
papal dispensation. However, this has, within 
the last century, been set right, the regular 
dispensation having been found in the Vatican. 
The second Sir John Lyon had a son, Patrick, 
who in 1445 was created a Peer of Parliament, 
with the title of Lord Glamis. 

In 1538, the Lyon family became implicated 
in a fearfiil tragedy. The sixth Lord Glamis 
had married, in 1521, a most beautifid woman, 
Janet Douglas, sister to the Earl of Angus, who 
married Margaret of England, Queen dowager 
of Scotland. She seems to have been a woman 
of bad character, having been, again and 
again, accused of witchcrtSt and muraer. Her 
husband died in 1528 ; and very soon after, 
her Ladyship was summoned to answer for 
aiding her brother Angus in his rebellion. 
This affiiir ended in her forfeiture and flight. 
In 1532, a far darker crime was laid to her 
charge than that of caballing with rebels. She 
was summoned to stand her trial at the county- 
town of Forfar, for having poisoned her hus- 
band. The crimes of poisoning and witch- 
craft were, in those days, generally associated, 
and the potency of*^ drugs was increased 
by incantations. Hence the mala fama of 
hady Glamis as a witch. It appears that, on 
this occasion, she got off, from a difiiculty in 
collecting a jury. In 1537 she was acain 
brought to trial, for conspiring to poison 
King James V. She was then married to a 
second husband, a gentleman of the name of 
Campbell. Her son, Lord Glamis, was in his 
16th year, and she a youthful matron in the 
fiill maturity of her charms. The King was 
still overwhelmed with grief for the loss of his 
beloved Magdalen of France, who had just 
been prematurely cut off; when, to the asto- 
nishment of the court, this noble and beautiful 
lady was publicly arraigned for conspiring the 
King's death by poison ; pronounced guilty, 
and condemned to be burnt. She suffered her 
fate at the stake, with the courage of a Doug- 
las ; and the sympathy of the people, in spite 
of her former doubtiul fame, ascribed tier 
condemnation to the hatred of the King 
against her house. Her son was also con- 
demned, but the King pitied his youth, and 
remitted his punishment. Her husband, 
Campbell, in attempting to escape from Edin- 
borgn Castle, was dasned in pieces amons 
the rocks. Though this tragedy is involved 
in obscurity, there is too much reason to be- 
lieve Lady Glamis guilty of an attempt to 
poison ; whatever we may think of the charge 
of witchcraft. 



In 1543, John, the son of this unhappy 
woman, was restored to his estates and rank, 
and became Lord Glamis. His daughter 
Margaret, was wife of John, first Marquess of 
Hanulton, and a favourite friend of Queen 
Mary, who gave her a watch, which is still in 
the possession of one of her descendants. His 
son, John, eighth Lord Glamis, perished in the 
streets of Stirling, in an accidental encounter 
between his followers and those of the Earl of 
Crawford, in March, 1578. This was the 
second time that the head of the house of 
Lindsay had been fatal to the Lyons, after a 
lapse of twv centuries. His son, Patrick, ninth 
Lord Glamis, was, in 1604, created Earl of 
Kinghom. He it was that made great altera- 
tions and additions to his ancient castle of 
Glamis. His erandson, Patrick, third Earl 
of Kinghom, m 1677, obtained firom King 
Charles II. the title of Strathmore, in addition 
to his other titles, so that he became Earl of 
Strathmore and Kinghom, and in the first 
Parliament of King James VII., a decree of 
precedency was passed in favour of the 
Earldom of Strathmore. After the revolution 
in 16^8, he returned to his castle of Glamis, 
which had been so much improved by his 

Grandfather, and he spent the remainder of his 
ays in adding new emDellishments to this noble 
seat. He also greatly improved and beautified 
Castle Huntley, the name of which he changed 
to Castle Lyon. He died in 1695. 

His son, John, fourth Earl, is thus described 
by a contemporary 150 years ago. '* He is well- 
bred and good-natured, and hath not ye 
endeavoured to get into the administration, 
being no friend to Presbytery. He hath two 
of the finest seats in Scotland, Glamis and 
Castle Lyon. He is tall, fair, and fifty vears 
old." He married the only child of the 
second marriage of Philip, second Earl of 
Chesterfield, with the daughter of James, 
Duke of Ormond. By her he had six sons, 
who all succeeded each other, two as Lords 
Glamis, and four as Earls of Strathmore. One 
of these, the sixth Earl of Strathmore, married 
the beautiful Lady Susan Cochrane, and, 
three years after, was killed in a fray at For- 
far, occasioned by a drinking bout after a 
dinner, which followed the funeral of Miss 
Carnegie of Lour. The man by whose hand 
Lord Strathmore feU, was Carnegie of Fin- 
haven. His Countess lived after his death at 
Castle Lyon, and in 1745, married George 
Forbes, her groom. 

John, ninth Earl of Strathmore, nephew to 
the last mentioned peer, married in 1767, 
Mary Eleanor Bowes, heiress of the extensive 
and valuable property of Streatlam Castle, 
and Gibside, in the county of Durham. He 
died in 1776, and the Countess, two years 
after, married Andrew Robinson Stoney ; a 
union little less miserable and unfortunate than 



28 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



that of her beautiful predecessor in the former 
generation. The female alliances of this 
family have been strangely eventful. An 
intrigue with a princess first raised it from 
obscurity. Its existence, as a ereat family, 
was put in jeopardy by the witcncraft of one 
dowager, who perished at the stake. And in 
its later generations, two other dowagers have 
through their unfortunate adventures, become 
the by-words of their time. The present 
propnetor of Glamis Castle is the twelfth Earl 
of otrathmore, who succeeded his grandfather 
in 1846. 

In conclusion, we recommend any one who 
desires to see the beau-ideal of a grand old 
Scottish castle, to visit Glamis. Its square 
towers, round towers, breastwork of stone, and 
numerous turrets, form a most imposinff, pic- 
turesque, and loflv centre, while Inigo Jones' 
wings are so contrived as to harmonize with the 
older building. It is moreover surrounded by 
a lordly domain, and is altogether a most 
worthy specimen of mansions of its class. 
The many historical associations which it has 
been our endeavour to recal, as connected 
with the place, will it is hoped add to the 
interest which its venerable and noble a^peai^ 
ance, even independent of them, would be sure 
to excite in the lover of the domestic archse- 
ology of his country. 

BEHTWQBTH HALL, Hampshire, the seat 
of J. Robert Ives, Esq., High-Sherilf, 1854. 

This estate was in the family of the Fitc- 
herberts for upwards of a century. The man- 
sion was erected in 1 830 hj R. Horman Fisher, 
Esq., and was purchased, m 1 848, by its nresent 
owner, who has recently added a considerable 
wing to the west of the main building. Such 
a specimen of black flint-work is rarely to be 
seen, every flint being cubed. The coping is of 
Portland stone ; and the mansion is entered by 
aporch of considerable architectural beauty. 
The gardens and pleasure-grounds enclose 
about six acres, and the park extends to about 
one hundred and fifty. The entrance lodge, 
about half a mile from the house, is very 
pretty, and is built in exactly the same 
style. 

XOBKHUT GASXIS, near Dunkeld, in the 
CO. of Perth, the seat of Sir William Drum- 
mond Stewart, Baronet, of Grandtully. 

Murthley is situated on the banks of the 
river Tay, four miles from Dunkeld. Towards 
the east, the view extends above twenty miles, 
o\ . : a rich champaign country, and on the 
west and north rise the Grampian Mountains. 
From different points of the ground are to be 
seen magnificent views of the Tay, winding 
majestically round the richly-wooded emi- 
nence on which the house stands. An ancient 
avenue of lime-trees leads to the lawn before 
the mansion. The house is large, very old, 



and extremely irr^^ar. One of the towen 
was erected upwar£ of 600 years ago. The 
character of the whole building is of a quaint 
and curious antiquity, reaching back beyond 
the period of the Scottish chateau derived frovn 
the French. There are, it is true, both 
gable-ends and turrets, but these are 
combined with masses of more ancient 
building. Adjoining the house is a very old 
garden, formal and correctly laid out, in 
strict correspondence with the character of 
the place. 

Aoout twenty years since, the late Baronet 
built, by the side of the former house, a moet 
magnificent mansion, in the eariy Fjiglish 
sty&, of great sice and much architectural 
beautv ; but of this the walls alone have been 
completed ; audit has remained in its present 
unfinished state for about fifteen years. If it 
be ever finished, it will be one of the finest 
mansions in this part of Scotland. The pre- 
sent baronet has made some additions to the 
ancient house, in great good taste ; particu- 
larly a dining-hall, whicn is a noble room, 
and* is beautinilly fitted up. Between the 
house and the river, on a rising ground, em- 
bowered among dark fir-trees, stood formeriy 
a Roman Catholic Chapel, which had fallen 
to decay, and had been converted into a 
family burying-place. Su- William D. Stewart, 
who some years ago conformed to the Church 
of Rome, has rebuilt this ancient chapel with 
great magnificence. It is a fine specimen of 
a place of worship, in the Byzantine style. 
It has cost a considerable outlay, and has 
been effected with much good taste. At- 
tached to it is the family mausoleum ; and oo 
the day of its consecration, the funeral rites 
were perfonned for the Rev. Thomas Stewart, 
Sir William's brother, a well-known and 
respected priest of the Church of Rome, who 
resided for many yean in Italy, and was there 
assassinated 

The family of Stewart of Grandtully is of 
great antiquity, and no less illustration. Its 
ancestor was Sir James Stewart, son of Sir 
John Stewart, of Bonkill, who fell at the 
battle of Falkirk, in 1298 ; and who was son of 
Alexander, sixth Lord High Steward of 
Scotland. Sir James Stewart's direct de- 
scendant, Alexander, obtained a grant of the 
lands of Grandtully in 1414, in the reign of 
James I., King of Scotland. His descendant 
was Sir William Stewart of Grandtully, 
Gentleman of the Bedchamber to King James 
VI. This eentleman purchased the estate of 
Murthley about two hundred and fifty years 
ago. His younger son, Henry Stewart, had 
a son, Thomas, who was proprietor of Bal- 
caskie, in Fife, now the seat of Sir Ralph 
Anstruther, Bart. He was a Lord of Ses- 
sion, and was created a Baronet by King 
Charles XL, in 1683. He marned the 
daughter of George, Earl of Cromarty. His 



SEATS OF ORBAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



29 



eldest 8on, Sir George, second Bart., inherited, 
the Grandtully and Murthley estates on the 
death of hia cousin, and dying without issue, 
he was succeeded hy his hrother, Sir John 
Stewart, third Bart. This gentleman married, 
I.,£lizabeth Mackenzie, daughter of Lord Roy- 
ston, by whom he had a son, John, afterwards 
Sir John; II., Lady Jane Douglas, sister 
of the duke of Douglas, by whom he had a son, 
Archibald, who inherited the immense Doug* 
las estates, and was created Baron Douglas, 
of Douglas; III., Helen, daughter of 
Alexander, fourth Lord Elibank. Sir John, 
the fourth baronet, had a son, Sir George, the 
fifth Baronet, who married Catherine, daughter 
of John Drummond of Logic Almond, a cadet 
of the Earls of Perth, and heiress to her 
brother. Sir William Drummond, long ambas- 
sador at Naples. His eldest son. Sir John 
Archibald, had no issue by his wife. Lady 
Jane Stuart, daughter of the Earl of Moray, 
and dying 1838, was succeeded by the pre- 
sent and seventh baronet. Besides Murtluey, 
Sir William Drummond Stewart possesses 
Grandtully, a very curious and ancient man- 
sion, also in the county of Perth. 

In the grounds, and not far from the house 
of Murthley, are two low hills, called tronachs, 
said to be the buryine-place of the Picts and 
Scots, in the last batue fought between them. 

CASTLE MEHZISS, in the> co. of Perth, the 
seat of Sir Robert Menzies, Baronet. 

This is a building of very considerable 
antiquity, having been commenced in 1571 
by Sir John Menzies, and completed in 1578. 
It is a fine specimen of an ancient Scottish 
castle. Some of the rooms are of great 
size — the dining-hall is forty-five feet in 
length. The late Baronet made great addi- 
tions and improvements in the style of the 
original builmng, which was a spacious and 
imposing old mansion, and a fit residence for 
a great Highland chief. The castle stands 
250 feet above the level of the sea ; and the 
rock which rises immediately behind, is 1,100 
feet. The appearance of this ancient castle 
accords extremely well with the rich and 
romantic scenery by which it u surrounded. 
It is placed at the foot of the northern side of 
Strathtay, and b under a beautiful bank, 
covered with well-grown timber. The house 
is of considerable magnitude, having a 
widely extended plain in front, exhibiting 
high agricultural unprovement. The dark 
Woods rising boldly above, and reaching to 
the summit of the hill, and the grey rocks 
peeping between, are exquisite embellish- 
ments to the beautiful vale. The lawn near 
the castle is adorned by many trees of the 
largest dimensions, particularly three very 
fine planes. There are also large chesnuts 
and pines, and a noble avenue of oaks, a 
mile m length. The family motto, " Will 



God 1 shall," and the date, 1571, are carved 
on the front of the castie. The family of 
Menzies is of very high antiquity and noble 
origin. They are said to be descended from 
a common ancestor with the house of Man- 
ners. They have been long established in 
Scotland; and have spread into several 
branches, of all of whom Sir Robert is the 
chief. Though of Norman origin, the Men- 
zies are a Highland clan, having been settled 
in Athol from a very early period. In 1487, 
Sir Robert Menzies had hia estates created 
into a free barony. In 1665, Sir Alexander 
Menzies was created a baronet. The late 
Sir Neil Menzies, Bart., married, in 1816, the 
Hon. Grace Norton, sister of the present Lord 
Grantiey, by whom he had Sir Kobert, who 
in 1844, succeeded him as seventh Baronet of 
Menzies, and hereditary chief of his ancient 
clan. The Menzies' tartan is white, with a 
broad scarlet check. 

BOBTELLUr, Ireland, in the co. of Cork, 
the seat of the Marquess of Thomond. 

The Marquess is descended from the royal 
house of Thomond, a race of kings that num- 
ber amongst them the celebrated Brian 
Boroihme, who commenced his reign a.d. 
1002, and terminated it in the arms of victory, 
at Clontarfi*e, in the year 1014. 

Murrough O'Bryan appears to have been 
the first of his race who surrendered his regal 
claims, and accepted an English peerage. He 
was created Earl of Thomond by Henry VIII. 
on the 1st of July, 1543, with remainder to 
his nephew, Donough O'Bryan. 

In all the works on peerage, the name is 
omitted of Connor O'Brien, who was third 
Earl of Thomond, in 1572. It is cerUin, 
however, that such a person existed, and had 
fallen much from his ancestral dignity, as 
appears from the following contrite and sub- 
missive letter, from an individual of that name 
to Queen Elizabeth : — " I, the said Earl, moo&t 

freved and repentant from the bottom of my 
arte for my transgression, moost beseech my 
said Soveraigne to accept and allow this, my 
moost humble, trewe, and undoubted deter^ 
m3macon, as condigne amends for my trans- 
gression, which is, that during my life natural! 
(for my will, power, and habilitie), I will ob- 
serve and accomplishe all and singular the 
contents of the articles ensuing, and for testi- 
fyinge thereof have reade and taken a corporall 
oath upon the holie and blessed bible : That I 
shall be and continue duringe my naturall life, 
her highness, her heirs, and successors, moost 
humble, trewe, and faithful obedient subjecte. 
Item, that I shadl not make warre upon any sub- 
jecte, nor make peace, nor grant salfe conduct 
with, or to any rebell or malefactor, without 
licence. Item, that I shall not exact any taxes, 
tolladge, or thinge of any subjecte, contrary 
the goode-wlU of the gever or paior. Item, that 






30 



SEATS OF QBEAT BBTTAIM AND IBELAND. 



I shall permit and suffer all and everie her 
Majestie's trewe and faithful subjects quyetlye 
to pass and repass throughe Thomond. Item, 
that I shall not marye, gossope, nor fostre 
contrarie the statute without lycens. Item, 
that I shall advance and further, from tyme to 
tyme, by all ways and means possible for my 
riches and power, the contents of the commu- 
nion booke, called the Booke of Common 
Prayer, and admynestracon of the Sacra- 
ments, and likewise the injunctions set forth 
by her Higness. — Connor Thomond. — 27th 
Sept. 1572." 

The power of Elizabeth, and the arbitraiy 
way in which she wielded it, may be esti- 
mated from this letter. Yet the Queen is not 
altogether to be condemned. Though some 
of these provisions refer to the enactments of 
the statute of Kilkenny, which were passed in 
the time of Lionel, DCike of Clarence, Lord 
Deputy to his father. King Edward III., and 
which cannot be too much condemned ; still the 
state of Ireland was such, at this time, as to 
require the strong hand of government, even 
for its own welfare. The Irish chieftains 
claimed, like the German nobles up to the 
reign of Maximilian, the right of making war 
upon each other, and of plundering any one 
who was richer; and at the same time weaker, 
than themselves. Nor were the Anglo- 
Norman families, settled in Ireland, a whit 
behind them in this respect ; so that, in fact, 
the best, if not the only friend of the humbler 
classes, was the monarch. 

The Earl of Thomond was elevated to 
a Marquisate in the year 1800; and the title 
of Baron of the United Kingdom was added 
in 182G. 

Rostellan Castle is a* spacious edifice, at the 
eastern extremity of Cork harbour, and close 
upon the sea. Around and about stretch the 
receding shores, locking in the beautiful bay 
of Cove from the wide Atlantic. The bay, 
however, is at all times alive with vessels of 
every description, from the war-ship to the 
steam-packet, presenting a cosmorama of 
perpetually changing interest. 

The mansion, which commands a fine view 
of Spike Island and Hawlbowline, abounds in 
well-proportioned rooms, of good dimensions ; 
and those not few in number. At one time 
the great hall was adorned with a variety of 
weapons — spears, swords, shields, and pieces 
of armour — amongst which was to be seen the 
helmet of the celebrated Brian Boroihme, in 
whose reign the whole country was reduced 
lo such excellent order that a lady under- 
took, and achieved unharmed, the somewhat 
perilous task of making a pilgrimage, alone 
and unprotected, through the land; and 
achievea it too, although loaded with preciooi 
jewels, and — 



•* Ilrr bCAQtr wi 
TlMSporkUaff 



tu bsfoad 



r-wklttwiBd.** 



Here, also, not many yean ago, was a 
splendid collection of paintings; but tbey 
have since been removed to England, with 
sundry other objects of interest, 

The grounds are extensive and well-ar- 
ranged ; the waters of Rostellan Bay skirting 
them for a distance of about two imles. Cloae 
to the sea is a tower, said to have been erected 
to commemorate a visit to this seat by the 
celebrated Siddons. A little further on is a 
holy well, much venerated by the lower 
classes, who, despite the prohibitions of the 
Catholic clergy, still pay their orisons at this 
favourite shrme ; the force of long-established 
habit being stronger than any precept. 

An ancient castle, which formeriy stood 
here, and of which some traces yet remain, 
underwent the usual fortunes of war diuisff 
the memorable years following 1641. It feU 
into the hands of Lord IncUquin; but, in 
1645, was besieged by Lord Castlehaven, who 
took Lord Inchiquin*s brother and Colonel 
Courtenay prisoners. 



BIAIB ADAX, in the co. of KinroM, the 
seat of William Adam, Esq. 

This is the principal gentleman's seat in 
the county of Kinross ; and is celebrated in 
that district for its beautiful woods, and the 
success which has attended the arbori- 
culture of several generations of enterprising 
proprietors. 

The late Right Hon. Wm. Adam, the pre- 
sent Mr. Adam's grandfather, had written m 
most interesting account of this property, and 
its various productions ; and he described the 
pains which he and his father had bestowed 
upon its improvement. This, however, though 
many years ago printed for private circulation, 
was never published. 

The plantations which have now grown to 
be fine woods, were commenced by his grand- 
father, previous to 1738; and were much 
increased by his father and himself, until the 
whole estate has become beautifully wooded, 
though in most places about 550 above the 
level of the sea. The woods consist of very 
fine trees-— all sorts of pines, oaks, ashes, 
beeches, and elms. The grounds are beauti- 
fully varied with meadows, little hills, and 
rocky eminences ; and are intersected by pic- 
turesque glens and valleys. 

The ornamental woods in the vicinity of the 
mansion-house, are of the greatest beauty, and 
contain fine specimens of the rarest trees. 
The shrubberies and gardens are extenttve, and 
are most tastefully combined with the forest 
scenery. The house is very irregular, having 
been begun about a hundred years ago, as a 
mere temporary residence for the then pro- 
prietor, during occasional short visits, when he 
commenced nis great improvements on the 
property. 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



31 



As the fitmilj became more and more 
attached to the place, the house was gradually 
enlarged, so that it is now of very commodious 
size, and occupies a considerable space of sur- 
face, some portions of it being only one story 
high — convenience has been studied, and not 
beauty. Yet the long ranges of building em- 
bowered amid venerable trees, and surrounded 
on all sides by beautiful pleasure-grounds, pro- 
duced a most pleasing effect. 

Blair-Adam has, during the last century, 
been regarded in the part of Scotland where 
it is situated, as an instance of high improve- 
ment, both in agriculture and arboriculture, 
carried on by successive public-spirited pro- 
prietors, in spite of considerable disadvantages 
of climate and soil. In making these improve- 
ments, picturesque effect has been consulted as 
well as utility ; so that Blair Adam now yields 
to few pUces in Scotland, in point of rural and 
woodland beauty. 

This estate was orig:inally purchased bv 
William Adam ; who, naving applied himself 
to the business of architecture, became so 
eminent in his profession, that he had no 
equal in the kmgdom; and he thereby 
acquired a large fortune ; and was enabled to 
purchase extensive estates. His father was 
John Adam, and his mother was Helen 
Cranston, a cousin of Lord Cranston, and 
William Adam was their only son. 

The family of Adam is of considerable 
antiquity, ana the ancestors of William Adam 
possessed landed estates in the county of For- 
lar. The immediate progenitor of this family 
was Sir Duncan Adam, who flourished in the 
reign of Alexander II., King of Scotland, 
who died 1210. He was witness to a donation 
of the patronage of the church of Wemyss, b^ 
a progenitor of the Earl of Wemyss. His 
suecesMir, Alexander Adam, lived in the reign 
of King Alexander III., and was father 
of Duncan Adam, who flourished in the reign 
of King Robert Bruce. He had a son Duncan 
Adam, who, with several other brave Scottish 
gentlemen, accompanied James Lord Douglas 
in the expedition wl^ph he undertook in order 
to convey the heart of King Robert Bruce to 
the Holy Sepulchre. It is believed that the 
cross croalets, which form the principal part of 
the annorial bearing of the Adam family, are 
derived from the part which their ancestor 
took in that expedition. Contemporary with 
this Duncan Adam, was Reginald Adam, 
probably his brother. Bishop of Brechin. He 
was one of the most influential men in Scot- 
land ; and waa frequently employed by the 
estates of the nation in foreign negotiations, 
during the troubled reien of King David 
Bnice ; in all of which ne acquitted himself 
ably and honourably. 

Duncan Adam was father of Reginald 
Adam, who, in the reign of King Robert II., 
took part in an expedition into Northumber- 



land, conducted by Sir James Douglas and 
John de Vienne, Admiral of France. His 
lineal descendant, John Adam, was killed at 
the battle of Flodden in 1513. He. had a 
son, Charles Adam, who, in 1549, was pro- 
prietor of the estate of Fanno, in the co. of 
Forfar. Fanno continued to be the desig- 
nation and residence of the family for four or 
five generations, until the reign of Charles I., 
when Archibald Adam of Fanno sold that 
property, and purchased King's manor, also 
in the CO. of Forfar. The son of his eldest 
son dissipated his fortune, sold the family 
estate, and died without issue. His second 
son, John, carried on the line. He married, 
as we have before stated, a lady of the family 
of Cranston, by whom he had an only child, 
William, who was literally the architect of 
his fortune. 

He purchased considerable landed pro- 
perty, among others the estate of Blair, to 
which has been added the family name of 
Adam, in order to distinguish it from other 
places of the name of Blair, which is a com« 
mon territorial designation in Scotland. 
William Adam married Mary Robertson, 
daughter of William Robertson of Gladney, 
a cadet of the ancient house of Robertson of 
Strowan. She was aunt to the celebrated 
Dr. William Robertson, principal of the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, author of the History 
of Charles V., &c., &c. By her he had 
several children: John, his heir; Robert, a 
most celebrated architect. He biult many of 
the greatest edifices of his time, among otners 
the Adelphi. He was architect to King 
George ill., a Fellow of the Royal Society, 
and in 1768, he was returned Member of 
Parliament for his native co. of Kinross. 
Susannah married John Clerk of Eldin, son 
of Sir John Clerk, Bart, of Pennycuick, by 
whom she had a son,*John Clerk, who was lone 
a most distinguished advocate at the Scottish 
bar, and was afterwards a Lord of Session, 
with the title of Lord Eldin. 

John Adam of Blair-Adam, the eldest son, 
in 1750, married Jean, daughter of John 
Ramsay, immediately descended from a 
Younger son of Ramsay, Baronet of Balmain, 
m the CO. of Forfar, whose ancestor, Ramsay 
of Balmain, was created Lord Bothwell in 
1483, b^ King James III.; but, in 1488, 
was attainted by his rebellious son. By her 
he had, with several daughters, one of whom 
married Mr. Loch, and another married Mr. 
Kennedy of Dunure, in the co. of Ayr ; he 
had a son, William, who succeeded his father 
in the estate of Blair-Adam, and was one of 
the most distinguished public characters in 
his time. He was called to the English 
bar ; and during a long life he filled high 
situations, and took a great lead in politics. 
He was the confidential fnend and legal ad- 
viser of King George IV., when he was 



1 



32 



BEATS OF 6BEAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



Prince of Wales. He was for many years 
Member of Parliament for the co. of Kinross. 
He was a Privy Councillor. He was made a 
Baron of Excnequer in Scotland, and Lord 
Chief Commissioner of the Jury Court, 
when that court was established. He was, 
until his death, Lord Lieutenant of the co. 
of Kinross. For many years before his death, 
he retired from public Hfe, and spent his old 
age at his seat of Blair-Adam. 

The Right Hon. William Adam married 
the Hon. £leanor Elphinstone, daughter of 
Charles, tenth Lord Elphinstone, by the 
Lady Clementina Fleming, daughter and 
heiress of John, sixth Earl of Wigton, by his 
marriage, in 1711, with Lady Mary Keith, 
sister and sole heiress to the last Earl Maris- 
chal and to Field-Marshal Keith. Mrs. 
Adam's brothers were the eleventh Lord 
Elphinstone and Admiral Viscount Keith, 
and her sister Clementina was married to 
James Drummond, Lord Perth, bv whom she 
had the present Baroness Willoughby de 
Eresby. The issue of this marriage was 
sevend sons and a daughter. One of tne sons 
was amost distinguished member of the English 
bar; another held very high situations in 
India, and during twelve months, had the 
important functions of Governor General of 
India entrusted to him. Both of these sons 
died without issue, during the lifetime of their 
father. The eldest surviving son, Charles, 
was a distinguished Admiral, K.C.B., Lord 
Lieutenant of the county of Kinross, and 
died Governor of Greenwich Hospital in 
1 853. He succeeded his father at Blair- Adam, 
and married Miss Brydone, daughter of 
Patiick Brydone, and sister of the Countess 
of Minto. By her he had issue : William 
Adam, the present proprietor of this estate. 
The next son, Frederick, had a very brilliant 
career in the army. He was a General, G.C.B., 
Privy Councillor, and filled the high ofiices of 
Governor of Madras, and Lord High Com- 
missioner of the Ionian Islands. He died in 
1853. The same grave may be said to have 
closed over those two distinguished brothers, 
as they died within three weeks of each 
other. The Bight Hon. William Adam's 
only daughter, Clementina, married John 
Anstruther Thomson of Charleton, in the co. 
of Fife, and was mother of the present Mr. 
Anstruther Thomson. 

FOBT ETfiE, Ireland, in the co. of Gal- 
way, about half a mile from the town of that 
name, the residence of the Rev. Edward 
Eyre Maunsell, A.M., and of his son Edward 
Evre Maimsell, Esq., J.P., present High 
Sheriff for Galway. 

This mansion was erected, in 1822, by the 
Rev. Edward Eyre Maunsell ; and is seated 
upon an eminence. It is a spacious and 
handsome edifice in the modem style of 



building. Attached to it is a square tower, 
about seventy-feet in height; an embattled 
screen thickly covered witn the giant-leaved 
ivy completely masks the offices. 

The aemesne of Fort Eyre, consisting of 
about thirty acres, is ornamentally laid out in 
pleasure-grounds, and well planted. The 
grounds occupy an elevated position, com- 
manding fine and extensive views of the town 
and bay of Galway, as well as of the river 
and lake Corril. 

STOCKOBOTS, Buckinghamshire, the seat 
of Lt. Col. Hanmer, K.H., late M.P. for Ayles- 
bury. 

The ancestors of Sir George Staunton, 
Bart., had lands here for many generations. 

This was originally a Roman villa, or a 
military station ; as appears from the tesselated 

Eavement, coins, and an antique seal, found 
ere at various times. The house erected in 
1795, by Edward Hanmer, Esq., (son of Sir 
Walden Hanmer, Bart.,) was pulled down in 
1834, and a new mansion was built in its 
place by the present owner. It is in the 
Italian style of architecture, firom the design 
and under the superintendence of Mr. Deci- 
mus Burton. A park of about a hundred 
acres surrounds tne house, which commands 
some extensive and very pleasing views. 
Col. Hanmer has of late greatly improved 
the property, by the purchase, from Lord 
Leign, of the Leighton estate and manor. 

LULWOBTH CASTLE, Dorsetshire, nearly 
twelve miles from We}rmouth, and about a 
mile and a half from the sea, the seat of 
Joseph Weld, Esq. 

There can be little doubt that a castle stood 
here in the old baronial times. In " Tyrrel's 
History of England," we are told that, Robert, 
Earl of Gloucester, took Lullwarde Castle for 
the Empress Maude. The present pile was 
erected oy Thomas, Viscount Bindon, in or 
near 1588 ; and, for the most part, out of the 
materials of Mount Poynings and Bindon. 
According to some, Inigo Jones was the archi- 
tect. As to its name, it^eems to be doubtful 
whether it was so called from having suc- 
ceeded the former edifice, or whether it de- 
rived its name from being built in that form. 
Be that as it may, the foundations of the 
castle, which was never designed for a strong- 
hold, were laid, as we have already stated, in 
the year 1588; but it was not completed, even 
externally, till 1609; and though we find 
Theophtlus, Earl of Norfolk, residing here in 
1665, still little of the inside work was finished 
when it came into the possession of Mr. Weld. 

Lulworth is an exact cube of eighty feet, 
with a round tower at each comer, thirty feet 
in diameter, rising sixteen feet above the 
walls, which, as well as the towers, are em- 
battled. The walls are no less than six feet 
thick; the offices are underground, and arched 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



33 



with stone. The hoiiae consisU of three 
stories only, while the towers have four. In 
each front are three rows of four windows ; in 
the towers are four rows of three each, exclu- 
sive of the office. Both the hall and dining- 
room are large, and most of the other rooms 
are eighteen feet in height, some of them con- 
taining family portraits by Sir Peter Lely. 
The principal front, which is faced with Chu- 
mark stone, is upon the east. Before it was 
a large court, now laid into the lawn conduct- 
ing to the landing-place with a stone balus- 
traide, which, in the late Edward Weld's time, 
extended only along the east front, and called 
" the Cloisters,'* from having been paved with 
the stone that was taken from the cloisters of 
Bindon Abbey. This has been continued by 
the present owner of the estate alon^ the 
north and south sides, at the end of which it 
joins a terrace to the west, of the same height 
with itself. Above the doors stand two 
figures of ancient Romans, in their togas. 
Upon either side of the door, which is sup- 
ported by four pillars of the Ionic order, is a 
large niche ; and over them are two shields, 
whereon are the arms of Weld, properly bla- 
zoned. In the niches are images, representa- 
tive of painting and music. 

During the Ureat Civil War, this castle was 
at one time garrisoned for the king ; but in 
the years 1643 and 1644, it was held by Capt 
Thomas Hughes for the Republican party, as a 
check upon Corfe Castle. When the garrison 
broke up, it would seem that they committed 
a great deal of unnecessary havoc, carrying 
on, or selling, the iron window-bars, the 
leaden water-pipes, and a great portion of the 
wainscot. 

Lulworth has often been the object of 
royal visits. In 1615, King James was en- 
tertained here, when he came, in his western 
proereas, to hunt in the park and the Isle of 
Purbeck; and, at the time of the Great 
Plague in London, in the year 1665, it was 
visited by Charles II., attended by the Dukes 
of York and Monmouth, who have left their 
names respectively to the apartments in which 
they slept. George III. was at Lulworth more 
than once. In 1789 he came bv sea, together 
with the Queen and the three elder Princesses, 
from Weymouth, and took up his abode here 
for several weeks. In 1791, the same party 
repeated their visit by land, when they passed 
many hoars in examining the house and lands. 
In J 792, their Majesties, accompanied by the 
Prince of Wales, five of the Princesses, and 
other members of the Royal Family, went again 
to Lulworth, in commemoration of which the 
then owners of the seat caused two Latin in- 
scriptions, upon oval stones, to be placed over 
the door of the principal front of the castle. 

A fraternity of Irappists, expelled from 
France in the days of^ the Revolution, was 
hospitably received here by the late proprie- 
tor, who was a Roman Catholic. This gen- 



tleman converted some extensive farm-build- 
ings into a monastery ; and here the brethren 
resided for many years. In 1786, the first 
stone was laid of the present chapel, which 
stands at a small distance from the castle, to 
the south-west. Beneath were placed coins 
of the reign, and a plate of brass, with this 
inscription : — 

*' Lapis sacer ausptcalis in fundamenta fu- 
turi templi Jactus, anno MDCCLXXXVL, 
IV. nonas Februarii, quod templum Thomas 
Weld, publice meo in solo primus omnium 
mitescente per Georgium tertium legum pe- 
nalium acerbitate, in honorem Virginis Bea- 
tissims Dei genetricis adgredior extruendum. 
Tu vero Deus optime maxime opus tantis 
auspicus inchoatum custodi, protege, fove, ac 
coniirma ut quaoua Britanniee patent religioni 
sanctae templa aacrescant templis cultores." 

This chapel is a circular shape, increased 
by four sections of a circle so as to form a 
cross, and is covered with a dome and lantern. 
In it are a well-toned organ, a copy of the 
Transfiguration, by Raphael, and two other 
Scriptural pieces, brought from Italy. 

On the 10th June, 1794, this chanel was 
broken into and robbed of its valuable com- 
munion plate and various other articles ; but 
they were found again, eight days afterwards, 
in a chalk-pit about half-a^mile off. 

Upon the death of Thomas Weld, Esq., the 
estate descended to his son Thomas, who, 
upon the decease of his wife, became a 
Catholic Clergyman — was soon after made a 
Bishop— and obtained eventually a Cardinal's 
Hat. His Eminence died in 1837, and was 
succeeded by his brother, the present Joseph 
Weld, Esq., of Lulworth. At one time tne 
castle was inhabited by Mr. Baring, who 
was drowned by the upsetting of a boat near 
the coast, and within sight of his family. At 
a later period it was occupied by Sir Robert 
Peel, and afterwards by his Royal Highness 
the Duke of Gloucester. 

The neighbouring village of West Lulworth, 
or, as it is commonly called, Lulworth Cove, 
is remarkable for the romantic appearance of 
the rocks, which are worn into various fan- 
tastic shapes. The remains of Bindon Abbey, 
hitherto so roughly treated, are now, by the 
good taste of the owner, preserved from any 
further spoliation. Trees have been planted 
about the ruins, the fish-ponds cleared out and 
stocked with fish, and the extent and plan of 
the Abbey may now be clearly traced. 

CAWDOR CASTLE, in the co. of Naime, the 
seat of the Earl of Cawdor. 

This is supposed to be the oldest habitable 
mansion in Scotland, and its locality possesses 
peculiar interest, as being connected with one 
of the most stirring events of ancient Scottish 
history. Th^ situation of Cawdor Castie — six 
miles from the town of Naime — ^is extremsl 
romantic, as it stands on a height overlook 

F 



40 



8£AT8 OF GREAT UKITAIN AND IKBLANU. 



a son of the Baronet of Menziet. She was 
created Baroness Abercromby of Aboukir. 
Sir Ralph Abercromby was the father of 
George, Lord Abercromby, who succeeded 
his mother in the peerage ; and of James 
Abercromby, who was Lord Chief Baron of 
Exchequer in Scotland, then during several 
parliaments Speaker in the House of Com- 
mons, and was subsequently raised to the 
peerage, with the title of Lord Dunfermline. 
George, Lord Abercromby, married the daugh- 
ter of the presient Viscount Melville, by whom 
he had issue Georee, 2d Lord, who succeeded 
in 1837, and died in 1852, leaving his son 
George Ralph, present and 3d Lord Aber- 
crombie, and proprietor of Airtlircy and Tulli- 
body, a minor. Tne two last Lords were Lords 
Lieutenant of the County of Clackmannan. 

SIBGEWAT, South Wales, in the co. of 
Pembroke, near the flourishing market-town 
of Narberth, the seat of Mrs. Emily Foley, 
widow of the late John Herbert Foley, Esq., 
and only daughter of Abraham Chambers, 
Esq., of Woodstock, Kent. This estate has 
been held by the family of Foley for many 
centuries— certainly as far back as 1383, and 
it seems probable enough, that their possession 
dates from a yet earlier period. Be this as it 
may, in the year just named, John Foley, 
constable of Llawhaden, and Ellen, his wife, 

fot a grant of lands in Lettardiston (or 
letterston), from Adam Hoton, Bishop of 
St. David's, which charier, with others, is yet 
extant at Ridgeway, dated 8th of June, 1383. 
In the time of the great Civil War, another 
of this family was again constable of Llawha- 
den Castle, where he was besieged by Crom- 
well in person. He had the mufortune to be 
killed; and the castle, though strong, and 
standing upon an elevated ground, about three 
miles from Narberth, was soon afterwards 
surrendered A story is told of his widow 
and two sons having, upon the fall of the 
place, been brought before Cromwell, who 
patted them familiarly on the head, promising, 
that if they continued good, no harm should 
happen to them. He did not, however, the 
less confiscate a considerable portion of their 
lands, which he bestowed on Colonel Skyrme, 
whose descendants still possess them. 

The date of the original house at Ridgeway 
is unknown. It stood at some distance from 
the present mansion, which was built in the 
eighteenth century, by John Foley of Ridge- 
way, Esq., and is a plain, but comfortable 
mansion, standing on nigh ground, and com- 
manding an extensiveprospecU 

Vice-Admiral Sir Tnomas Foley, G.C.B., 
vounger brother of the late John Herbert 
Foley, Esq., of Ridgeway, highly distinguished 
himself at St. Vincent, and the battle of the 
Nile, for which services he received two 
medals, bearing respectively the words St. 
Vimeemi and Am, in letten of gold. 



ABDNABOLB, in the north of Ireland, near 
Newtownlimavady, co. of Londonderry, the 
seat of Robert Leslie Ogilby, E^. 

This property has been for some time pos- 
sessed by the Ogilbys; the present owner 
having inherited it, in the year 1849, upon the 
death of his brother, James Ogilby, Esq. The 
house, built about the year 1780 by the late 
John Ogilby, Esq., was originally a plain, 
substantial mansion without any particular 
architectural ornament ; but it has been greatly 
improved and enlarged by the gentleman now 
possessing it, and these alterations are still in 
progress. It is beautifully situated upon a 
rising ground, on the west bank of the river 
Roe, one mile north of Newtownlimavady. 
The grounds contain about sixty acre», and are 
laid out with much taste, and regard to the 
natural advantages of the locality. There 
are some fine old trees to be seen here, but 
principally ash and beech, for which the soil 
appears to be well adapted. 

HZWTON, in the co. of Lanark, the seat of 
J. B. H. Montgomery, Eso. 

This estate anciently belonged to Hamilton 
of Newton, a younger branch of the Duke of 
Hamilton's family; now represented by the 
Rev. John Hamilton Gray, of Camtyne. It 
was an original possession of the house of 
Douglas, and was, about the year 1500, 
brought, as the dowry of a daughter of that 
family, to her husband, James Hamilton <^ 
Silverton Hill. He was the son of Alexander 
Hamilton of Silverton Hill, next brother of 
James, Lord Hamilton, and second son of Sir 
James Hamilton, fifth Lord of Cadxow, by 
Janet, daughter of Sir Alexander Livingstone, 
of Callander. Hamilton of Silverton Hill is 
the nearest branch to the ducal house after the 
Marquis of Abercom, and comes before any 
of the numerous families of Hamilton iu 
Scotland. 

James Hamilton and the heires of Newton 
of the House of Douglas had a son and heir, 
John Hamilton of r^ewton and Silverton 
Hill. He made Newton his principal designa- 
tion. He married a daughter of sir John So- 
merville, Baron of Camnethan. He died in 
1535, and was ancestor of the family of Sil- 
verton Hill, Newton, and GosUngton, His 
f^reat^grandson, Sir Andrew Hamilton of Gos- 
ington, was a most faithful friend to Quera 
Mary, who conferred on him the honour of 
knighthood. He supported the royal cause 
at the battle of Langside, for which he was 
forfeited ; but his extensive estates were re- 
stored to him by the treaty of Perth in 1572. 
He died in 1592, and was succeeded by hb 
son, Sir Robert Hamilton of Goslington. He 
married Elizabeth, daughter and sole hetrrsa 
of Sir William Baillie, of Provan, Lord Pro- 
vident of the Court of Session, who brought a 
great accession to hb estate. He die<l in 
1592, and had a numerous family. Hb eldest 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



35 



MacAlpin. The law of succession in the old 
Scoto-rictish monarchy was not from father 
to son ; but the eldest and most capable prince 
of the royal race was selected to reign. This 
method of selection necessarily gave oc- 
casion to many disorders. King Malcolm I. 
had two sons, Dufius the eldest, and Kenneth 
tlie III., the youngest, who both reigned. 
Dufiiis had a son, Kenneth the IV., who 
reigned from 995 to 1003, when he was slain 
by Malcolm, the second son of Kenneth III. 
Thia prince reigned for thirty years, and his 
sole aim was to consolidate his power by the 
destruction of every rival. He persecuted 
with relentless fury the family of his prede- 
cessor, which was at length reduced to a bro- 
ther and sister, grandcnildren of the late 
king. One of the last acts of Malcolm's life 
was to put thiB prince to death ; and he had 
heaped the most deadly injuries upon the 
Princess Gruach, whom tier brother's murder 
left sole heiress of the race, by shedding the 
blood of her husband and father-in-law in the 
most barbarous manner. 

Gruach had married Gilcomgan, the Maor- 
mer or prince of Moray, son of the aged and 
noble Maolbride. The people of Moray and 
Ron belonged to the nation of the Northern 
Picts, who had never been thoroughly sub- 
dued by the Scots, and can scarcely be said 
to have fonned a portion of the Scoto-Pictish 
monarchy, as established by Kenneth Mac- 
Alpin. The Maormers, or princes of the 
Northern Picts, were often at war with their 
Southern aggressors. Malcolm I. had to wage 
war against the Picts of Moray under their 
prince, Cellach, whom he slew ; but he him- 
self was afterwards slain by them in 953, at 
Fetteresso, to avenge their leader's death. 
HtB son, Kenneth Hi., was, in like manner, 
frequently at war with the Northern Picts ; 
and havmg slain one of their chiefs, was 
awaiainaten by that chiefs mother, Finella, 
to avenge ker son's death. She decoyed the 
king into her castle of Fettercaim, where she 
had prepared an infernal machine to destroy 
him. Sne led him to a pavilion in order to 
tee a beautiful statue. On entering, Kenneth 
beheld the image of a cross-bowman, set on 
^rings, so constructed that it shot an arrow 
into the king's heart as he crossed the 
threshold. This happened in 994. Many 
historians say that Finella was mother of 
Macbeth ; however, the dates will hardly suit. 
She must have been his grandmother. 

Malcolm II., the son of Kenneth III., was 
no less determined to oppress the hated race 
of Moray, than to extirpate the elder branch 
of his own line. And it so happened that the 
interests of these, his most powerful rivals, 
were identified by the union of Gilcomgan, 
the young heir of Moray, with the Princess 
Gruach. In 1032, the year before the death 
of the hoary tyrant, he burnt the Maonner of 



Moray, the aged Maolbride, with his son Gil- 
comgan, and iifty of their chief followers, 
withm their castle. Gruach, in despair, fled 
with her young son Lulach, at once heir of 
the house of Moray and of the elder line of 
Scoto-Pictish kings, to the province of Ross, 
where Macbeth reigned, who was son of 
Finlegh, brother of Maolbride, and thus the 
nearest agnate of the house of Moray. He 
married Gruach, and adopted her son ; and, as 
a matter of course, he being the nearest heir 
male, succeeded to the Maonnership of Moray, 
which he added to his own province of Ross. 

Macbeth thus united in himself all the 
power of the great house of Moray, and all 
the influence of the royalty of Kenneth IV. ; 
while his wife, a lady of great strength of 
character, had the most terrible injuries con- 
stantly rankling at her heart — a grandfather 
dethroned and slain, a father persecuted to 
death, a brother assassinated, a husband and 
father-in-law burnt. All these incitements 
urged her to avenge herself upon Malcolm II. 
But he was now dead in his bed, and his 
grandson had mounted the throne, whom she 
doubtless regarded as a usurper ; for, in truth, 
her own son was better entitled to the crown. 

Malcolm II. had two daughters, Beatrix and 
Dovada. The latter was wife of the famous 
Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, whose descendants, 
the Earls of the house of St. Clair and their 
representatives (the family of Anstruther 
Thomson of Charleton, co. Fife), are coheirs 
along with the representatives of King Duncan, 
of the ancient race of Scoto-Pictish Kings ; 
while the former was wife of Crinan, the 
Abbot of Dunkeld, who appears to have been 
one of the most influential men in the Scoto- 
Pictish kingdom, and united great wealth 
with a high position in the Church. He was, 
in fact. Metropolitan of Scotland. Duncan, 
the son of Crinan and Beatrix, was placed 
upon the throne by the partisans of his family. 
But it is not surprising that he was resisted to 
the utmost by Macbeth and his injured wife. 
The history of that early time is obscure. Some 
maintain that Duncan was slain in battle; 
while others assert tliat he was murdered by 
Macbeth, in his castle of Inverness, Forres, 
or Cawdor. However this may be, enough has 
been said to place Macbeth and his Queen 
in a different light from that in which Shaks- 
peare has handed them down to us. Instead 
of being a mere envious, ambitious woman, 
Gruach was the impersonation of Nemesis, 
who had accumulated injuries and crimes to 
avenge upon the race of the guilty oppressor. 
Macbeth reigned with great renown and po- 
pularity during seventeen years, and there is 
every reason to believe that Cawdot was his 
occasional residence. After his defeat at 
Dunsinane, he fled to the north, and main- 
tained his cause for (ome time among his own 
Northern Picts ; but he was at last slain by 



34 



SEATS OF aUE.VT BRITAIN AND IBKLAND. 



the r'ver Calder, and commands a wide tract 
of woodland country, bounded on the north 
by the Moray Firth. No mansion has the 
stamp of hoary antiquity more clearly im- 
pressed upon it. Its architecture is rude and 
simplei but strong and substantial ; a portion 
of it, which is without date, shows the traces 
of very great age. The most modem part 
bears the inscription A.D. 1510. It has a 
moat and drawbridge, and has evidently 
been, in early times, a place of great impor- 
tance. 

Its origin is involved in mystery ; and con- 
nected with it is a strange legend, for the 
truth of which a substantial witness still re- 
mains. Tradition says that the builder of 
Cawdor Castle was desired by a seer to load 
an ass with the gold which he proposed to 
expend on the work — to follow wnere the ass 
should lead — and to commence the edifice 
wherever the ass should stop. The spot where 
the animal stopped was at a nawthom tree in a 
remote part of t tie forest, and close to the banks 
of the Calder river. Here,- accordingly, were 
the foundations of the castle laid ; and in order 
to make sure of whatever mysterious advan- 
tage the hawthorn might possess, it was care- 
fully built into the central chamber of the 
lower story of the castle. There it still 
stands, with its roots in the earth, and its stem 
rising through the flooring, and now worn 
away, to be as a slender wooden pillar in the 
midst of the antique apartment. It is regarded 
as the Palladium of the family. Beside it 
stands the coffer which is said to have con- 
tained the gold upon the ass's back. 

Cawdor is, with greater probability than 
Glamis, claimed as the scene of the murder of 
Duncan by Macbeth. It is situated in Mac- 
beth's own country, as he was the governor of 
Moray and Ross. And though it is highly 
improbable that any portion of the present 
bwlding existed in the time of Duncan, the 
tragedy may have taken place in an older 
mansion on the same site. However, Forres 
and Inverness are rival claimants for the 
honour of the assassination. 

At the western extremity of the town of 
Forres, there is an eminence commanding the 
river, the level country to the coast of Moray, 
and the town. On this strong ^ite stood the 
ruins of an ancient castle, the walls of which 
are very ma^jiive, and the architecture early 
Nonnan. Before this castle was built, there 
stood a fort where a still earlier Scnttiith king, 
Dufius, was murdered in 9G5. This was pro- 
bably a residence of Duncan, and afterwards 
of Macbeth. Boece tells us that Macbeth '■ 
castle, in which Duncan was murdered, was 
that which stood on an eminence to the south- 
east of the town of Inverness. It is certain 
that a castle which stood there was razed to 
the gnnind by Kin^ Malcolm Canmore, the 
fti»n of Duncan, who c<>nstnicte<l another on a 
diUcreul part of the lull. It is, however, very 



doubtful if any buildings now exist which am 
be said to belong to this ancient period, except 
the Roman remains, which are of course many 
centuries older, and the vitrified forts, whicti 
are of unknown antiquity. These vitrified 
forts are supposed by some to have been 
burnt into their present fused and solid con- 
sistency, on purpose to render them hard and 
impregnable ; wnile others suppose that they 
were anciently watch-towers, of which the 
beacon-fires gradually vitrified the stonet. 

Admitting, as we do, the venerable anti- 
quity of Cawdor, we do not believe that the 
halls now existing can have witneased the 
train of Duncan mingling in revel with the 
household of Macbeth, or the revengeful 
Maormer, excited by the keen sense of demdir 
injury, stealing, dagger in hand, to the eoueh 
of his victim. However, supposing, as is very 
probable, that this murder dia take place in tt 
castle at Cawdor, of still earlier date than the 
present, the abode might well answer Shak- 
speare's description of being "a pleasant 
seat." The castle stands high over the river« 
which runs past the mound at its baae, and 
commands a fine new of the surrounding low- 
lands to the sea, and the distant mountains. 
It may well be imagined, that, as the locality 
of Cawdor possesses so good a claim to Dun* 
can's murder, and as the castle is of such un- 
questioned high antiquity, tradition has been 
confident in pointing out the most minute par- 
ticulars of tne transaction. Accordingly, m 
portion of Duncan's coat-of-mail is shown 
nere, and also the chamber in which he was 
murdered; with the recess cut out of the 
thickness of the wall, in which the King's 
servant hid himself during the perpetration of 
the act 

The researciirs of more modem times have 
thrown some d<>nht upon the fact of Duncan's 
murder ; and. nitogether, both Macbeth and 
his queen are likely to be better appreciated 
by our posterity, than they have neen, at 
least since Shakspeare's tragedy was pub- 
lished. If Duncan was slain, as some suppose, 
in battle, Macbeth's character will be relieved 
of all stain; for he was, in right of hb 
wife, better entitled to the Scottish crown 
than Duncan ; and he himself was the head of 
a great rival family, and ruled over a province 
which had never fully submitted to the yoke 
of the Scottish monarchs. The power of 
Macbeth extended over a large portion of the 
countr}' inhabited by the Northern Picta, who 
were not included in the conquest which 
Kenneth MacAIpin, King of the Sco(ji« 
achieved over the Southern Picts, and who 
always maintained a stormy independence, 
never acknowledging the rights of Uie Scoto> 
Pictish kings of the race of Alpin and Ken- 
neth. Thus was Macbeth little beholden to 
Dimcan, and still le^s was his wife, the Prin- 
cess Ciruach, who was the only surviving heir 
of the elder branch of the line of Kenneth 



SEATS UF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



35 



MacAlpin. The law of succession in the old 
Scoto-rictish monarchy was not from father 
to son ; but the eldest and most capable prince 
of the royal race was selected to reign. This 
method of selection necessarily gave oc- 
casion to many disorders. King Malcolm I. 
had two sons, Duffus the eldest, and Kenneth 
the III., the youngest, who both reigned. 
Duffus had a son, Kenneth the IV., who 
reigned from 995 to 1003, when he was slain 
by Malcolm, the second son of Kenneth III. 
This prince reigned for thirty years, and his 
sole ami was to consolidate his power by the 
destruction of every rival. He persecuted 
with relentless ftiry the family of his prede- 
cessor, which was at length reduced to a bro- 
ther and sister, grandchildren of the late 
king. One of the last acts of Malcolm's life 
was to put this prince to death ; and he had 
heaped the most deadly injuries upon the 
Princess Gruach, whom her brother's murder 
left sole heiress of the race, by shedding the 
blood of her husband and father-in-law in the 
most barbarous manner. 

Gruach had married Gilcomj^an, the Maor- 
roer or prince of Moray, son of the aged and 
noble Maolbride. The people of Moray and 
Ross belonged to the nation of the Northern 
Picts, who had never been thoroughly sub- 
dued by the Scots, snd can scarcely be said 
to have fonned a portion of the Scoto-Pictish 
monarchy, as established by Kenneth Mac- 
Alpin. The Maormers, or princes of the 
Northern Picts, were often at war with their 
Southern aggressors. Malcolm I. had to wage 
war against the Picts of Moray under their 
prince, Cellach, whom he slew ; but he him- 
self was afterwards slain by them in 953, at 
Fetteresso, to avenge their leader's death. 
His son, Kenneth Hi., was, in like manner, 
frequently at war with the Northern Picts ; 
and havmg slain one of their chiefs, was 
assassinated by that chiefs mother, Finella, 
to avenge ker son's death. She decoyed the 
king into her castle of Fettercairn, where she 
had preoared an infernal machine to destroy 
him. one led him to a pavilion in order to 
see a beautiful statue. On entering, Kenneth 
beheld the image of a cross-bowman, set on 
springs, so constructed that it shot an arrow 
into the king's heart as he crossed the 
threshold. This happened in 994. Many 
historians say that Finella was mother of 
Macbeth ; however, the dates will hardly suit. 
She must have been his grandmother. 

Malcolm II., the son of Kenneth III., was 
DO less determined to oppress the hated race 
of Moray, than to extirpate the elder branch 
of his own line. And it so happened that the 
interests of these, his most powerful rivals, 
were identified by the luiion of Gilconigan, 
the young heir of Moray, with the Princess 
Gruach. In 1032, the year before the death 
of the hoary tyrant, he burnt the Maormer of 



Moray, the aged Maolbride, with his son Gil- 
comgan, and fifty of their chief followers, 
within their castle. Gruach, in despair, fled 
with her young son Lulach, at once heir of 
the house of Moray and of the elder line of 
Scoto-Pictish kings, to the province of Ross, 
where Macbeth reigned, who was son of 
Finlegh, brother of Maolbride, and thus the 
nearest agnate of the house of Moray. He 
married Gruach, and adopted her son ; and, as 
a matter of course, he being the nearest heir 
male, succeeded to the Maormership of Moray, 
which he added to his own province of Ross. 

Macbeth thus united in himself all the 
power of the great house of Moray, and all 
the influence of the royalty of Kenneth IV. ; 
while his wife, a lady of great strength of 
character, had the most terrible injuries con- 
stantly rankling at her heart — a grandfather 
dethroned and slain, a father persecuted to 
death, a brother assassinated, a husband and 
father-in-law burnt. All these incitements 
urged her to avenge herself upon Malcolm II. 
But he was now dead in his bed, and his 
grandson had mounted the throne, whom she 
doubtless regarded as a usurper ; for, in truth, 
her own son was better entitled to the crown. 

Malcolm II. had two daughters, Beatrix and 
Dovada. The latter was wife of the famous 
Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, whose descendants, 
the Earls of the house of St. Clair and their 
representatives (the family of Anstruther 
Thomson of Charleton, co. Fife), are coheirs 
along with the representatives of King Duncan, 
of the ancient race of Scoto-Pictish Kings ; 
while the former was wife of Crinan, the 
Abbot of Dunkeld, who appears to have been 
one of the most influential men in the Scoto- 
Pictish kingdom, and united great wealth 
with a high position in the Church. He was, 
in fact. Metropolitan of Scotland. Duncan, 
the son of Crinan and Beatrix, was placed 
upon the throne by the partisans of his family. 
But it is not surprising that he was resisted to 
the utmost by Macbeth and his injured wife. 
The history of that early time is obscure. Some 
maintain that Duncan was slain in battle; 
while others assert that he was murdered by 
Macbeth, in his castle of Inverness, Forres, 
or Cawdor. However this may be, enough has 
been said to place Macbeth and his Queen 
in a difierent light from that in which Shaks- 
peare has handed them down to us. Instead 
of being a mere envious, ambitious woman, 
Gruach was the impersonation of Nemesis, 
who had accumulated injuries and crimes to 
avenge upon the race of the guilty oppressor. 
Macbeth reigned with great renown and po- 
pularity during seventeen years, and there is 
every reason to believe that Cawdoc was his 
occasional residence. After his defeat at 
Dunsinane, he fled to the north, and main- 
tained his cause for Eome time among his own 
Northern Picts ; but he was at last slain by 



36 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



the hand of Macduff, on the 5th of December, 
1056, at Lumphanan. His step-son Lulach, 
the real heir of the Scottish crown, reiened 
for six months after this event, acknowledged 
as king by the Northern Picts. He was then 
a young man of twenty-six. He and Malcolm 
Canmore, the son of Duncan, at length 
met in a decisive combat, at Essie, in Strath- 
bogie, on the 3rd of April, 1057, where 
Lulach fell. He left only a daughter to trans- 
mit his rights. 

Tradition assigns Lulach 's place of sepulture 
on the field of battle, in a small mound called 
Milledun, or " the place of a thousand graves.*' 
In order to ascertain the truth of this tradition. 
Sir Andrew Leith Hay lately caused an ex- 
cavation to be made in the mound. About ten 
feet below the surface, he came upon a grave 
carefully made of small stones, about eight 
feet long and four feet wide, in which were 
laid the bones of a gigantic man. They were 
covered with a large slab, but without any 
inscription. Presuming these to be the bones 
of this unfortunate monarch, Sir Andrew 
Leith Hay conveyed them to his own seat of 
Leith Htdl, and has buried them in a grave 
of the same dimensions in his garden. 

We find, after the accession of King Mal- 
colm Canmore, in 1057, that a certain Hugh 
was Lord of Cawdor, with the title of Thane, 
which was a Saxon grade of rank, introduced 
into Scotland in consequence of the English 
connexion, which became so close in the 
reign of the sovereigns of the line of Athole, 
as * the race of Crinan the Abbot, is called. 
There appears to have be^ a long succession 
of Thanes of Cawdor, of the same family, 
down to William Thane of Cawdor, who is 
said to have been the last person in Scotland 
that used that ancient Saxon title of honour, 
which had been universally abandoned; its 
holders having obtained the rank of free 
Barons, in conformity with Norman and feudal 
usage. This William had the Thanedom and 
other lands belonging to him erected into a 
free Barony, in the year 1476. He married 
Marjory Sutherland, daughter to the Earl of 
Sutherland; by whom he had a son, John de 
Cawdor, who, dying in 1493, left an infant 
daughter and heiress, Muriella de Cawdor. 
King James IV., in 1494, appointed thb child's 
maternal uncle, Hugh Rose, of Kilravock, and 
Archibald, second Earl of Areyle, to be her 
guardians. In 1499, Kilravock delivered her 
up to Campbell of Inverliver, who had come 
with sixty Campbells to carry her to Argyle- 
shire to be educated under the eye of the Earl 
of Argyle. But on their way to Inverary, 
they were pursued by Muriella 's nearest male 
relation, Hugh de Cawdor, and a strong band 
of men, who came up with them in Strath- 
n lirn, with a view to attack them and rescue 
the heiress. Inverliver executed his trust 
with great courage. He sent on the child 



with one of his sons and a few men, and lum- 
self stayed behind and gavebattle to the enemy. 
Several of hu sons, and many of hb men, 
were left dead on the field ; but he came off 
victorious, and overtook the advanced party 
and carried his prize to Inverary. The Earl 
of Argyle was much pleased with his little 
captive, whom he designed as a wife for his 
younger son. But it struck him, that after 
all, his plans might be defeated by the death 
of the tittle Muriella, before she attained a 
marriageable age. On mentioning this groond 
of doubt and uneasiness to his trusty Inver- 
liver, that sagacious retainer replied, *' Hoot- 
toot, my Lord, she can never die as long as 
there's a red-haired lassie to be found on uoetk 
Awe side ! " 

The young lady was carefully educated at 
Inverary ; and in 1510 she was married to Sir 
John Campbell, second son of the Enrl of 
Argvle by nis countess, Elizabeth, daughter 
of John, first Earl of Lennox. After this 
marriage. Sir John Campbell continued to use 
his own name, instead of adopting that of hit 
wife, which is common on occasion of mar- 
riage with considerable heiresses; and thoa 
he seemed rather to begin a new family, than 
to continue an old one. Nevertheless, the 
Campbells of Cawdor are the lineal descen- 
dants and representatives of the Thanes who 
have possessed Cawdor since the downfall of 
Macbeth. The marriage of Sir John Camp- 
bell and Muriella Cawdor produced a nume- 
rous family of sons and daughters. From the 
former, several gentlemen in Argyleshire of 
the name of Campbell are descended ; and the 
latter made suitaole marriages with northern 
chiefs. 

The subsequent generations of Campbells 
of Cawdor allied themselves with the follow- 
ing distinguished families: — Grant of Grant; 
Keith, Earl Marischal; Campbell of Glen- 
orchy, ancestor of the Marquess of Bresul- 
albane ; Brodie of Brodie ; and Stewart, Etfl of 
Murray. The sixth in descent from Sir John 
and Muriella was Sir Alexander Campbell of 
Cawdor, who married Elizabeth, sister and 
sole heir of Sir Gilbert Lort, Bart, of Stack- 
pole Court, in Pembrokeshire. In consequence 
of this marriage with a Welsh heiress, the 
Campbells of Cawdor have been transplanted 
from their native north to Pembrokeshire, 
which they have made their principal rea- 
dence in their later generations. Indeed, it 
is said that the Welsh heiress was so anxioos 
that her husband should settle entirely in 
Wales, that she induced him to abandon some 
of his most important interests in Scotland. 
In compliance with her wishes, Sir Alexander 
sold the magnificent island of Isla, which was 
purchased by Mr. Campbell of Shawfield, 
factor to the Duke of Argyle, fi>r the trifling 
sum of £10,500. His great-great-grandsoo 
sold that island the other day for £450,000 ! 



SEATS OF CHEAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



37 



The son of Sir Alexander Campbell was John 
Campbell, of Cawdor Castle and Stackpole- 
Court, who died, 1775. His grandson, John 
Campbell, was raised to the peerage in 179G, 
by the title of Lord Cawdor. By his wife, 
Lady Caroline Howard, daui*hter of Frederick, 
fifth Earl of Carlisle, he had issue John 
Frederick, who succeeded his father in 1821, 
and in 1827 was created Earl of Cawdor and 
Viscount Emlyn. By Lady Elizabeth Thynne, 
eldest daughter of the second Marquis of 
Bath, he has numerous issue. 

HAIXOW CASTLE, Ireland, in the co. of 
Cork, the seat of Sir Denham Jephson 
Norreys, Bait., M.P. 

This castle, with the adjoining lands, was 
at one time a seignory belonging to the 
Earls of Desmond. Uoon the attainder of 
an Earl of Desmond, who was slain the 11th 
of November, 1583, the castle and manor 
were granted in 1584, by Queen Elizabeth, 
to Sir Thomas Norreys, Lord President of 
Munster. This gallant knight was not in the 
number of those who pass into obliTion, 
•< quia carent vate sacro, for Spencer pre- 
sented him with a copy of his Faerie Queen, 
composed at Kilcolman, in this neighbour- 
hood, and thus celebrates Sir John's recent 
success in settling the family of Braganza 
upon the throne of Portugal : — 

** Who cfTcr gmre more hoooanble price 

To the aweet Muse, than did the martUl crew, 

That their brmve deeds she might immortalixe 
In her shrill trump, and sound their praises doef 
Who» then, ought mnre to &Toar her than jrou. 

Most Bohle Lord, the hoooar of this sgc. 
And president of all that arras ensue, — 

Whose warlike powers, and manly true oonrage, 

Tcmper*d with -nmaoa and adTiaement sage. 
Hath flU'd sad Belgia with Tictorioos ^foU, 

In Fianoe and Ireland left a fiunous gage. 
And Utely shake't the Lositanian 8oU f 

flith then each where thoo hai^ diqiread thj tame, 

liore him that thus hath eteraixed jour name.** 

Upon the death of Sir Thomas Norreys, the 
estate fell to his only child, a daughter, by 
whose marriage with Major-General Sir John 
Jephson, of rroyle, Hants, it came into the 
family of the present owner. The son of 
this marriage was Enroy to Sweden in the 
year 1657, and of him it is recorded that, 
while representing Stockport in the parliament 
of the Commonwealth, he moved in the House, 
that *'the Protector should take the title of 

King." 

The famfly name was Jephson, ontH the 

18th of July, 1838, when the representative 

of the house, by sign-manual, obtained the 

surname and arms of Norreys; and shortly 

aftet wards, upon the 6th of August, was 

created a Baronet. This family, through 

their descent from the Norreys, may clami 

kinship with the most illustriotts stocks in 

England — viz., Plantagenet, the Clare, Mar- 

diaU, Strongbow, Holland, Salisbury, Zonch, 



Quincy, Bellamont, Galloway, Longespie, 
D'Eincourt, De Vere, Grey of Rotherfield, 
Beaumont, Williams of Thame, Dacre, Rid- 
dlesford, Devereux, Molyneux, Gumey, and 
many others. 

The old castle of Mallow— or, to speak more 
correctly, so much of it as now remains — is 
situated upon the brow of a hill overlooking 
the Blackwater river, and a large extent of 
interesting landscape. Three huge towers 
still witness for the former grandeur of the 

Elace, when the Lord President of Munster 
eld his court within its precincts. They are, 
however, in so shattered a state, that they 
seem to be only kept from falling by the 
masses of ivy which cling about them, sup- 
porting rather than supported. 



" Oh, a dainty plant is the Irj green, 
That creeppth o*er ruins old ; 
Of right choiee food are hix meals, I ween. 

In his oell so lone and eold. 
The walls must be crumbled, the stones decayed. 

To pleasure his dainty whim ; 
And the mouldering dust that years have made. 
Is a merry meal for him. 
Creeping where no life is seen, 
▲ rare old plant is the lyy green.** 



Close to these venerable remains, and yet 
apart from them, stands the new mansion, a 
noble edifice, in the genuine Elizabethan style 
of architecture. Here are mullioned windows, 
pointed gables, tall chimneys, and all those 
various intricacies of builiunff which charac- 
terized our noblest seats in ue days of the 
Virgin Queen ; somewhat fantastic, it is true, 
but picturesque in the extreme. Within the 
house there prevails the same imitation of the 
good old times, when our worthy ancestors 

•* Ourred at the meal 



With gloves of steeL 

thehefanct 



»»_ 



And drank the red wine through 



viz., an oaken staircase, with heavy balus- 
trades ; chambers richly wainscoted in panels, 
and stained glass windows, through which the 
day sheds "a dim religious light." One 
quaint, old-fashioned casement is splendidly 
emblazoned with heraldic bearings — the arms 
of the Norreys family — and this painting is 
taken from one in the ancient residence of the 
Norreys' in England. In one of the rooms is 
a fine picture of King William IIL, in his 
robes, painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller, and 
presented by the monarch to an ancestor of 
the present owner of the estate. 

'1 ne grounds are exceedingly varied, and 
abound in picturesque landscapes, rendered 
yet more interesting by the proximity of the 
iar-£uned Blackwater. The ndns themselves 
are connected with three centuries of historical 
recollections; and the history of the castle 
would, in fiscty be a history of tiie south of 
Ireland during the reigns of Henry VIII., 
Queen Elizabeth, and James I. 



1 



38 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



AIBTHBE7 CA8TLS, near Stirling, the seat 
of Lord Abercromby. 

This place is rich in natural beauty, in a 
part of tne country where picturesque scenery 
abounds. The entrance to tne park of Airthrey 
is at the distance of two miles from the town of 
Stirling, and its woods and pleasure-grounds 
skirt the road from Stirling to Kinross for a 
mile and a half. The scenery within the park 
gates combines a singular variety of beauty, 
undulating rivers, noble woods, a large artifi- 
cial piece of water, so managed as to have all 
the effects of a natural lake ; and, above all, 
precipitous and most pictiu-esque rocky hills, 
richly wooded and affording a great extent of 
the most pleasant walks. These grounds pos- 
sess innumerable points of view which com- 
mand the most glorious prospects, particularly 
of Stirling Castle, and the valley of the Firth. 
Through this valley, one of the most unportant 
rivers in Scotland winds in a manner so tor- 
tuous as scarcely to be conceived without hav- 
ing been seen. The windings of the Forth in 
the midst of this fertile and delightful valley, 
are much more numerous than art would even 
devise with a view to imitate nature. When 
seen from the heights above Airthrey the 
river resembles an immense silver serpent roll- 
ing and twisting itself upon the emerald 
green of the meadows. The meandering of 
the Forth forms many beautiful green penin- 
sulas, on one of which, immediately opposite 
Stirling Castle, stands the venerable ruins 
of the magnificent Abbey of Cambusken- 
neth, once one of the richest and most 
important religious houses in Scotland. 
Three very remarkable rocky hills are 
seen from the grounds of Airthrey — Stirling 
Castle Rock, Abbey Craig, and Craig Forth ; 
and in the distance, down the river, the lofty 
Ochil mountain range is seen rising perpen- 
dicularly above Alva House. 

The scenery is altogether very interesting, 
not only for its beauty but its great variety. 
Gentlemen^s seats, thriving woods, villages, 
and white sails of vessels going down the 
Forth ; and in the immediate vicinity the well- 
woodeid undulations of Airthrey park with its 
laree sheet of water. The house is built in 
bad taste, with castellated pretensions, such as 
were common towards the end of last century 
and the beginning of the present. It was 
erected about the year 1780 or 1785 by Mr. 
Haldane, who was then proprietor of this 
beautiful place. It is of no great size ; but if 
it had not been surmounted with battlements 
it might have been passed unnoticed as a good 
gentleman's house. In the interior it is com- 
modious ; and the rooms, though of very mode- 
rate dimensions are pleasant and well arranged, 

Airthrey has passed through several hands 
during the last hundred and fifty years. Pre- 
vioiu to the year 1700 it belonged to Mr. 
Hope, of Hopetoun ; aid when that gentleman 



was created Earl of Hopetoun in 1703, his 
second title was Viscount Airthrey. This 
has never been used as a title by courte^ of 
the eldest son of the Hopetoun family, on 
account of the alienation of the Airthrey 
estate soon after the creation of the peerage. 
Lord Hopetoun was extremely anxious to buy 
up all the land that he could m the immediate 
vicinity of Hopetoun House, whicht when 
built, was nothing more than a magnificent 
villa, hedged in on all sides by the estates of 
the ancient landowners of that part of West 
Lothian. One of the properties which lay the 
nearest to the Earl's nandsome mansion was 
Staniehill Tower, the seat of Mr. Dundas of 
Manor, a cadet of the ancient and distin- 

fuished family of Dundas of Duddingstoun. 
lord Hopetoun had for some time tried 
every means in his power to induce the old 
laird of Manor to sell to him the tower of hb 
fathers ; but in vain. However, he bided his 
time, and found the young laird less impracti- 
cable. He induced Iiim to listen to wKat was 
indeed a very advantageous proposal , and ex- 
changed witn him the beautiful estate of Air- 
threy for Staniehill Tower, which now forms a 
fine object in the midst of the pleasure-grounds 
of Hopetoun House. 

The Dundas 's of Manor could not have dos- 
sessed Airthrey for much more than half a 
century, as we next find it in the possession of 
Captain James Haldane, to whom Dundas of 
Manor sold it. Captain Haldane was a branch 
of the very ancient family of Haldane of 
Gleneagles. He died in 1768, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Robert Haldane of Air- 
threy, who was, in some respects, one of the 
most remarkable men of his time; and suc- 
ceeded in producing a very decided religious 
impression both in Scotland and in Switxerland 
in the earlier portion of the present century. 
He was originally an ofiicer or the navy ; but 
at an early age he left that profession and es- 
tablished himself at Airthrey, where he built 
the present house, and was prepared to eiyoy 
his ample fortune. But it was not long before 
an extraordinary change was efiected in his 
mind. From being vrnolly devoted to the 
concerns of this world, he became still more 
exclusively occupied with thoughts of eter- 
nity. The change was sudden, but total and 
f permanent. The things of this world had no 
onger any charm for him ; and he was re- 
solved henceforward to devote every energy 
of his mind and faculty of his soul to working 
out his salvation, and promoting what he be- 
lieved to be the kingdom of God« He had 
no definite notion of Church government, and 
it would be difficult to say to what sect he 
was attached. His religious views probably 
coincided more with those of the Congrega- 
tional Union than any other. Having made 
up his mind to devote himself to religion, his 
activity and teal knew no bounds. He d^ 



BEATS OF GBEAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



39 



cided upon spending his life and fortune on 
missions to the heathen on a grand scale. He 
therefore sold his estate of Airthrey, and was 
the more anxious to accomplish this because 
he felt that it was a sacrifice, and he consi- 
dered that the possession of a terrestrial abode 
of such beauty might interfere with his devo- 
tedness to the grand cause of evangelization, 
to which his future life was to be consecrated. 

Having, therefore, converted his large for- 
tune into money, he prepared to set out among 
the heathens, and Hinaostan was the field of 
labour which he selected. However, he found 
that unexpected impediments were thrown in 
his way by the Government of India, who 
were, as is well known, exceedingly jealous of 
religious interference with their native sub- 
jects, and considered that it might be prudent 
to keep so zealous a missionary at a distance. 
Being baffled in this project, he set himself to 
build chapels, and endowed preachers at home. 
And he himself and his younger brother offi- 
ciated in this ministry. They also spent 
much time on the Continent of Europe, and 
there is no doubt that they were the means of 
producing a very great religious awakening 
among the dead or Socinian Protestants of 
Switzerland and some parts of France. Since 
he was not permitted to be wholly a mission- 
ary, Mr. Huldane resumed his position as a 
country gentleman ; and as if by way of con- 
trast to beautiful Airthrey, and with a view to 
produce constant mortification, he purchased 
a tract of moor-land midway between Edin- 
burgh and Glasgow, where he built a hand- 
some house and planted young wood to a 
great extent. The name of this place is 
Auchengrev, and it is as ugly as Airthrey is 
lovely. Mr. Haldane died a few years ago, 
and carried with him to the grave me respect 
and esteem which his great talents, burning 
zeal, and thorough disinterestedness could not 
fail to command even from those who were 
the most diametrically opposed to his peculiar 
doctrines and views of Church government 

When Mr. Haldane sold Airthrey, its pur- 
chaser was General Sir Robert Abercromby, 
G.C.B., greatfgranduncle of the present pro- 
prietor. The family of Abercromby is of 
great antiquity. Abercromby of that ilk was 
long settled in the county of Fife, and became 
extmct in the seventeenth century. The 
oldest cadet of this family was Abercrombie of 
Birkenbog, now the chief of the name. '1 heir 
immediate ancestor was Humphredus de Aber- 
crombie, who, about the year 1313, obtained a 
grant of lands from King Robert liruce. His 
descendants continued for many generations 
in the county of Aberdeen as Abercrombie of 
Pitmedden. Alexander Abercrombie of Pit- 
medden, lived in the time of Queen Mary. 
His eldest son, James, was designed of Bir- 
ki>nl>og, and his younger, Alexander, was of 
Fettemcar. The son of the latter, on marry- 



ing the Baroness Sempill in her own right, 
was created a peer of parliament for life by 
King James vll. (second of Britain), with 
the title of Lord Glasford. James Aber- 
crombie was succeeded by his son Alexander 
of Birkenbog, who was falconer to King 
Charles I. His son Alexander was created a 
Baronet of Nova Scotia in 1637. He had 
two sons, Sir James the second baronet of 
Birkenbog, from whom is descended the pre- 
sent Sir Robert Abercromby, fifth baronet of 
Birkenbog, and Alexander, the ancestor of this 
family. The present baronet has built a 
splendid mansion at his ancient family seat at 
cirkenbog. Before we trace the younger 
branch of this family it is worth while to 
mention a singular peculiarity regarding the 
vault of the ancient house of Abercrombie 
which is mentioned by Pennant. This vault, 
if so it may be called, is lodged in the wall 
of the church ; and is only the repository of 
the skulls of the family. The bodies are 

5 laced in the earth beneath, and when a laird 
ies, the skull of his predecessor is taken up 
and thrown into this Golgotha, which in Pen- 
nant's time contained nineteen ! 

Alexander Abercromby, second son of the 
first baronet, settled at Tullibody a moderate 
estate in the county of Clackmannan, which 
is still the property of his descendants. He 
had a son, George Abercromby, of Tullibody , 
who connected himself by marriage with the 
family to which Airthrey then belonged ; for 
his wife was Mary, daughter of Ralph Dun- 
das of Manor. The issue of this union was 
three very distinguished sons. I, Ralph ; 2, 
Robert; 3, Alexander. The yoimgest, Alexan- 
der, bom 1745, was a member of the Scottish 
Bar, and rose rapidly in his profession. In 
1792 he was maae a Lord of Session, with the 
title of Lord Abercromby, and he died in 1795. 
His second son, Robert, was a distinguished 
officer. He was a Knight of the Bath, and a 
general in the army. His services in India 
were very important, and there he realized a 
large fortime. When Airthrey, which had 
belonged to his mother's family, was sold by 
Mr. Haldane, he became the purchaser ; and 
here he lived for man^ years; and on his 
death, at a great age m 1828, he was suc- 
ceeded in this beautiful estate by his nephew, 
the eldest son of his elder brother Ralph. 
This excellent man and distinguished eeneral 
was bom 1738. He attained the highest 
rank in the army, and acquired the greatest 
fame ; and after a series of brilliant services, 
he died gloriously in the moment of victory 
at the celebrated battle of Alexandria, in 
1801, having had the command of the ex- 
pedition to Egypt. Sir Ralph was a Knight 
of the Bath, and had he survived his victory 
he would have been raised to a peerage, 
which was conferred upon his widow, Mary 
Anne, daughter of John Menzies, of Femton, 



40 



SEATS OF OBEAT liKlTAIN AND IRELAND. 



a son of the Baronet of Menzies. She was 
created Baroness Abercromhy of Aboukir. 
Sir Ralph Abercromhy was the father of 
George, Lord Abercromhy, who succeeded 
his mother in the peerage ; and of James 
Abercromhy, who was Lord Chief Baron of 
Exchequer in Scotland, then during several 
parliaments Speaker in the House of Com- 
mons, and was subsequently raised to the 
peerage, with the title of Lord Dunfermline. 
George, Lord Abercromhy, married the daugh- 
ter of the present Viscount Melville, by whom 
he had issue George, 2d I^rd, who succeeded 
in 1837, and died in 1852, leaving his son 
George Ralph, present and 3d Lord Aber- 
cronibie, and proprietor of Airthrey and Tulli- 
body, a minor. Tne two last Lords were Lords 
Lieutenant of the County of Clackmannan. 

EIDOEWAY, South Wales, ui the co. of 
Pembroke, near the flourishing market-town 
of Narberth, the seat of Mrs. Emily Foley, 
widow of the late John Herbert Foley, Esq., 
and only daughter of Abraham Chambers, 
Esq., of Woodstock, Kent. This estate has 
been held by the family of Foley for many 
centuries — certainly as far back as 1383, and 
it seems probable enough, that their possession 
dates from a yet earlier period. Be this as it 
may, in the year just named, John Foley, 
constable of Llawhaden, and Ellen, his wife, 
sot a grant of lands in Lettardiston (or 
Letterston), from Adam Hoton, Bishop of 
St. David's, which charter, with others, is yet 
extant at Ridgeway, dated 8th of June, 1383. 

In the time of the great Civil War, another 
of this family was again constable of Llawha- 
den Castle, where he was besieged by Crom- 
well in person. He had the misfortune to be 
killed; and the castle, though strong, and 
standing upon an elevated ground, about three 
miles from Narberth, was soon afterwards 
surrendered A story is told of his widow 
and two sons having, upon the fall of the 
place, been brought before Cromwell, who 
patted them familiarly on the head, promising, 
that if they continued good, no harm should 
happen to them. He did not, however, the 
less confiscate a considerable portion of their 
lands, which he bestowed on Colonel Skyrme, 
whose descendants still possess them. 

The date of the original house at Ridgeway 
is unknown. It stood at some distance from 
the present mansion, which was built in the 
eighteenth century, by John Foley of Ridge- 
way, Esq., and is a plain, but comfortable 
mansion, standing on nigh ground, and com- 
manding an extensive prospect. 

Vice>Admind Sir Tnomas Foley, G.C.B., 
younger brother of the late John Herbert 
Foley, Esq., of Ridgeway, highly distinguished 
himself at St. Vincent, and the battle of the 
Nile, for which services he received two 
medals, bearing respectively the words St. 
VmettU and A'Je, in tetten of gold. 



ASDKABaLE, in the north of Ireland, n 
Newtownlimavady, co. of Londonderry, the 
seat of Robert Leslie Ogilby, E.<iq. 

This property has been for some time pos- 
sessed oy the Ogilbys; the present owner 
having inherited it, in the year 1849, upon the 
death of his brother, James Ogilby, Esq. The 
house, built about the year 1780 by the late 
John Ogilby, Esq., was originally a plain, 
substantial mansion without any particular 
architectural ornament ; but it has been greatly 
improved and enlarged by the gentleman now 
possessing it, and these alterations arc still in 
progress. It is beautifully situated upon a 
rising ground, on the west bank of the river 
Roe, one mile north of Newtownlimavady. 
The grounds contain about sixty acres, and are 
lai«) out with much taste, and regard to the 
natiu-al advantages of the locality. There 
are some fine old trees to be seen here, but 
principally ash and beech, for which the soil 
appears to he well adapted. 

jhjswtON, in the co. of Lanark, the seat of 
J. B. H. Montgomery, Eso. 

This estate anciently belonged to Hamilton 
of Newton, a younger branch of the Duke of 
Hamilton's family; now represented by the 
Rev. John Hamilton Gray, of Camtjme. It 
was an original possession of the bouse of 
Douglas, and was, about the year 1500, 
brought, as the dowry of a daughter of that 
family, to her husband, James Hamilton of 
Silverton Hill. He was the son of Alexander 
Hamilton of Silverton Hill, next brother of 
James, Lord Hamilton, and second son of Sir 
James Hamilton, fifth Lord of Cadxow, by 
Janet, daughter of Sir Alexander Livingstone, 
of Callander. Hamilton of Silverton Hill is 
the nearest branch to the ducal house after the 
Marquis of Abercom, and comes before any 
of the numerous families of Hamilton in 
Scotland. 

James Hamilton and the heiress of Newton 
of the House of Douglas had a son and heir, 
John Hamilton of Newton and Silveitoo 
Hill. He made Newton his princioal designa- 
tion. He married a daughter of sir John So- 
merville. Baron of Camnethan. He died in 
1535, and was ancestor of the family of Sil- 
verton Hill, Newton, and Goslington, His 
great-grandson. Sir Andrew Hamilton of Goa- 
Tington, was a most faithful friend to Queen 
Mary, who conferred on him the honour of 
knighthood. He supported the royal cause 
at the battle of Langside, for which he was 
forfeited ; but his extensive estates were re- 
stored to him by the treaty of Perth in 1572. 
He died in 1592, and was succeeded by hb 
son. Sir Robert Hamilton of Goslington. He 
married Eliiabeth, daughter and sole heirrss 
of Sir William Baillie, of Provan, Lord Pro- 
vident of the Court of Session, who brought a 
great accession to hb estate. He died in 
1502, and bad a numerous family. Hb eldest 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



41 



•on and heir, Edward Hamilton of Silverton 
HiO, was the father of the first haronet of the 
famUy, Sir Robert, so created in 1646 bv 
king Charles I., with whom he was in hign 
favour; and justly so, as he expended his 
large fortune in supporting the royal cause. 
He is the immediate ancestor of Sir Frederick 
Hamilton, Baronet, of Silverton Hill. 

From one of the vounger sons of Sir Robert 
Hamflton of Goshngton, is the branch of 
Newton descended. His grandson James 
Hamilton had a grant of the estate of Newton, 
in 1672, and here he fixed his residence. In 
1694 the ancient mansion-house was destroyed 
by fire, and all the titles and deeds connected 
with the estate, and all the family papers 
were burnt. After this, James Hamilton 
obtained a new charter of the estate from 
Anne, Duchess of Hamilton, his chief, from 
whom it was feudally held. In 1695 he com- 
menced a new house in a pleasant situation, 
which he adorned with woods and gardens ; 
but it was unfortunate that he did not select 
another site for the mansion-house, on a pro- 
montory jutting out at the confluence of the 
Clyde and the Calder. Nothing can exceed 
the picturesque beauty of the high wooded 
banks of Newton, overhanging these two fine 
rivers, which here form a junction ; and no place 
could have been better adapted for a pleasant 
residence. The house which Mr. Hamilton 
bwlt was in the style common in Scotland in 
that day ; but it had not the quaintness and 
ancient venerable character of the former 
mansion-house, which was burnt. 

James Hamilton of Newton was twice 
married: first, to a daughter of Gabriel 
Hamilton of Westbum, by a daughter of Sir 
Robert Cunningham of Gilbertfield; and 
2ndly, to a daughter of Robert Montgomery 
of Macbie Hill, by a daughter of Sir James 
Lockhart of Lee. He died in 1 724. His de- 
scendants continued to flourish for several gene- 
rations. They intermarried with the families of 
aelland of Clelland, Pollock, Bart of Pollock, 
and Buchanan of Drummakill ; and their last 
heirtm on whom the estate devolved, married 
Colonel Richard Montgomery, first cousin of 
Sir George Montgomery, Bart, of Macbie 
Hin, and Sir James Montgomery, Bart., of 
Stanhope. She outlived her onlv son, and 
died in 1823. On her death, her cousin, 
Robert Gray of Camtyne, became sole repre- 
sentative of this branch of the family of 
Hamilton, in right of his grandmother, the 
daughter of James Hamilton of Newton. He 
died in 1833, and was succeeded by his son, the 
Rev. John Hamilton Gray of Camtyne, Deputy 
Lieutenant of Lanarksmre. Mrs. Montgo- 
mery, however, left the property (the cus- 
Josal of which was in her own power) to Sir 
amea Montgomery, Bart., of Stanhope. 

This gentleman was son of a younger son 
of the Macbie Hill family, which was an early 



cadet of Montgomery of Ardrossan and Eglin- 
ton, afterwaroi Earls of Eglinton. Adam 
Montgomery of Macbie Hm, a remote de- 
scendant of that family, was bom in 1598. 
His son, Robert Montgomery of Macbie Hill, 
had, along with a daujshter, Margarite, wife 
of James Hamilton of Newton, as already 
stated, a son, William, who carried on the 
line of the family. His grandson, William 
Montgomery of Macbie mil, had two sons : 
first, William; second, James. 

1st William settled in Ireland, where he 
twice married, and had numerous issue. Three 
of his daughters were celebrated for their 
extraordinarv beauty; and they form the 
group of the three Graces adorning the 
Altar of Hymen, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
which is one of the most admired among the 
modem pictures in the National Gallery. 
These ladies were, Elizabeth, wife of Luke 
Gardiner, Viscount Mountjoy ; Barbara, wife 
of the Right Hon. John Beresford ; and Anne, 
wife of George, Marquess Townshend, by 
whom she had a daughter, married to the 
Duke of Leeds. He had also another daugh- 
ter, Harriet, wife of George Byne, of 
Wrotham Park, for fifty-six years M.r. for 
the county of Middlesex, elder brother of 
the Earl of Strafibrd. Mr. Montgomery was 
created a baronet in 1774, and dying in 
1788, he was succeeded by his son, Sir George 
Montgomery of Macbie Hill, M.P. for the 
county of Peebles, on whose death, in 1831, 
the baronetcy became extinct. 
2nd. The second son of William Mont- 

fomery of Macbie Hill, was James, who being 
red to the law, became a distinguished 
member of the Scottish Bar. He was ap- 
pointed Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer 
m Scotland; an office which he held for many 
years, and on his resifi;nation in 1801, he was 
created a baronet. He purchased the estates 
of Stanhope and Stobo Castle, in the county 
of Peebles, and was succeeded by his son Sir 
James, who, in 1804, was appointed Lord- 
Advocate of Scotland, an office which he held 
for two years. He was for many years Mem- 
ber of Parliament for the county of Peebles. 
He married — first. Lady Elizabeth Douglas, 
daughter of Dunbar, Earl of Silkirk ; and 
secondly, Miss Graham, heiress of Kinross. In 
1823, Sir James succeeded to the estate of 
Newton, by the will of the heiress of the 
family of Hamilton, the widow of his cousin. 
Colonel Richard Montgomery. He died in 
J 839, and was succeeded in his Peebleshire 
estates by his eldest son. Sir Graham Mont- 
gomery, now M.P. for the county of Peebles ; 
and in the property of Newton, by his second 
son, the present proprietor. 

Thus aid this estate, originall v a possession 
of the House of Douglas, come by a marriage 
into the family of Hamilton of Silverton 
Hill, in the second generation after it 



42 



BEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRBLAN0. 



branched off from the main stem of Earis 
of Arran and Lord Hamilton. It con- 
tinued in the poewssion of the family 
of Hamilton of Silverton Hill, and its 
younger branch, Hamilton of Newton, 
durinjg^ upwards of three centuries ; when it 
was, m 1823, alienated from the representa- 
tiTe of the family, and bestowed on a branch 
of the family of Montgomery. 

Very soon after Newton came into the 
possession of Sir James Montgomery, the old 
mansion-house was consumea by fire, as the 
original one had been in 1694. 

UBMOBS CABZLB, Ireland, in the co. of 
Waterford, the seat of the Duke of Devon- 
shire. 

This castle was founded in the year 1185 
by the young Earl of Moreton, who after- 
waids became King John, and is said to be 
the last of three fortresses erected by him 
during his stay in Ireland, which did not ex- 
ceed eight months. Four years afterwards it 
was surprised by the nattre Irish, who slew 
Che governor, Robert de fiarry, as well as his 
eamson, and laid the fortress itself in ruins. 
It was soon, howeyer, rebuilt, and made the 
episcopal residence, till in 1589, Miles 
Magrath, with consent of the Dean and 
Chapter, sranted the castle and manor to Sir 
Walter Rueigh, at a small annual rent 

From this great, but unfortunate man, 
Lismore passed, with his other lands, to Sir 
Richard Boyle, the celebrated Earl of Cork, 
who enlarged and beautified the castle with a 
▼iew to making it his residence. The room 
in which his seventh son, Robert, was bom, 
may still be seen, almost in its original 
state. 

When the Great Civil War broke out in 
1641, the castle of Lismore became an object 
of importance and interest to both parties. It 
was consequently invested bv &w9 thousand 
Irish under Sir Richard Beling, and as 
stoutly defended by Lord Broghill, the Earl 
of Cork's third son, who eventually com- 
pelled his assailants to raise their siege. But, 
mdeed, Broghill seemed to have possessed die 
two principal qualities of a great commander 
—undaunted valour and consummate pru- 
dence. His letter to the Earl before the 
actual commencement of hostilities against 
Lismore, itself sufficiently explains his cha- 
racter, and though it has been often quoted, 
may well admit c2f repetition : — 

'* I have sent out my quarter-master te 
know the posture of the enemy. They are, 
as I am informed bv those wlio were m the 
action, five thousana strong, and well armed, 
and that they intend to attack Lismore. 
When I have received certain intelligence, if 
I am a third part of their number, I will meet 
then to-monvw morning, and give them one 
blow bdbre they bceiege us. If theirnumbers 



be such that it will be more folly than valour, 
I will make good this place which I am in. 

" I tried one of the ordnance made at the 
forge, and it held with a pound chai^ ; so 
that I will plant it upon the terrace over the 
river. My lord, fear nothing for Lismore; 
for if it be lost, it shall be with the life of him 
that begs your lordship's blessiug, and styles 
himselr, my lord, your loraship's most 
humble, most obliged, and most dutiful son 
and servant, ** BaooniLL." 

And well did the heroic defender keep his 
word, as we have already related. Two years 
afterwards, the castle was again besieged ; bat 
the assailante met with no better succesa. Of 
this last attempt upon Lismore, a very di^ 
cumstantial account is left us in a manuscript 
diary of the Earl of Cork, which is yet pro- 
served, with many other interesting rdiques, 
in the castle library :— - 

«1643. July 10. This day the robd 
lieutenant-general Puroell, commanding again 
in chief, in revenge of his former defeat, re- 
ceived at Cappoquin, roinforced his amy to 
seven thousana foot and nine hundred hocse, 
with three pieces of ordnance, and drow near 
again to Cappoquin, and thero continued four 
days, wasting and spoiling the country round 
about, but attempted noUiing of any oonse- 

auence. And when the 22n^ at night, that 
lie Lord Viscount Mushrie came to the Irish 
army with some addition of new foroes, they 
romoved firom Cappoquin in the nifht bcforo 
my castle of Lismore. And on Sunday morn- 
ing, the 23rd July, 1643, they hcsan their 
battery firom the church to the east of Lismore 
House, and made a breach into my own house, 
which Captain Broadripp, and my warders, 
being about one hundred and fifty, repairod 
stronger with earth than it was before ; and 
shot then till the Thunday, the 27th, and 
never durst attempt to enter the breach ; my 
ordnance and musVet-shot from my castle did 
so ply them. Then thev removea their bat- 
tery to the south-west of my castle, and oon- 
tinually beating against my orohard-wall, but 
never adventured into my orchard, my shot 
from my turrets did so continudtty beat and 
clear the curteyn of the wall. The 28th of 
July, God sent my two sons, Dunyarvan and 
Broghill, to land at Youghal, out of England, 
and the 29th thev rode to the Lord of Inchi- 
qnin's, who with the arm^ were drawn to 
TuUagh, and stoy'd there u ezpectatioa of 
Colonel Peyn, with his regiment mm Tymo- 
lay, who failed to join ; but Inchiquin, Dun- 
garran, and Broghill, and Sur John Fowlett, 
die Saturday in the evening (upon some other 
directions brought over by Dungarvan from 
his Majesty), he made a treaty ttiat evening 
with Buishrie and others, and Sunday the 30th 
they agreed upon a cessation for six days. 
Monday night, when they could not enter my 
house, they removed their aisge, and withdrew 



8EATS OF GREAT BKITAIM AKD IBELAND. 



43 



their ordnance and army, two or three harreli 
of powder, two or three pieces of ordnance, 
of twenty-three pounds, and killed but one of 
my side, God be praised." 

Two vears afterwards, — that is, in 1645, — 
the castle of Liamore sustained a third siege ; 
and this time with better success to the insur- 
gents, who, under Lord Castlehaven, took the 
place and nearly burnt it down. The garrison 
consisted of one hundred of the Karl of Cork's 
tenantry, commanded by Major Power, who, 
however deficient they might be in the prac- 
tice of war, made a most heroic defence, 
killing Rye hundred of the besiegers, and not 
capitulating till their powder was entirely 
expended. 

When the internal dissensions that had so 
long shaken the country had ended, and things 
began to flow in their usual channel, Lismore 
Castle was restored by Richard, second Earl 
of Cork and Burlineton, who made it his prin- 
cipal place of residence. Over the grand 
gateway he placed his fiither's well-known 
motto, which may yet be traced — *' God's 

PaOTIDBMCB IS OUR iRHBaiTAMCE." He slsO 

materially improved upon what the building 
has originally been. 

Hie next noticeable event in connection 
with Lismore, is the brief visit paid to it by 
James the Second in 1690, when he wasflyinf 
from the lost field of the Boyne, and breathed 
a moment on his way to Waterford for em- 
barkation. He halted here for a few hours 
only ; but short as was his stay, tradition has 
been at work and given his name to an em- 
bayed recess, which is still called King James's 
wmdow. It is said, that after having taken a 
hurried refreshment, and preparations were 
being made for his farther flight, he rose to 
amuse himself with the prospect finom a large 
bay window that overhung the river. The 
view, at all times beautiful, was now rendered 
doubly so by the glow of a summer evening ; 
but probably his nerves had been too much 
vnstmne by hie recent disasters : he saw him- 
self on Uie brink of a precipice, with a river 
foDing rapidly below, and instantly started 
back m terror. 

In 1753, upon the death of Richard, fourth 
£ari of Cork, and third of Burbngton, the 
greater part of the family estates, boUi in 
En^and and Ireland, devolved on his 
dabbler, the Lady Chsirlotte Boyle, who in 
1748 had married William Cavendish, fourth 
duke of Devonshire. The present duke has 
expended large sums upon the repairs and pre- 
aervation of this interesting pile. Many 
internal changes have been made in 
conformity with the improved taste of 
modem times, and the increasing demands 
for comfort and convenience. Externally, 
the ancient and picturesque character of the 
building has been jealousty preserved. The 
battlemented towers, the loop-holed grates. 



and the flanking walls, each m all their 
original grandeur, as little changed in i^ipear- 
ance as the river that dashes along below 
them. 

OrGHDMnrT; or, ZHB ULASB, CO. Cork, 
the Seat ofThomas Hun^erford, Eiq., is called 
" The Island " from bemg entixelv insnlat4*d 
at hu:h water. It b approached from the 
mainland by a causeway, constructed at great 
expense. The original mansioa of the family 
is now in ruins ; their present residence occu- 
pies a picturesque ate a few hundred yards 
from the water s edge, looking towaru the 
mainland. From the foot of the Island, on 
its southern side, an elevated tract of sand 
runs out into the sea, and terminates in a higji 
green bank, which fonns a pleasing contrast 
with the little desert behind it, and the black 
solitary rock immediately beneath. There is a 
wild tradition, that the Blessed Virgin Mary 
came one nisht to this hiDock to pray, and was 
discovered kneeling, by the crew of a vessel 
that was about anchoring near the place. They 
scoflTed at her piety, ana made some irreverent 
remarks on her beau^ ; whereupon, a storm 
arose, and destroyed the ship and her crew. 
Since that time, no vesiel has been known to 
anchor near the spot. Upon this local legend 
the following graceful stanzas were written by 
a youthful poet named CaOanan, who was, we 
believe, destined for the priesthood ; but who 
died prematurely of consumption. 



THE VIBOIN MA&rS BANK. 

The creninf tUr rote besntooo* abor* Uie fading daj. 
At to the kne and likiit beaeb ttw Vlrfin caine to pray ; 
And hill and wave ahoiie brightly in the moonUght's 

mdlow fldl; 
Bat the buk of gnat where Man ka^ «m hrighteit 

oftheneU. 

Slow vaofiag o'er the waieri, a gaDaat htA aroear'd. 
And her Jojoon erew locdc'd tnm thededi, ae to tlie kad 

ahenear'd; 
To the calm and ahdltered haTca, ahe floated like a mno. 
And her wlngi of snow, o^er the waTea below, in pcUa 

and beauty ahone. 

The Matter aaw oar lady, as he alood npon the 
And mark'dthe whitencaaof her robe, and the 

of her brow; 
Her anna were folded grMefeUjr npon her 



And her evea look'd op among the atan, to Ha her 
kyv'd beat. 



He ahow'dberlo hia aaikir8,aad he hail'd her with * 

cheer. 
And OP thekiwrtiny Ylivin, thejgas'd with langh and 

ieer : 
And maffly awore a tona ao Ikir, they never aaw bdbre f 
And they eora'd thelkintand lagging breese that laept 

them fkom the ahore. 

The oeean tmn ita hoaan, ahook off the «'**>*nffght 



And up ita wratbAil billowa roee, to Tlndieate their qoen: 
And a clood came o'er the heaTcna, anda rtarkucea o^er 

the land, 
Andtheaoomng erewbdicidno mora^ that lady on the 

atnad. 



44 



8EAT8 OP GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



Out bant the peaUng thundery and tha lightning 

leap'd about, 
And inkhing with hia watery war, the tcmpeat gaTe a 

shoat: 
And that Tcnel from a mountain ware, came down with 

tbOBdeTing shoek . 
And her timbers flew like Mattered apray on iKCRxnovT'a 

rock. 

Then loud from all that guilty crew, one shriek roae 

wfld and high ; 
But the angry surge swept o^er them, and hnsh'd their 

gurgling cry ; 
And with a hoarse, ezoltlcg roar the tempest pass'd 

away. 
And down, still chafing from their strifo, the indignant 

waters lay. 

When the calm and purple momiDg shooe oat on ^|gh 
Donmore, ^ 

FtiU many a mangled oorpee was seen on iMcnnoirr'a 
shore: 

And to this day the flaherman shows, where the sooflbra 
sank. 

And still he calls that hillock green, •• The Tlrgia Vary»a 



The Irish family of Huneerford descends 
from Walter, Lord Huneerford, Lord Trea- 
surer, sixth, Henry VL, through his lordship's 
second surviving son. Sir E&iund Hunger- 
ford, of Down Amponey, co. Gloucester.* 
The connexion of the Irish with the English 
house is very distinctly traced by the wul of 
John Hungerford, of Lincoln's Inn, dated 
24th May, 1729; and in a cause connected 
with that will, which was tried in the English 
Court of Chancery. The common ancestor 
of all^ the existing Irish Hungerfords, was 
Captain Thomas Hungerford, who resided at 
" The Little Island," at Rathbarry, up to the 
jrear 1680, in which year he died, and was 
mterred in the cathedral of Ross-Carbery. He 
had three sons, of whom the eldest, Clolonel 
Richard Hungerford, of Inchidonv, or '* The 
Island," was the linedi ancestor of the present 
Thomas Hungerford, Esq. The Hungerfords 
ofCahirmore, co. Cork, also descend from 
Captain Thomas Hungerford, of the Little 
Island, who also was ancestor of the present 
family of Daunt, of Tracton Abbey; his 
daughter Elizabedi, having married in 1667, 
Achilles Daunt, Esq., of Tracton Abbey, from 
which marriage the existing Daunts of "rracton 
are descended. Colonel Richard Hungerford 
b believed to have fixed his residence at In- 
chidony in 1690. The seat is distant about 
a mile from the seaport town of Clonakilty. 

CAlMTOffAKT, H0V8X, near Lanark, in the 
eo. of Lanark, the seat of Sir Wyndham 
Carmichael Anstruther, Bart. 

The ancient domains of the noble House of 
Carmichael are of sreat extent, and the family 
has long held the hrst place in the county of 
Lanark, next to the loroly Houses of Hamilton 
and Douglas. The great woods of Carmichael 
are stretched on two sides of the iofly emi- 
nence called Carmichael Hill, and are distant 
not many miles from the high mountain of 

• 8cc Sir Richard Colt Hoare's *• Iluagvi fordiaaa.** 



Tintock and the noble river Clyde. The man- 
sion-house is embowered among venerable 
trees, and altogether the scenery is sylvan, 
wfld, and striking. On the other end of the 
property there is a fine woodland siir> 
roundine the House of Westerraw, which has 
belonged, for some centuries, to the Carmi- 
chael famfly, but was anciently the heritage 
of the Johnstones. An exchange, however, 
was effected, by which the Johnstones were 
transferred to Dumfrieshire, and they bc^ 
stowed the name of their original posse saosis 
upon their more recent acquisition. Tins u 
the oriffin of the estate of Westerraw or Wes- 
ter Hall in the county of Dumfiries, which has 
been for some centuries the seat of the distio- 
gubhed baronet's family of Johnstone, who 
are now representativea of the Hotae of 
Annandale, and claimants of the title of 
Marquis. 

The original Westerraw is situated at the 
foot of the noble mountain of Tintock, and is 
surrounded by extensive and ancient woodsi. 
It has been an occasional residence of the 
Hyndford family, and was inhabited by the last 
Earl until his death. His brother and pre- 
decessor built an imposing modem castle upon 
his paternal estate of Mauldesley, on the 
banks of the Clyde, where he constantly re- 
sided. But Carmichael House was the usual 
abode of the earlier Earls of Hjrndford, as it 
had been of their predecessors, the Barons of 
Carmichael, from time immemorial. 

The ancient mansion has long ceased to 
exist. About a century and a half since, a new 
house was commenced on a grand scale. The 
wings were bmlt, and then a stop was put to 
the work; and the house consists of these 
wings, merely joined together by a gallery. 
If the original nlan shoiud ever be followed 
out it womd make a noble mansion, for even 
the wings afford very considerable accoainK^> 
dation. Here the great ambassador, the 3rd 
Earl of Hyndford, resided after he had retired 
from the busy political life in which he acted 
so distinguished a part ; and here he died, in 
1767. His Countess survived him during forty 
years, which she spent here until her death, 
m 1807. Since then, Carmichael House haa 
been very little inhabited hj the successive 
proprietors, which is an unfortunate dmon- 
stance, as it is the central point of a great do- 
main, and po sse ss e s many attractiotts to the 
lover of picturesque and woodland scenery. 

We have no trace of any other family ever 
having possessed this estate than the noble 
race which thence derived its name. The 
earliest ancestor whom we find on record 
is William, Lord of Carmichael, who lived in 
1350. But it b probable that hb ancestocs 
had held the estate during many previous g^ 
nerations. His great-grandson, air John de 
Carmichael, a noble kiught, held a high com- 
mand in the Scottbh auxiliary force sent lo 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



45 



the asrifltance of King Charles VI. of France, 
against the English. He distinguished him- 
self in 1422 at the hatde of Beaugd hy un- 
horsing the Duke of Clarence, a feat which 
decided the victory in favour of the French 
and Scots. Sir John married Lady Mary 
Douglas, daughter of George, Earl of Angus, 
and died in 1436. He had two sons, Wilfiam 
his heir, and John. From the latter were 
descended two distinsuished families. 1. Car- 
michael of Meadowlat. 2. Carmichael of 
Balmedie. The Carmichaels of Meadowflat 
held for six generations the office of Captain 
or Castellan of the Castle of Crawford, and 
they existed until 1658 ; having heen allied to 
many distinguished fieuxiilies. The sister of 
the fast Castellan of Crawford married Carmi- 
chael of Hyndford. Carmichael of Balmedie 
possessed an estate in the county of Fife, and 
IS now represented by Sir James Robert Car- 
michael, DBXU 

William, the eldest son of Sir John de Car- 
michael, was the ancestor of the great house of 
the name. His descendants flourished in an 
uninterrupted succession of Barons of Carmi- 
chael for seven generations. Sir John, the 
fourth in descent, married a lady of the House 
of Somerville ; Sir John, the mth, was Lord 
Warden of the Marches, and was Ambassador 
to Denmark to negotiate the marriage be- 
tween James VI. and Princess Anne. He 
married the sister of the Earl of Angus, and 
of the Regent Earl of Morton. He was mur- 
dered in 1600 by the famous outlaw, Johnny 
Armstrong, while in the exercise of his high 
office of Warden of the Marches. His grand- 
son, Sir John, was the last baron of Carmi- 
chael in direct descent. He was the victim 
of misfortune, and thus paid the forfeit of 
the great prosperity which so long a line of an- 
cestors had enjoyed without interruption. 
Getting very much involved in debt, he was 
wholly unable to extricate himself; and as is 
often the case with the head of a distinguished 
family under such circumstances, he became 
the mark of persecution of his relations, his 
friends, and his neighbours. The world turned 
its back upon him, and he was annoyed on all 
hands by multiplied pecuniary claims. 

The worst mischance that befell him, was 
the high prosperity of a very distant relation 
of his own name, James Carmichael of Hynd- 
ford, whose ancestors had branched ofl* from 
the house of Carmichael about five genera- 
tions back. This James Carmichael had ori- 
ginally been a man of very inferior fortune 
to his chief, though he was well descended. 
His mother was a daughter of the Castellan 
of Crawford, and his grandmother was a Camp- 
bell of Loudon, the maternal granddaughter of 
the Earl of Lennox, and nis Countess, a 
Hamilton, the daughter of Princess Mary, and 
granddaughter of James IL and Queen Mary 
of Guelders. By his descent from the Earl 



of Lennox, James Carmichael had the honour 
of being third cousin to King James I. of 
Great Britain. 

While his chiefs. Sir John and Sur Hugh, 
the grandfather and father of the last un- 
happy Sir John, were filling the high office of 
ambassadors from the Scottish monarch to his 
majesty of Denmark, James Carmichael left 
hu^amaU paternal property of Hyndford, in 
order to push his fortune in a humble way at 
the court in Edinburgh. Being a supple, active 
young fellow, he was selected as one of a 
number who should play a match at football 
for the amusement of the monarch. James 
Carmichael kept up the ball the longest, and 
delighted the xing, who immediately noticed 
him ; and finding that he was a gentleman 
by birth, and even not very remotely related 
to his paternal house of Lennox, he gave him 
an invitation to continue at court. His ad- 
dress was insinuating, and his appearance 
prepossessuafi". He soon won the mvour of 
the kin?, who first appointed him his cup- 
bearer, wen his carver, and then his cham- 
berlain, which office he continued to fill with 
great credit for many years. He was created 
a baronet in 1627. About this time, the 
troubles. and embarrassments of Sir John, the 
Baron of Carmichael, came to their climax ; 
and this circumstance fostered the ambitious 
hopes of Sir James, who desired nothing so 
much as to fill the place of Baron of Car- 
michael, which he had from his earliest youth 
regarded with admiration and envy. He had 
made a good deal of money, and possessed 
considerimle credit. He accordingly made 
use of both, and bought up all the claims of 
eveiy creditor against his unfortunate chief; 
and when he had got him wholly into his 
power, he lost no time in forcing him to sell 
his entire estates, which he was thus enabled 
to purchase at an easy rate, and then he 
found himself, to his no small satisfaction, Sir 
James Carmichael, Baronet of that ilk ! 

He held high and important offices, having 
been Lord Treasurer Depute and Lord Jus- 
tice Clerk, and a Privy Councillor. He 
proved himself a faithful subject and servant 
to King Charles L. in his custress, and lent 
him large sums of money. To reward his 
services, the king raised him to the peerage in 
1647, with the title of Lord Carmicnael. He 
was deprived of his office of Lord Justice Clerk, 
and fined to a large amount, by Cromwell ; but 
was restored on the accession of King Charles 
II. After a very long and extremely prosperous 
life, he died at Carmichael House m 1672, at 
the age of ninety-four. He was the first Car- 
michael who possessed Westerraw, the ancient 
seat of the Johnstones ; and he was for some 
years desinied of Westerraw before he ousted 
his chief from the family inheritance of Car- 
michael. 

Lord Carmichael preserved his great bodily 



46 



8EAT8 OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



▼igour until the very close of life. Of this 
there is a curious proof. At the marriage of 
his granddaughter, Anne Carmichael, in the 
church of Lanark in 1670, he was present, 
and gave to the bride as a keepsake two large 
gold coins of Ring Charles I., and one of 
these he bent with his teeth, in order, as he 
said, to show what a vigorous man he was at 
the age of 92. One of these coins is stfll 
preserved by Mr. Hamflton Gray, who is the 
bride's great^reat-srandson. 

Lord Carmichaefs eldest son died before 
him ; and by the daughter of the first Mar- 
quess of Douglas he left a son, John, who was 
created Earl of Hyndford in 1701. This 
nobleman had strenuously supported the 
government of William IIL, ana was one of 
the great promoters of the union with Eng- 
land. By the daughter of the third Lord 
Maderty, he had numerous issue. We must 
mention three sons : first, James ; second, 
William ; third, Daniel. First, James, second 
Earl of Hyndford, by a daughter of the fifth 
Earl of Lauderdale, had a son, John, and a 
daughter, Ladv Margaret, wife of Sir John 
Anstruther, Bart., of Anstruther. John 
became third Earl of Hyndford, and was one 
of the most remarkable men of his dav. He 
was bom 1701. In 1739, he was made Lord 
Lieutenant of the county of Lanark. In 
1741, he was sent as envoy-extraordinaiy to 
Frederick the Great ; and was extremely suc- 
cessful in accommodating the differences be- 
tween that monarch and the empress-queen. 
He was made a Knight of the Thistle, with 
which order he was mvested bv the hand of 
Frederick the Great, in the palace of Char- 
lottenburg, in virtue of a commission from 
King Geor;^e II. The Kin^ of Prussia 
granted to him the arms of Silesia in addition 
to his paternal coat In 1744, he was sent as 
Ambassador to Russia, and was veiy instru- 
mental in bringing about the peace of Aix-la- 
Chapelle. From 1752 to 1764 he was ambas- 
sador at the court of Vienna. While he thus 
served his country in a public capacity, he 
was highly useful at home in carrying on 
extensive improvements on his estates, making 
considerable buildings, and planting great 
woods at Carmichael House and Westerraw. 
Upon these, in some ^ears, much more than 
the annual rents of his estates were expended. 
Lord Hyndford died at Carmichael House in 
1767, in the sixty-seventh year of his age. 
He had no family by his Countess, who sur- 
vived him, and lived at Carmichael House 
during for^ years. 

His sister, Ladv Margaret Anstruther, 
had a son, Sir John An^ruther, Baronet, 
of Anstruther, who was properly the heir 
of line of the Cannichael family. But the 
title and estates went in preference to the 
heir male, who was son of William, second 
son of the first Eari. This gentleman 



had a son, John, and a daughter, Helen, wife 
of John Gibson of Durie. John succeeded 
his cousin as fourth Earl of H vndford, and 
died without issue in 1787. He was sue- 
ceeded in his paternal property by his grand- 
nephew. Sir John Gibson, Bart., who took 
the name of CarmichaeL His nephew is tha 
present Sir Thomas Gibson Carmicnael. Bart, 
of Castle Craig, in the county of Peebles. 

The Hyndford title, and the great Cami- 
chael estates devolved upon the fourth Earl's 
cousin, the descendant of Daniel, third son of 
the first Earl. This gentleman had the estate 
of Mauldsley on the Clyde, and his gveal- 
mndson, Thomas, became ^ fifth Eari of 
Hyndford, on the death of his cousin. He 
died wiUiout issue in 1810, and was succeeded 
by his brother, Andrew, sixth Earl, who also 
dying without issue, was succeeded in his 
paternal estate of Mauldsley by his nephew, 
Mr. Nesbitt, of Carfin; while the mat 
Carmichael and Westerraw estates devolved 
upon Uie heir of line of the family, the great 
grand-nephew of the ambassador, the third 
Earl, Sir John Anstruther, Bart., of Ans- 
truther. He added the name of Cannichael to 
his patemid name of Anstruther; which, 
however, he retained as his principal name, 
it being the more ancient and noble of the two. 
The present proprietor of these great estates 
is Sir Wyndham Carmichael Anstruther, 
Baronet. The titles are unfortunately extinct 

BOOKDIOSAIC, in the co. of Roscommon ; 
the seat of Viscount Lorton, 

Rockinffham is a stately jialace of pure 
white man>le, erected in the midst of a mag- 
nificent domain, which has within its circuit 
ev^ variety of picturesque scenery. 

The house was built alMut fifty years ago ; 
and contains a noble suite of apartments oa 
the first story. The entrance hall, great 

Sidlery, drawing-room, saloon, library^ and 
ining-room, are of fine proportion, and 
great size. In the upper stones, the bedroom 
accommodation is in a corresfKmdinff style of 
magnificence; and the offices in the basement 
story are extremelv well contrived, and on a 
grand scale. The mansion is alto^ther 
suited for the accommodation of a pnnccly 
establishment, and for the entertainment of 
numerous companies of guests. The rooma 
are both magnificently and commodioosly 
furnished. The architecture is Italian, and 
considering the date of its buildinff, it is well 
that it is so; for a large mansioa in the 
Elixabethan or castellated style, buOt in the 
beginning of the present century, would, in all 
probability, have been in the worst possible 
taste ; whereas Rockingham b a very perfect 
specimen of an Italian palace, adapted to the 
circumstances of our donate, and eonformed 
to our ideas of comfort The roof is so con- 
trived as to afford a pretty extensive walk« 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



47 



firom whence the mostglorioiu scenery can he 
enjoved. 

The view extends OTer the rich and well- 
wooded domains of Lord Lorton ; while im- 
mediately in front, there is a large lake, with 
its hanks covered with heautifiil plantations, 
and its hroad sur&ce dotted withinnumerahle 
islands, each adorned with a grove of venera- 
ble trees, or a tangled thicket of copse. All 
around the house extend beautiful shrubberies, 
which on three sides are bounded by the park, 
and in front cover the steep bank, which 
descends to the lake. These smrubberies com- 
municate with the gardens, which are very 
extensive, and supplied with a profusion of 
hothouses. Beyond the shrubberies, the 
park is intersected by noble avenues of ancient 
trees, and by woods spreading for many mQes 
around, especially on the margin of the lake; 
and running into it with promontories and 
peninsulas. 

Some notion of the scale of grandeur of this 
noble place may be formed from the fact, that 
within the park gates there are drives to the 
extent of between seventy and eighty miles : 
that is to say, this distance may be traversed 
through the woods, along the lawns, and by 
the side of the lake, without ever twice 
driving along the same road. The carriage 
roads also are broad and level, and kept m 
admirable repair. Lord Lorton has taken 
care to erect numerous towen and other build- 
ings throughout his wide domain, from whence 
extensive views may be obtained, as well of 
the beauties of thelake,aa of the inland scenery. 

After a drive of seventy miles through 
these enchanting grounds, a very imperfect 
notion is all that can as yet be obtained of the 
beauties of Rockingham. In order fullv to 
appreciate them, it is needful next, to embark 
in a boat, and spend a day in sailing or row- 
ing about upon the lake, which is spread in 
their centre as an ornamental piece of water. 
The extent of this fine sheet is about four 
miles in one direction, and three miles in 
another; and its beauties are still more 
varied than those of the park, from the number 
of islands covered with wood, and from the 
great variety of irr^ular banks, jutting 
promontories, steep headlands, and bold 
peninsulas, aD richly wooded, which break the 
tine of its margin. 

Two of these islands are of considerable 
interest ; the one containing the ruins of an 
ancient religious house, of which the church 
ia still in tolerable preservation, and po s s esses 
some very fine architectural specimens of 
the decorated style. On the other is situated 
the ancient castle of the old lords of this 
region, the MacDermotts. Thb is a pio- 
toresque irregular turriform structure of con- 
rideimble sixe, which has always been kept in 
good repair, and is now perfect! v habitable. 
The ialsind on which it is sitaated is not very 



distant from the shore, and is just opposite the 
house of Rockingham. 

At one end of the park stands the town of 
Boyle, which may be regarded as a depen- 
dency of the estate, for afi the surrounding 
country belongs to Lord 1 jorton. There is here 
an ancient building, which has been con- 
verted into a barracks ; and the ruins of the 
abbey of Boyle are well worthy of being in- 
spected, lliey are among the finest in 
Ireland on account of their extent, the rich- 
ness and beauty of their architecture, and 
the good state of repair in which they are 
kept by Lord Lorton. The east ^ndow and 
the arches and pillars of the aisles are of 
peculiar elegance, and belong to the deco- 
rated style of architecture. 

There are ver^ few places in England to be 
compared with Rockingham in point of extent 
and picturesque beauty; and it is considered 
as, beyond slII comparison, the finest seat in 
Ireland. It possesses in perfection the two 
peculiar characteristics of Irish seats — ^fresh- 
ness and beauty of verdure, and lovely lake 
scenery. Nature, in that favoured island, 
bestows what in England so much exjpense is 
lavished in order to procure— viz., veruant turf 
and ornamental water : these are the native 
adornments of Ireland, and these are pos- 
sessed in the richest abundance by Rock- 
ingham. 

Notwithstanding the innovations of cotton 
lords and iron kings, the real ancient aristo- 
cracy of England and Scotland are still to be 
found lords of the soil. The British peerage 
may be taken as a fair tjrpe of the highest class 
of die British nobility ; and the different races 
in both countries have been so much fiued to- 
gether by time, territorial neighbourhood, and 
matrimonial alliance, that to trace out the 
difference of national origin is a matter of 
difficult antiquarian research. 

It is true, that in Scotland the Highlander 
can be easily distinguished from tne Low- 
lander ; but it is of no practical importance to 
prove any given family to be of Pictish, 
Danish, Saxon, or Norman origin. There is 
now no aueition of conqueror or of conquered. 
No Caledonian clan can point to the territories 
of which thejr were dispossessed by the Nor- 
wegian sea-king ; and no Saxon Franklin is 
plotting to oust a Norman invader fimn his 
ancestors' broad acres. 

The case is, unfortunately, widely different 
in Ireland. An Irish " Peerage," or a " Hi»- 
tory of the Irish Gentry," wcmld give but an 
inskdequate account of the royal and noble blood 
of that island. A very few of the ancient races 
of the land have found their way into the 
peerage, and some are still in possession of 
the estates of their ancestors ; but we must 
look for the representatives of the real ancient 
Hibernian nobuity in the service of Austria 
and Spain, or in mnd-waUed cabins and peat- 



48 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, 



bogs of their native countrv. The territories 
of the ancient reguli and the lordships of the 
aboriginal nobles of the land, are now in the 
hands of the descendants of the barons of 
Henrv II., the knights and gentlemen of 
Elizabeth, the London apprentices of Crom- 
well, and the troopers of William III. ; while 
the north is possessed by canny colonists from 
Scotland. An almanac of Tara, and an Irish 
peerage, would be found to contain scarcely 
any families in common ! 

It may be euessed from these remarks, that 
Rocldngham nas changed hands since the days 
when 

'•MalMhy wort the ooUtf of gold.** 

The ancient chiefs of that portion of Roscom- 
mon where this magnificent place is situated, 
were the MacDermotts, princes of Coolavin 
and lords of Moylurff. Their descendant 
and representative still popularly retains 
the title of ** Prince of Coolavin." The 
palace of this ancient race of rulers waa 
the picturesque castle in the isle of the lake 
in Lord Lorton*s park, of which mention has 
flJready been made. But it deserves .to be 
noted that the ancestors of the present vene- 
rable proprietor obtained possession of the 
MacDermott property by fair means, and 
neither by violence nor treachery. The price 
was fairlv and honestly paid for it in money; 
■o ,that if a day of reckoning ever comes 
between the Muesian and Saxon, the posses- 
sions of the house of King, in the county of 
Roscommon, will be secure. Such is the 
popular tradition and belief in that part of the 
country. Concerning the peat and noble 
race of the MacDermotts, frequent and au- 
thentic notices will be found m that curious 
and valuable work, " The Annals of the Four 
Masters." 

The family of Kin^ is of ancient English 
origin, and in their original country they be- 
longed to (he class <n the higher gentry. 
They do not trace their pedigree in the male 
line to the barons who came over with 
Strongbow in the rei^ of Henry II., 
neither is their connection with Ireland the 
more recent one associated with the 
names of Oliver Cromwell and William of 
Orange. The family of King was ancient 
and respectable in the county of York; 
and the fint of its members that settled in 
Ireland was Sir John King, who obtained from 
Queen Elizabeth, in requital for his military 
services, a lease of the Abbey of Bovle, in 
the county of Roscommon : and in the sub- 
sequent reign, he was enriched with valuable 
grants of land, and very lucrative political 
appointments. 

By Catherine, daughter of Robert Drunr, 
and grand-niece of the Lord Deputy, Sir 
Williun Drury, he had a son, Sir Robert 



King, who held high appointments under 
government. This gentleman had two sons, 
progenitors of two distinct branches of the 
family, which have been united by marriaee. 
His eldest son, Sir John, was ancestor of the 
first line of Lords Kingston. His younger 
son. Sir Robert, was ancestor of the present 
line of Earls of Kingston. 

Sir John King acquired by marriage with 
Catherine Fenton the great estate of Mit- 
chelstown, in the county of Cork ; and was 
created a peer by King Charles II., with the 
tide of Lord Kmpton, in 1660. His male 
line failed with his grandson James, fourth 
Lord Kingston, in 1761, who left an only 
child, Margaret, heiress to his great estates ; 
who, by her husband, Richard ritsgerald of 
Ophally, had an only child, Caroline Fits- 
gerald,* heiress of the elder line of the boose 
of King, and of Mitchelstown, and other 
great possessions in the south of Ireland. 

Sir Robert, the younger son of the first 
Sir Robert King, was seated at Rockingham ; 
he was M.P. for the county of Roscommon, 
and waa created a Baronet in 1682. His 
grandson Sir Robert, fourth Baronet, was 
created Baron Kingsborough, in 1748; but 
dying without iwue, he was succeeded by his 
brother. Sir Edward, as fifth Baronet of Rock- 
ingham, who was created Baron Kingston in 
1764 (soon after the extinction of that title in 
the elder line). Viscount Kingsborough in 
1766, and Earl of Kingston in 1768. Among 
other children he had a daughter, Lady Jane, 
married to Laurence Parsons, Ea^l of Rosse ; 
and a son, Robert, who, at hu father's death 
in 1797, became second EarL He had, in 
1769, married the heiress of the elder line of 
his family, Catherine Fitzgerald of Mitchels- 
town Castle. This was a very eariy marriage 
on both sides, as may be seen from the fi^ 
that the youthful Lord Kingsborough, his 
still more youthful wife, and ueir eldest son, 
when their several ages were calculated to- 
gether, could not reckon up more than thirty- 
one years I The issue of this union was very 
numerous. The eldest son, George, third 
Eari of Kingston, inherited the great estates 
of the elder line of the family in the south of 
Ireland, and was seated at Mitchelstown 
Castle. His eldest son, Edward, Viscount 
Kingsborough, who predeceased bun in 1837, 
was author of a curious and splendid work 
on the antiquities of Mexico ; the expense of 
the preparation and publication of which, 
amounted to near thirty thousand pounds; 
and on which Lord Kingsborough nad be- 
stowed the labour and studv of many years. 
His second son, Robert Henrjr, succeeded 
him as fourth Eari of Kingston m 1839. 

The second son of the second Eari of 
Kingston, and the heiress of Mitchelston, 
the Hon. Robert Edward King, bom in 1773, 
inherited the great estates of the junior line 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



49 



of the family, and was seated at Rockingham, 
in the county of Roscommon, which he has 
greatly improved and adorned, so that it is 
now (as has been already mentioned) cele* 
brated as the most beautiful and extensive 
domain in Ireland. He is a General in the 
army, and Lord Lieutenant of the county of 
Roscommon. In 1800 he was created Baron 
Erris, and in 1806, Viscount Lorton. In 
1799 he married his cousin, Lady Frances 
Parsons, only daughter and heiress of Lau- 
rence, Earl of Rosse. Viscountess Lorton 
died in 1841. By her he had issue, with 
several daue^hters, two sons : — 

1. The Hon. Robert King. 

2. The Hon. Laurence Harman Kine, who 
assumed the additional surname of Harman 
in 1838, on inheriting the great Newcastle 
estates in the county of Longford, on the 
death, in that year, of his maternal grand- 
mother, Jane, Countess of Rosse, widow of Lau- 
rence Parsons, Earl of Rosse. These estates 
came to the Earl of Rosse in right of his mother, 
Anne, only child of Wentworth Harman. 

XAVLDSLET CASTLE, in the co. of Lanark, 
the seat of James Hozier, Esq., of Newlands. 

This beautiful property was originally a 
portion of the estate of the family ot Daniels- 
toun, or Dennistoim. In the year 1374 Sir 
John de Danielstoun resigned Mauldsley and 
other lands into the hands of King Robeit II., 
and obtained from that monarch a re-srant of 
them. His son Robert died in 1399, leaving 
only two daughters, the heiresses of these large 
estates. Of these, the elder married Sir 
William Cuninghame of Kilmaurs, and was 
ancestor to the Earls of Glencaim ; and the 
younger married, in 1402, Sir Robert Maxwell, 
the first of the Calderwood branch of that 
great house. Mauldsley was a portion of the 
lands which this alliance brought into the 
Maxwell family, in which it continued until 
the middle of the seventeenth century, when 
it was alienated in consequence of the extra- 
vagance of the first Baronet of Calderwood, 
and was acquired by the Lord Carmichael, 
at that time one of the most rising men 
in Scotland. It afterwards became the in- 
heritance of a youn£;er son of the great 
family of Carmichael, Earl of Hyndford. 
John, second Lord Carmichael, was botii in 
1638, and succeeded his grandfather, the first 
Lord, in 1672. Entering early and heartily 
into the revolution, he was much favoured by 
King William III. and Queen Anne. He 
was appointed Secretary of State in 1696, and 
in 1701 he was created Earl of Hjrndford. 
By his wife, the Hon. Beatrix Drummond, 
daughter of David, third Lord Maderty, he 
had numerous issue His third son, the Hon. 
Daniel Carmichael, inherited the estate of 
Mauldsley, beautifully situated on the banks 
of the Clyde. The grandson of this Daniel, 



Thomas Carmichael of Mauldsley, succeeded 
his cousin as fifth Earl of Hyndford in 1787. 
The family estates, which he inherited along 
with the title, were very extensive and valu- 
able. But the chief mansion of the family, 
Carmichael House, was possessed by Jean, 
Countess of Hyndford, widow of the distin- 
guished ambassador, the third earl, who sur- 
vived her husband forty years, until 1807. 
Thomas, Earl of H3mdford, was, moreover, 
justly partial to his paternal property, and here 
he resolved to erect a fine baronial mansion. 

Nothing can be more picturesque than the 
situation of Mauldsley, on a fair and smiling 
meadow, close to the broad stream of the 
Clyde, and adorned with a lovely background 
of hills, covered with orchards and woods. 
The scene is a perfect picture of natural 
beauty and fertility, and it is one of the most 
pleasant spots in Scotland. Lord Hyndford 
removed the old house, which had been in- 
habited by his father and grandfather; and 
about sixty years ago he constructed a castle 
according to the notions entertained at that 
time of feudal and castellated buildings. It 
is hardly necessary to say that Mauldsley 
Castle is built in the very worst possible taste. 
It is a large square mass, flanked with round 
towers, and a few pepperbox turrets, and the 
roof is surrounded with battlements. Yet, 
notwithstanding the ineffectual attempt at 
Gothic imitation, it is a striking building, and 
has an imposing appearance when seen from 
a distance, rising proudly on the lovely banks 
of the broad and clear river, and surrounded 
by extensive lawns and woody slopes. The 
interior is in no way remarkable, though it 
contains several handsome rooms. 

Thomas, Earl of Hyndford, made Maulds- 
ley Castle his constant residence. He died 
unmarried in 1811; and was succeeded by his 
brother Andrew, sixth Earl of Hyndford, who 
enjoyed the honours only during a few years, 
and was chiefly resident at another seat, 
Westerraw, though he occasionally inhabited 
Mauldsley. He, too, died unmarried ; and the 
great and noble family of Carmichael became 
extinct in the direct male line. There are, 
doubtless, some remote branches of the family 
of Carmichael ; but there exists no male 
representative of James Carmichael of 
Hyndford, who was third cousin to King 
James VI. — was an especial favourite of 
that monarch — and was by him created Lord 
Carmichael. 

On the death of the sixth Earl of Hyndford, 
the great family estates of Carmichael and 
Westerraw — the former of which had been 
for ages the seat of his ancestors — went to the 
righmil heir of line of the house of Carmichael, 
Sir John Anstruther, Baronet of Anstruther 
and Elie, in the county of Fife. His great- 
grandmother. Lady Margaret Anstruther, the 
wife of Sir John Anstruther, was eldest sister 

u 



50 



8BATB OF OBBAT BBITAIM AXD IRBLAND. 



of the third Earl of Hyndford, the distin- 
guished amhauador; and the Carmichael 
estates are now the property of Sir Wyndham 
Anstnither, Bart., who thus represents two of 
the most distinguished houses in Scotland — 
that of Carmichael, and the infinitely more 
ancient one of Anstruther. 

While the great family estates went to the 
rightful heir of line, the paternal estate of the 
two last earls, Mauldsley Castle, descended 
to their nephew, Mr. Neshitt of Carfin, 
in the county of Lanark. After many years 
it was disposed of by the heirs of that 
gentleman; and it has been recently pur- 
chased by Mr. Hozier, the present pro- 
pnetor. The grandfather of this gentleman, 
whose name was Maclehose, acqmred a for* 
tune in the city of Glasgow; and in the 
year 1784 he purchased the estate of New- 
lands from Mr. Gray of Dalmamock and 
('arntvne. This property being now in the 
suburbs of Glasgow is of very great value ; 
and as it was the earliest landed possession of 
his family, it has been their designation ever 
since. Mr. Maclehose was succeeded by his 
son, who abandoned his original surname of 
Maclehose, and assumed that of Hozier. He 
married the daughter of Mr. Coats, Provost 
of Glasgow, the paternal grandfather of Mr. 
Campbell Colquhoun, and by her he had a 
son, the present Mr. Hozier of Newlands, who 
succeeded to a fortune which had been greatly 
augmented by his father. Besides the originiu 
estate of Newlands, which Mr. Maclehose, his 
grandfather, bought from Mr. Gravof Dalmar- 
nock and Camtyne, Mr. Hozier has acquired 
by purchase several properties in the county 
of Lanark — St. Enocn's Hall, and more 
recently thu beautiful residence on the banks 
of the Clyde, which had been the favourite 
abode of the fifth Earl of Hyndford. Mr. 
Hozier married the daughter of Sir William 
Fielden, baronet, by whom he has issue. He 
has recently settled at Mauldsley Castle, 
which, as it has been only occasionally in- 
habited since the death of the fifth Earl of 
Hyndford, will doubtless receive many im- 
provements from the judicious expenditure of 
the present proprietor. It forms one of a 
series of beautiful seats which adorn the banki 
of the Clyde between Hamilton and Lanark. 
These are too numerous to be here specified ; 
but we may mention Dalziel House, the 
castellated mansion of Hamilton of Orbieston ; 
Camnethan, the ancient seat of the great 
baronial house of Somerville, now the property 
of Mr. Lockhart, a branch of the great family 
ot Lee ; and Milton Lockhart, the residence 
of Mr. Lockhart, M.P. for Lanarkshire. 
These three seats, together with Mauldsley 
Castle, stand upon the same side of the river 
Clyde, a very few miles distant from each other, 
and enliven with their uncommon beauty the 
great natural loveliness of the scenery. 



WZ8HAW, in the co. of Lanark, the seat of 
Lord Belhaven. 

This mansion which is the old paternal seat 
of the family of Hamilton of Wishaw, has 
been enlarged and beautified by the present 
Lord Belhaven. The style of architecture 
is castelled, and the whole is a very su cces s 
ful alteration of an ancient mansion. The 
front has an extremely handsome appearance, 
the outline being much varied by the different 
heights and projections of the embattled walls 
and towers. 1 he apartments are suitable to 
the extent of the house, and some of them are 
particularly worthy of attention for their 
oeauty and ffood proportion. There are 
several good family pictures at Wishaw ; one 
of Sir Jaiies Balfour, by Vandyke. Thifre is 
also a picture of John, second Lord Belhaven, 
who, in the reign of Queen Anne, made so 
strenuous an opposition to the treaty of union. 
This estate nas been for many generationa 
in the possession of the family of Hamilton 
of Wishaw, on whom the Belhaven peerage 
devolved within the last few years. Its value 
has immensely increased from the seams of 
coal which have been recently discovered, 
and which are now worked to great profit. 
The family of Hamilton of Wishaw is a cadet 
of Hamilton of Nielsland, which is a cadet 
of Hamilton of Raploch, a great branch of 
the ducal house; so that Lord Belhaven is 
not an immediate younger branch of the 
family of Hamilton, but belones to that 
numerous class of families of the name of 
Hamilton, of which Hamilton of Batns, as 
representing the great House of Raploch, ia 
chieftain, under the headship of the duke. 

The Belhaven peerage devolved upon the 
family of Wishaw in a curious manner. It 
was originally conferred in 1675 on John 
Hamilton of firoomhill, the descendant of an 
illegitimate son of the first Lord Hamilton. 
He married the illegitimate daughter of the 
first Marquis of Hamilton, but had no son. 
He had several daughters, one of whom niar> 
ried Sir Robert Hamilton, baronet, of Silver^ 
ton Hill, by whom she had several children. 
Among these, a daughter, Margaret Hamilton, 
married John Hamilton, of Presmannan, a 
younger branch of Nielsland, which was a 
younger branch of Raploch. The first Lord 
Belhaven fixed upon the husband of this 
erandchild as his heir ; and in favour of him 
he resigned his peerage to the crown, getting 
a new grant of it with remainder to him. J ohn 
Hamilton accordingly became second Lord 
Belhaven. He was an eminent man and a 
distinguished patriot. He died in 1708, and 
his line failed m 1777 with James, fifth lord. 
Upon his death the great Belhaven estate* 
went to his ci>usin and nentest heir, Mary 
Hamilton, the wife of William Nesbitt of 
Dirleton ; but as the Belhaven peerage could 
not be held by a female, it fell H>r a tunc into 



BEATS OF GREAT BBITAIN AND IBELAND. 



51 



abeyance. Mrs. Hamilton Nesbitt's estate 
of Biel is now possessed by the only child of her 
son, Mary, who married — first, the Earl of £lgin, 
from whom she was divorced, and secondly, 
Mr. Fergusson, of Raith. Her heir is her 
danghter, Lady Mary Bruce, the wife of R. 
A. Dundas Christopher, M.P. Mrs. Hamil- 
ton Nesbitt's estate of Pencaitland went to 
her daughter, the wife of Mr. Campbell of 
Isla; and her eldest daughter and heiress, 
Hamilton Campbell, married the present Lord 
BeDiaven. Thus one of the original Bel- 
haven estates has been again brought into 
connection with the title ! 

On the death of the fifth Lord Belhaven 
in 1777, the peerage was claimed by Captain 
John Hamilton, as the representative of the 
eldest uncle of the second lord. But he was 
found by the House of Lords to have no right, 
because it more properly belonged to the 
descendantsof the second lord'syoungest uncle. 
This was Mr. Hamilton of mshaw, and he 
accordingly became Lord Belhaven. The 
present peer b the eighth Lord Belhaven. He 
nas been created a British baron with the 
title of Lord Hamilton of Wishaw, and he 
has frequently been Lord High Commis- 
sioner to the General Assembly of the Kirk of 
Scotland. He is Vice Lieutenant of the 
county of Lanark. There are several 
younger branches of the family of Hamilton 
of Wishaw, among others, William Richard 
Hamilton, late minister at the court of Naples. 

TUIXYALLAH, Perth, the seat of the late 
Viscount Keith. 

Tullyallan, which is now held in trust 
for Viscount Keith's male heir, is an ex- 
tensive and valuable property, lying on the 
north bank of the great tide river Forth, 
where its waters are upwards of two miles 
wide. Many hundreds of the most fertile 
acres of this property have been reclaimed 
from the river. The house is a large and 
imposing pile, built by the late Viscount, of 
beautiful white freestone. It boasts of no 
particular style ; but the rooms are fine, and 
are arranged with every modem appliance for 
light, warmth, and comfort It is, however, 
situated so close to the ship-building and trad- 
ing town of Kincardine that nothii^ less than 
the skill and judgment of the Countess Fla- 
hault (the eldest daughter of Lord Keith), 
could have so disposed the transplanted trees 
and shrubs upon the lawn, which separates it 
within very restricted limits from tne urban 
streets, as to give the appearance of a belt of 
wood, only terminated by the noble river. 
The park is large, but the approach on the 
town side is short and confinea. On the oppo- 
site side it sweeps through a reach of two 
mDes before it joins the Queensferry road ; 
and it traverses an old fir forest, enlivened and 
adorned by an undergrowth of rhododendrons. 



and which abounds in pheasants and other 
game. On the skirts of this forest, at some 
distance, there is a small and lovely lake, on 
the banks of which the late lord erected or 
restored a little chapel, in which his mortal 
remains now repose. The doorway is sup- 
ported by two small columns of polished gra- 
nite, which he brought with him from Egypt. 

The gardens of Tullyallan are particularly 
beautiful, disposed in all styles, from the 
arboretum to the conservatory ; and amongst 
them the most admired for its brilliant and 
tasteful display is the French garden, laid out 
by the Coimtess Flahault, in tiny beds, with 
gravel walks between. 

At the end of the gardens, and close above 
the river, there is an elevated terrace, which 
commands one of the finest views in Scotland. 
It embraces the course of the Forth, from its 
rise in the Grampians to its expansion into 
sea, and overlooks the rich carse of Falkirk 
and the lovely vale of Stirling, with all their 
parks and pleasure-grounds, their romantic 
rocks and woods, their hills and glens, their 
castles and towers. At a distance m the plain 
are the towns of Linlithgow and Falkirk. On 
the marnn of the river are those of Kincar- 
dine. Alloa, and Stirling. 

The castle of the latter shows proudly on 
its basaltic rock, while on either side of it rise 
the corresponding rocks of the Abbey Craig 
and Craig Forth, like islands fi*om amid a sea 
of com. On one side the view is skirted by 
the bold range of the Ochils, overhanging 
the frith, and adorned with the extensive 
woods of Alva. In the same fair valley stand 
the towers of Alloa and Clackmannan, and 
rear Tullyallan, the ruins of the castle of 
Blackader, once the fortified residence of the 
family of that name, the former proprietors of 
Tullyallan. On the opposite shore of the 
Forth lies the park of Dunmore, so named 
from its present possessors, but the ancient 
domain of the £lphinstones. This magnifi- 
cent view may be said to be framed in the 
picturesque ranges of the Ochils and the 
Campsies, and terminated by the towering 
grandeurs of Ben Lomond and Ben Ledi. 

Tullyallan belonged, in the olden time, to 
the great and ancient family of Edmondstone, 
and was a portion of the estates of John de 
Edmondstone, Baron of Ednam, in the reien 
of King Robert II., whose daughter, the 
Countess Dowager of Douglas, he married. 
Their grandson, James de Edmondstone, had 
from King James II. a renewal of the charter 
of the lands of Tullyallan, and other lands, to 
himself and Janet Napier, his wife, daughter 
of Alexander Napier of Merchiston, in 1456. 
They had no male issue ; but two daughters, 
of whom the eldest married Blackader of that 
ilk, in the shire of Berwick, and carried with 
her into that family the lands of Tullyallan. 

The Blackaders of that ilk were a family of 






52 



8EAT8 OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



great antiquity. One of their most noted 
members was Robert Blackader, Bishop of 
Glasgow, in whose incumbency the see of 
Glasgow was erected into an archbishopric, 
with a view to place Scotland on the same 
footing with England as regarded ecclesiasti- 
cal matters ; the see of Glangow holding to 
St. Andrew's the relation of York to Canter- 
bur}'. This event occuiTed in 1491, not 
without vehement opposition from the pride 
and ambition of the i'rimate of St. Andrew's. 
Archbishop Blackader was a munificent bene- 
factor to the Cathedral of Glasgow. He built 
the great stair which leads from the crypt to 
the nave, and he erected the southern tran- 
sept, which still bears his name. He was 
much occupied with affairs of state ; he was 
also a great traveller, and died while on a 
pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 1508. 

Robert Blackader of that ilk, probably 
nephew to the Archbishop, married Lady 
Alison Douglas, sister to Archibald, sixth 
Earl of Angus, the husband of Margaret of 
England, Queen Dowager of James IV. of 
Scotland. Soon after this, the line of Black- 
ader of that ilk failed in two coheiresses, the 
daughters of Robert Blackader, who married 
two brothers, younger sons of Hume of Wed- 
derbum. From tne eldest coheiress, Jane, 
and her husband, John Hume, was descended 
the family of Hume of Blackader, in Ber- 
wickshire. 

The family of Blackader of TuUyallan con- 
tinued to exist for several generations after 
the extinction of the elder line. The heiress 
of the Edmondstones was succeeded in the 
estate of Tullyallan, by her son. Sir Patrick 
Blackader, who had, among other children, a 
daughter, Jane, who married Sir David Bruce 
of Clackmannan, about 1542. His grandson, 
Sir John Blackader of Tullyallan, married the 
Lady Christian Graham, daughter of John, 
sixth Earl of Menteath, who died in 1598. 
This ancient family has long been extinct, and 
the lands of Tullyallan have passed through 
the hands of other proprietors. At one time 
they belonged for several generations to a 
family of the name of Lindsay. Duncan 
Lindsay of Tullyallan, was grandfather of 
Adam Lindsay of Tullyallan, who was served 
heir to him in 1G73. 

Lord Keith acquired this estate by purchase. 
This distinguished nobleman was the younger 
sou of a very illustrious but impoverished 
family ; and entirely through his own merit, 
he acquired high rank, great fortune, and 
extensive influence, and was for many y^*^^ 
at the head of the Naval Service of Great 
Britain. Charlps, tenth Lord Elphinstone, 
was the youneer son of the ninth lord, and 
could boaxt as nigh a pedigree as any in Scot- 
land ; but tlie great entates of the family had 
been alienated, and he had little to depend 
upon but his profession, which was the navy. 



However, he found favour in the sight of the 

noblest and, at the same time, one of the 

fairest and most worthy heiresses in Scotland, 

the Lady Clementina Fleming, only child of 

John, sixth Earl of Wigton, by his second 

wife. Lady Marv Keith, eldest daughter of 

William, ninth fearl Marischal, and sister of 

the forfeited Earl Marischal and the famous 

Field-Marshal Keith. Lady Clementina was 

heiress of line of these two illustrious families^ 

as well as of the Drummonds, Eark of Perth, 

and the Kers, Earls of Roxbuigh. Very few 

persons in Great Britain possessed so perfect 

a nobility as this lady. Her sixty-four 

quarters are without a flaw. Her thirty-two 

quarters belong entirely to the highest families 

of the Scottish Peerage : — 

Fleming, Earl of Wigton (thrice) 

Keith, Earl Marischal (twice) 

Seton, Earl of Dunfermline 

Drummond, Earl of Perth (twice) 

Hay, Earl of Kinnoul 

Douglas, Earl of Morton (twice) 

Douglas, Duke of Douglas 

Livingstone, Earl of Linlithgow 

Erskine, Earl of Mar 

Hay, Marquess of Tweeddale 

Gordon, Duke of Gordon (twice) 

Ker, Earl of Roxburgh (twice) 

Graham, Duke of Montrose 

Home. Earl of Home (twice) 

Hamilton of Sanquhar, a cadet of the Duke of 

Hamilton 
Lindsay, Earl of Crawford 
Haliburton of Pitcur, a cadet of the Lord of 

Dirleton 
Lyon, Earl of Strathmore 
Oliphant, Lord Oliphant 
Stuart, Duke of Lennox (twice) 
Ker, Marquess of Lothian 
Campbell, Duke of Argyle 
Maitland, Earl of Lauderdale 

It is not often that so many quarters of the 
very highest nobility belong to one indi- 
vidual in Great Britain; a country where* 
happily, no lineof demarkation exists between 
the classes, as in most continental countries, 
and where mixed marriage* are consequenUjr 
frequent. 

Charles Elphinstone married the Lady 
Clementina Fleming in 1735, and it was not 
until eighteen years after, that he became heir 
apparent to his father's peerage, in conae- 

Suence of his elder brother's death ; and he 
id not become Lord Elphinstone until 1757. 
He died in 1781. His wife, who had inherited 
the fortune of her own great family, survived 
until 1799, when she died at the' ace of 80, 
in the house of her son, Viscount Keith, in 
London. 

George Keith Elphinstone, the filth son of 
this marriaffe, was bom 1747, and went to sea 
in 1762. lie was a captain in 1775, rear- 
admiral in 1794, vice-admiral in 1798, and 



SEATS OF GREAT BBITAI3C AXD ISELAHD. 



53 



admiral in 1801. He was a Knight of the 
Bath, and of the Creseent, and other orders. 
In 1797, he was created a peer of Ireland as 
Baron Keith ; in 1801, a Britidi peer as Baron 
Keith ; and afterwards in 1814, a Tiscoant, 
with the same title. The last peerage was 
limited to the heirs male of hii body. Lord 
Keith*s senrices were yery distinguished, and 
he possessed the esteem and respect of the 
Navy, and of the country at large, from the 
memhers of the Royal Family, with most of 
whom he was on very intimate terms, down to 
the poorest peasant of hb natire land, who 
felt an honest pride in the honours which 
he had won hr his unaided exertions : for 
though so nohly horn, he had no original court 
favour, or ministerial influence to push him 
on. Lord Keith made extensive purchases in 
Scotland, and spent the latter years of his life 
at his seat of Tullyallan, where he built and 
improved on a large scale. He married — ^first, 
Jane, daughter and heiress of Colonel Mercer 
of Aldie, by whom he had a daughter, Mar- 
garet, who succeeded to the Mercer estates, 
and to the ancient Scottish Barony of Naime 
in right of her mother, and married the Count 
de riahanlt, by whom she has isnie several 
dauehters, the eldest of whom is married to 
the Earl of Shelbume. Lord Kdth married, 
secondly, in 1808, Hester, eldest daughter and 
heiress of Henry Thrale, of Streatham, M.P. 
This lady, who still smvives, was the pupil of 
that great philosopher and moralist, Dr. 
Johnson, ana is probably the only person now 
■live who enjoyed the intimate intercourse o( 
that celebratM literary and social circle with 
which he is identified. By her Lord Keith 
had a daughter, Georgiana, married, 1831, to 
the Honourable Augustus ViUiera, second son 
of the present Eari of Jersey. 

Viscount Keith died in 1823, when his title 
of viscount became extinct, but his English 
and Irish baronies devolved on his eldest 
daughter, the Countess de Flahanlt, who is now 
a peeress of Eneland, Scotland, and Ireland. 
Viscount Keith left his estate of TuDysllan in 
the hands of trustees, in behalf of an heir 
male of either of his daughters. 

Though a fifth son, the Viscount was the 
most eminent and distinguished member of 
his family, and did much to raise its considers- 
tion and influence. 

His eldest brother, John, socceeded his 
lather as eleventh Lord Elphinstone. By the 
daughter of lord Rnthven, he was father of 
the twelfth Lord (whose son is the present 
peer), and Admiral Charles Fleming, who, on 
mheriting the Wigton estates of Biggar and 
Cumbernauld, aanuned that surname. 

His next brother, the Honourable William 
FullertoQ Elphinstone of Carberry, had a 
numerous ftmiily. Viscount Keith's sister, 
the Honourable Eleonora Elphinslone, mar- 
ried the Right Honourable William Adam, 
of Blair Adajn, M.P., Lord fdrntmant of the 



county of Kinross, and Lord Chief C'Ommia- 
sioner of the Jory Court. She died in 1800, 
leaving issue — 

Admiral Sir Charles Adam, K.CJS. of 
Blair Adam, M.P., died 1S53. 

General the Right Hon. Sir Frederick 
Adam, G.C.B^ late Governor of Madras, and 
Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian 
Isknds, died 1853. 

Clementina, wife of John Anstnither Tbcmi- 
son of Charieton, in the county of Fife, and 
mother of the present John Anstruther 
Thomson of Charieton. 

The viscount *s youngest sister, the honour- 
able Clementina Elphinstone, married, 1785, 
James Drummond Lord Perth, and had one 
child, the Honourable Clementina Sarah 
Drummond, heiress of Perth, married, 1807, 
the Lord Gwyder, now Lord WiUoughby de 
Eresby. 



, in the co. of Ajrr, the seat of 



Sir James Feigusson, Bart. 

This beantifiil seat is about twelve miles to 
the south of the town of Ayr. The sur- 
rounding country is hilly and pastoral, being 
a fine specimen of the best lowland Scottish 
scenery. The park of Kilkerran is adorned 
with magnificent old trees, and lofty green 
hiUs rise all around. Hie woods and plan- 
tations are tm a large scale, and the shrub- 
beries and pleasure- g ro un ds are very exten- 
sive, and of great picturesque beauty. Three 
long approaches lead to the mansion-house 
from dmerent points of the public roads, and 
are conducted through the park with great 
taste. About a mile and a half or two miles 
from the present house stands the castle of 
Kilkerran, which was the ancient residence of 
the family. The waUs are in good preser- 
vation. 

On Sir James Fergusson's estate, and at 
the distance of two miles firom the town of 
Maybole, is the Abbey of Crossraguel, 
founded in 1244 by Duncan, son of Gilbert, 
Earl of Carrick. it is more entire than any 
other abbey in the west of Scotland. The 
situation is very low ; the surface of the 
ground is irregular, swelling into hills on aD 
sides. The view is therefcxe confined, except 
towards the easL The walls of the church 
are almost entire, about 160 feet long and 02 
feet high. Near the west end of the church, 
on the north side, is a door of a conic form, 
9 feet high, and at the bottom 5 feet broad. 
Towards the east remains the niche where the 
principal altar stood. On the right of this 
IS the vestry and the abbot's ecclesiastical 
court, all entire, and arched much in the style 
of the cathedral of Glasgow. There are 
besides several vaults and cells, all built of 
fine hewn stone. At the west end of the 
abbey stands the abbot's house. In this 
the stair is entire from top to bottom of a 
tower 30 feet high, with several apartments 






54 



SEATS OF GREAT BBITAIK AND IRELAND. 



all of freestone. At the south end a huildinfi; 
like a dovecot, of a sing;ular construction, is 
still extant The shaft of it is circular, and 
surrounds a well of excellent water. The 
whole huilding stands in the middle of eight 
acres of land, called the Ahbot^s Yard. 'Jliis 
ruin is preserved with considerable care, the 
tenants not being permitted to take down and 
use any stones from the abbey, an abuse 
which has been too much practised in other 
places to the destruction of the ancient mo- 
nastic and feudal memorials of Scotland. 

Of this religious house, at the time of the 
Reformation, Quentin Kennedy, fourth son 
of the second Earl of Cassilis, was abbot. 
He was a man of singular piety and great 
austerity of manners ; and in 1562 offered to 
dispute publicly with John Knox, on the sub- 
ject of the sacrifice of the mass, a challenge 
which the Reformer accepted. The parties 
met at Maybole, and the disputation lasted 
three days. Tliia so much gratified the 
Romish clergy, that the abbot, dying in 1564, 
was canonized as a saint. He published 
" Ane compendious treatise conforme to the 
Scriptures of Almighty God, reason, and 
authoritie, declaring the nearest and onlie 
way to establishe the conscience of ane 
Christiane man." 

The family of Fergusson is one of remote 
antiquity ; they have been seated from time 
immemorial at Kilkerran, which never be- 
longed to any other family on record. After 
a long succession of distinguished ancestry, 
the first of the family who was a baronet was 
Sir John Fergusson, so created by Queen 
Anne in 1703. His son and successor, Sir 
James, was an eminent judge of the Court of 
Session. He married Ladv Jean Maitland, 
only child of James, Lord Maitland, eldest 
son of John, fifth Eiu-1 of Lauderdale. This 
lady was heiress of line of the great family of 
Cunningham, Earl of Glencaim, Lord Mait- 
land*s mother, Margaret, Countess of Lauder- 
dale, being only child of Alexander, tenth 
Earl of Glencaim. Sir Adam Fei^usson, 
third baronet of Kilkerran, M.P. for the 
coun^ of Ayr, claimed the title of Glencaim 
as heir of line ; but an unfavourable decision 
was given to his claim in the House of Lords 
in 1797. The chancellor said, that though 
from his respect for Sir Adam Fergiuwon he 
was disposed to regard his claim in a favour- 
able light, he was, nevertheless, reluctantly 
compelled to say, that thouch he had clearly 
proved himself to be heir general of the 
Earls of Glencaim, he had not established 
his right to the title. There is no doubt that 
the Fergussons of Kilkerran are heirs of line 
of the EarU of Glencaim; and notwith- 
standing this adverse decision of the House 
of Lords, they have still considerable 
grounds for believing themselves entitled to 
this peerage. Many facts conceming their 
claim were brought out in the late case of 



the claim of the Earl of Crawford and BaU 
Carres to the Dukedom of Montrose. 

Sir Adam Fergusson was succeeded by hia 
nephew, Sir James, third baronet, who mar> 
ried the daughter and coheiress of Sir David 
Dalrymple, Bart, Lord Hailes ; and secondly, 
the daughter of Lord Viscount Duncan, and 
sister to the Earl of Camperdown. By hia 
first wife he had issue, Sir Chariea, fifth 
baronet, a man of rare worth, honour, and 
piety, who assumed the name of Dalrymple 
on succeeding to his maternal estate of Hailca. 
By his wife, the daughter of the Right Hon. 
David Boyle, Lord Justioe General of Scot- 
land, he had among other issue. Sir Jaroc% 
the present and sixth Baronet of Kilkerran, 
and a younger son, who has taken the name 
of Dalrymple, and possesses the Hailca 
estates. 

The most romantic portion of the Kilkemn 
estate is that in the vicinity of the hooae, 
where, amongst knolls, rocks, and glens, there 
are walks of great extent cut along the side 
of a precipice, and overlooking a dashing 
torrent. This is called the Lady Glen, from 
an ancient ruinous chapel at the lower ex- 
tremity of this wild and romantic dell. 

ABDOOWAV, in the co. of RenfVew, the 
seat of Sir Michael Shaw Stewart, baronet, of 
Black Hall and Greenock. 

This mansion was built in the beginning of 
this century by Sir John Shaw Stewart, great- 
grand-uncle to the present baronet. It stands 
near an ancient tower which formed part of 
the old house, and is indeed the only portion 
of it now in existence. The present boost 
is a considerable square building, with wings, 
containing a saloon 30 feet square leading to 
a handsome staircase. On the first floor 
there are four very spacious ritting-roona, 
with several handsome suites of bedrooms. 
The second floor contains a large sitting-room 
and a number of bedrooms; the third is 
wholly laid out in bedrooms. The billiard 
room is on the ground floor, and opens on the 
lawn. The whole forms a commodioos 
family residence. The situation of Ardgowan 
is very fine. Elevated on a most beautiful 
terrace, overhanging the Frith of Clyde, It 
commands an extensive, varied, and pic* 
turesque marine prospect, enlivened by 
numerous vessels passii^ to and from Gla^ 
gow and Greenock and rort Glasgow ; adding 
to the finest natural objects the cheering traces 
of commercial activity and mercantile spirit. 
There are very many magnificent views fhmi 
the woods ana pleasure-grounds of Ardgowan. 
The noble and broken outline of the moon* 
tains of Arran is contrasted with the less 
mgged features of Bute and Cumbray, aO 
embraced in one grand prospect, with the 
background of the hills of CowaL The fine 
peaked and Alpine character of Arran is seen 
from the grounds of Ardgowan to peculiar 



BBAT8 OF 6BSAT BBITAIll AXD IBELAJTO. 



55 



adrantage ; and when partially obscured by 
the mists or light cloods floating roond its 
sommit, these rugged and picturesque points 
seem to pierce the skies^ and present a pros- 
pect unrivalled. The immediate scenenr 
round Ardgowan is very beautiful. It stands 
quite close to the sea^ and the well-wooded 
park adjoins the shore. . Behind rise hills 
coYered with wood, and on all rides there is a 
fine union of natural scenery and tasteful 
improvement. 

The first Stewart of Ardgowan was an 
illegitimate son of Robert III., King of 
Scotland. This prince was a man of a mild 
and amiable disporition, but of no energy of 
character. In person he was tall and well 
formed, of a comely countenance, with a long 
and venerable beard as white as snow; hu 
eyes expressive of cheerfulness and good- 
nature ; his face oval and of a ruddy com- 
plexion. He was unfitted for warlike exer- 
cises by a lameness caused in early life by 
a kick of a horse. Though generally moral 
and strict in his sense of domestic duty, he 
had, when a young man, an illegitimate son, 
and this was John Stewart, to whom his father 

Eve the lands of Achingowan in 1390, Black- 
11 in 1396, and Ardgowan in 1404. Black- 
hall has always been the designation of the 
&mily, while Ardgowan has been their place 
of reridence. 

Like their kinsmen, the Stewarts of Bute, 
descended from an illegitimate son of Robert 
the Second, the Stewarts of Blackball have 
existed in honour and undiminished estate 
upon the lands which they received from their 
royal progenitor, though they have continued 
in their original knightly station ; while the 
House of Bute, a century and a half ago, sud- 
denly rose to high honours in the peerage. 
After many generations, Archibald Stewart 
ci Blackball was created a Baronet of Nova 
Scotia by King Charies II. in 1667. He 
married Anne, daughter and coheiress of Sir 
John Crawford, Bart., of Kilbimev ; and in 
right of her, die present Sir Michael Shaw 
Stewart shares with the £arl of Glasgow and 
Mr. Hamilton Dundas the honour of repre- 
senting, as heir of line, the great Houses of 
Crawford, Baronet of Kilbimey, and Carnegie, 
Earl of Southesk. His grandson. Sir Michael 
Stewart, the third baronet, was an accom- 
ptished scholar, and remarkable alike for the 
simplicity of his manners and habits, and the 
acoteness of his mind and vivacity of his 
parts. He succeeded in 1724, and died in 
1796 in the eighty -fourth year of his age. 
He made a very wealthy marriage with 
Helen, eldest daughter of Sir John Houston 
of Houston, by Margaret, daughter of Sir 
John Shaw, Bart., of Greenock. 

The barony of Greenock belonged an- 
ciently to the family of Galbraith, whose 
heiress brought it into the family of Shaw of 



Sanchie in the reign of King Robert III. In 
1687, Sir John Shaw of Greenock was 
created a baronet by Kinf James II., on 
account of his services to King Charles II., 
and his seal for the interests of the crown. 
In 1694 he was succeeded by his son Sir 
John, second baronet, who married Eleanor, 
daughter and coheiress of Sir Thomas Nicol- 
son of Camock. By her he had a son, Sir 
John, who succeeded him in 1702, and two 
daughters, the eldest of whom married Sir 
John Houston of Houston. Sir John, the 
third Baronet of Greenock, had one daughter, 
Marion, who married Charles, Lord Cathcart, 
from whom is descended the present Eari 
Cathcart, who is heir of line of the Shaws. 
But as the Greenock estates were destined 
to the descendants of his sister rather than 
to those of his own daughter. Sir John, 
at his death in 1752, was succeeded by his 
grand-nephew, John Stewart, son of Sir 
Michael Stewart of Blackball and Helen 
Houston, daughter of Sir John Houston and 
Marearet Sha%, his eldest sister. He accor- 
dingly united in one the Blackball and 
Greenock estates, while the Nicolson estate 
of Camock, in the county of Stirling, became 
the appanage of the heir apparent or pre- 
sumptive of the family. 

The estate of Greenock is situated in the 
county of Renfrew, and very near to that of 
Ardffowan. The curious old mansion-house 
of the Shaws is now surrounded by a large 
and flourishing town. Greenock, although as 
a seaport it ranks among the most important 
in Britain, is not of ancient origin. In the 
beginning of the seventeenth century, the 
town consisted of a single row of thatch- 
covered huts, without any harbour. Even in 
1700, when its inhabitants presented a peti- 
tion to the Scottish Parliament for aid to 
assist them in building a harbour, they met 
with a direct refusal, so little importance was 
then attached to it However, the inhabi- 
tants did not abandon the project. They 
entered into a contract with Sir John Shaw, 
the superior, to assess themselves to a certain 
amount, in order to defray the expense ; and 
in 1 707 the work was begun with vigour. It is 
now a very great and populous commercial 
town. In 1757 it was erected into a borough 
of barony, with magistrates, &c., &c. 

Sir John Shaw Stewart of Blackball and 
Greenock had no children, and was succeeded 
by his nephew (son of his younger brother) 
Sir Michael, the fifth baronet. This gende- 
man had, among other children. Sir Michael, 
the sixth baronet, and Margaret, now Duchess 
of Somerset. His grandwn is Sir Michael 
Shaw Stewart, the present and seventh baro- 
net, who married Lady Octavia Grosvenor, 
daughter of the Marquis of Westminster. 
He is a Deputy Lieutenant of the county of 
Renfrew. 



56 



SEATS or GBXAT BBITAIN AND IRELAND* 



T0B8AV0B, in the co. of Lanark, the seat 
of Miss Stewart. 

Torrance House is situated in the parish of 
East Kilbride, about ten miles distant from 
Glasgow. There was on the estate a very 
ancient residence, which was reduced to ruins 
about two hundred and sixty years ago, and 
of which nothing now remains but the founda- 
tions. Close adjoining is an af ed holly tree, 
which covers an area of thirty lectin diameter, 
and which has long survived the mansion 
which it was intended to adorn. 

The name Torrance U derived from Tor, a 
little hill, or artificial mound of earth, situated 
a quarter of a mile from the house. It is 
a hundred yards round the base, and twenty 
of ascent. The area on the top is oval. The 
present mansion-house was built in 1605, when 
the estate belonged to the Hamiltons, cadets 
of the duke's family. It was originally a 
square tower of considerable height ; and it 
has been made by the improvements and ad- 
ditions of the family of Stewart, both commo- 
dious and handsome. The siAation is high, 
and commands an extensive and beautifiuly 
diversified prospect The ancient portion of 
the house stanos in the centre, and there are 
two buildings on each side attached to the 
central tower, which gives an appearance of 
considerable extent The adjoinmg banks of 
the river Calder contain a great variety of 
natural beauties. About sixtv years ago they 
were laid out in serpentine walks, which bring 
into view beautiftil cascades, purling streams, 
rugged rocks, and distant landscapes. Such 
rural and romantic scenes succeeding each 
other in a manner so agreeably striking, are 
rarely met with to the same extent These 
varied walks are connected by a neat wooden 
bridge thrown over the river Calder. But the 
improvements on the estate of Torrance have 
not been confined to the immediate vicinity 
of the mansion-house and the banks of the 
river. Upwards of a hundred years ago, 
Colonel Stewart planted very extensivelv ; and 
in the latter part of the last century, his suc- 
cessor, the late Mr. Andrew Stewart followed 
hb example. 

From time immemorial the estate of Tor^ 
ranee belonged to an ancient familv, which 
derived its name from the territorial posse»- 
sions. At length the last Torrance of that 
ilk died without heirs male ; and his daughter 
and heiress carried the estate to a branch of 
the ducal family of Hamilton. John Hamil- 
ton, fourth Lord of Cadxow, had a youneer 
son, Thomas Hamilton of Darugaber. He 
married a daughter of Douglas of Lochleven, 
ancestor to the Earl of Morton, by whom he 
had two sons, James, ancestor to the great 
and wide-spreading branch of Raploch, now 
representea by Bams, and Thomas, who, by 
roairiage with the heiress of the ancient 
family of Torrance of that ilk, became pro- 



prietor of this estate, and founded the family 
of Hamilton of Torrance, which continued 
to possess these lands for two hundred years. 
His descendant in the fifth degree was Mat- 
thew Hamilton of Torrance, who by « 
daughter of the ancient family of Mutrhead 
of Lachope, and niece to Hamilton of Botb- 
wellhaugh, who assassinated the Regent Eari 
of Murray, had two sons — James, who carried 
on the line of Torrance, and Archibald, an- 
cestor to the family of Hamilton of West- 
bum, which is now the sole representative of 
the House of Torrance. From Hamilton of 
Westbum is descended Mr. Hamilton Dondas 
of Duddingstoun, and in the female line. Ad- 
miral Sir Charles Napier and Mr. Hamilton 
Gray of Camtyne. The descendants of 
James Hamilton of Torrance, the elder 
brother of Westbum, continued for three 
generations, when they became extinct, and 
Westbum carried on the line of the family. 
Previous to their extinction, they had sold the 
estate of Torrance about the middle of the 
seventeenth century. Besides Westbum, the 
families of Hamilton of Aitkenhead and Ha- 
milton of Woodhall were cadets of Torrance. 
From Woodhall was descended Sir James 
Hamilton of the county of Monaghan. 

The estate of Torrance, which had continued 
in a direct line, first of the Torrances, and 
secondly of their representatives, the Hamil- 
tons, was purchased oy the scion of a race not 
less ancient and noble, James Stewart, the 
younger son of Sir Archibald Stewart of 
Castlemilk and Fvnnart, by the Honourable 
Anne Sempill, eldest daughter of Robert, 
fourth Lord Sempill. Sir Archibald was 
descended from Sir William Stewart of Castle* 
milk, slain at the siege of Orleans in 1429, 
who was brother to Sir John Stewart of 
Damley, ancestor to the Earl of Lennox, and 
to the Stewart kings of Great Britain. Sir 
John of Darnley and Sir William of Castle- 
milk were descended from Sir Allan Stewart 
second son of Sir John Stewart of Bonkvl, 
bora 1246, who was second son of Alexander 
tlie Lord High Steward of Scotland, who died 
1283. 

James Stewart, the purchaser of Torrance, 
was the ancestor of Andrew Stewart of 
Torrance, one of the most distinguished men 
of his time in Scotland. He was guardian to 
James George, 7th Duke, and Douglas, 8th 
Duke of Hamilton; and he conducted the 
famous Douglas cause, which was decided in 
the Scottish courts favourably to the interests 
of his wards, which decision was revened by 
the judgment of the House of Lords. Mr. 
Stewart published in 1773, a series ofletlerato 
the Earl of Mansfield, the Lord High Chan- 
cellor, remonstrating with him on the course 
which he took in this important afiair. On the 
death of Sir John Stewart, the late baronet of 
Castlemilk, Andrew Stewart, «• next bctr 



SEATS OF GBEAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



57 



male of the family, assumed the designation of 
CasUemilk. 

There are two remarkahle genealogical in- 
yestigations which he conducted, the one of 

?ublic and the other of more private interest. 
le is generally understood to nave set at rest 
the question of the legitimacy of Robert 
1 11^ King of Scotland, on which so many 
doubts have been cast ; doubts which, could 
they have been substantiated, would have 
thrown the stigma of bastardy on the Royal 
Familyof Scothind, and faight have entitled the 
descendant and representative of Prince 
David, Earl of Strathem, the son of Robert 
11 *s second marriage, to advance a claim to 
the crown. Robert II's first wife, Elizabeth 
Mure, was his kinswoman within the prohibited 
degrees ; and it was alleged that he had never 

Srocured a papal dispensation, which would 
ave been necessary m order to legitimate her 
offiipring. In the researches which Andrew 
Stewart made in the Vatican, he was so fortu- 
nate as to discover proofs of this papal dis- 
pensation. 

The other genealogical investigation to 
which allusion has been made, was concerning 
the headship of the House of Stewart, on the 
death of the Cardinal Duke of York, the last 
of the royal family : who was Stewart of that 
ilkf On this subject, Andrew Stewart pub- 
lished a work in which he very ably contended 
that, failing the royal line, the descendants of 
Stewart of Damley, the head of all the 
Stewarts, was Stewart of Castlemilk, and con- 
sequently that he himself was Stewart of that 
ilk, being the heir male of that ancient family. 
This question is now of little conseouence, the 
heir male of the Stewarts being still to seek ; 
for Andrew Stewart left no son to inherit his 
splendid claims. He married the daughter of 
Sir William Stiriing, Baronet of Ardoch. This 
lady, afWr Mr. Stewart's death, married 
secondly, in 1804, Sir William Johnstone 
Pulteney, the father of the Countess of Bath, 
and the fifth Baronet of Wester Hall. Mr. 
Andrew Stewart of Castlemilk and Torrance 
left issue three daughters, the eldest of whom . 
is proprietriz of the estate of Torrance. The 
youngest daughter, Charlotte, in 1830, married 
Robert Harington, younger son of Sir John 
Edward Harington, eighth Baronet of Rid- 
lington, in the county of Rutland, by whom 
she has a son and a (ulighter. 

UTTLB OBDISBT HALL, in the co. of Lin- 
coln, the seat of Lord Frederick Beauclerck. 

Little Grimsbv Hall is situated three miles 
from the town of Louth, in a rich and well- 
cultivated, thouffh unpicturesque portion of 
Lincolnshire. The house was built about a 
hundred and fifty years ago, of red brick, in 
the taste which prevailed at that time, and 
which somewhat resembles the style of a 
Dutch country-seat. On one side there is a 



flower-garden, opening upon fish-ponds, and 
bounded by a shrubbery, which separates the 
grounds of the Hall from the little old parish 
church, which has been restored by Lord Fre- 
derick, who is patron of the living. It is a 
very diminutive place of worship, the parish 
being small, and the parishioners consisting 
only of Lord Frederick's family and some of 
his tenants. On the other side of the Hall 
there is a kitchen-garden of some extent, with 
a fine evergreen hedge. In front there is a 
lawn; while behind there are commodious 
offices. The only feature in the interior of 
the house which claims particular notice is the 
hall, which is a very handsome room, entirely 
wainscoted, and furnished with massive dark 
carved oak ; and the staircase also of carved 
oak, to correspond with the hall. The manor 
house is situated in the midst of the estate, 
which is well cultivated, well wooded, and 
abounding in game. 

Little Grimsby Hall belonged, for several 
generations, to a family of the name of 
Nelthorpe, a branch of the Nelthorpes of 
Scawby, in the county of Lincoln, of which 
the head, Sir John Nelthorpe, was created a 
baronet in 1606. John Nelthorpe of Little 
Grimsby Hall had issue a son, who died un- 
married, and a daughter, Maria Janetta, who 
was heiress of the family estate, and who, in 
1799, married Lord William Beauclerk, who, 
in 1816, became eighth Duke of St. Albans. 
This was not his first connection with the 
Nelthorpe family ; his first wife, by whom he 
had no issue, being the daughter and heiress 
of the Rev. Robert Carter of Redbourne Hall, 
by a daughter of Sir Henry Nelthorpe, the 
fifth baronet. Redbourne is now the prin- 
cipal residence of the Duke of St. Albans. 
The family of the eighth Duke of St. Albans 
and the heiress of Little Grimsby was nume- 
rous ; and this estate was settled upon their 
second son, Lord Frederick, born in 1808. 
Being next brother to the late duke, he is, at 

£ resent, heir presumptive to the dukedom, 
[e adopted tne navy as his profession, in 
which he is now a commander, and served, 
during many years, in various parts of the 
world. In February, 1848, he married Je- 
mima Eleanora Johnstone, daughter of the 
late James Raymond Johnstone, of Alva, in 
the county of Stirling, and sister of Mr. 
Johnstone, M.P. for Clackmannanshire, Mrs. 
Hamilton Gray, Lady Muir Mackenzie, and 
the Hon.^ Mrs. King Harman. The issue of 
this marriage is two sons. 

ALLAHTON, in the co. of Lanark, the seat 
of Lady Seton Stewart. 

Allanton deserves to be regarded with pe- 
culiar interest by every lover of arboriculture ; 
and its late proprietor. Sir Henry Stewart, 
very justly claims the thanks of every country 
gentleman who desires to add to thebeuuty of 



66 



8EATB OF GREAT BRITAIN AMD IRELAKa 



his pleagure-grounds and park; for, by his 
ingenious discoveries in the art of transplant- 
ing full-grown trees, and by his perseverance 
in uniting example to precept, he has taught 
to those who had no tree:) the valuable secret 
of immediately obtaining them; whUe the 
possessor of a well-wuoded park may derive 
additional beauty from new arrangements in 
grouping his timber. 

Sir Henry Stewart may lay claim to the title 
of the Evelyn of Scotland ; and if inferior to 
his Englisn predecessor as an author of ac- 
complishment and interest, he has, at least, 
produced a work which is of much greater 
practical utility to a planter, though it has less 
pretensions to genius and fancy, to make it 
attractive to a general reader. 

Allauton is situated in an ungenial moor- 
land country, which has neither fertility nor 
beauty to recommend it. When Sir Henry 
succeeded to the estate, in 1 772, the park was 
destitute of trees, excepting a few old ashes, 
planted near the mansion-house. He was at 
that time a minor; but he had not Ions 
settled in life before he began the ornamented 
improvement of his estate ; and although his 
fortune was but limited, yet, by devoting the 
energies of a long life to the task, he succeeded 
in creating a scene of great picturesque beauty, 
which, under ordinary management, would 
have been the work of three generations. By 
a careful study of the i)hysiology of plants, and 
the judicious adaptation of soils, he succeeded 
in transplanting successfully trees of large 
growth ; and in the course of a lifetune he 
surrounded himself with venerable groves and 
extensive woods, which have transtormed Al- 
lanton into a place of great and cultivated 
beauty, very different from the bleak and un- 
lovely domain which he inherited. 

We would strongly recommend Sir Henry 
Stewart's work on transplanting trees to the 
attention of every country gentleman. His 
method will be found invaluable by any man 
who, with ample command of money, wishes, 
in a few years, to create a place, and to obtain 
a start of half-a-century in ornamental plant- 
ing. Sir Henry's experiments have now stood 
the test of about fifty years ; and it will be 
seen by any one who examines the park of 
Allanton, that his transplanted trees continue 
to grow and to flourish ha vigorously as if they 
had occupied the ground from seedlings. 
Though he had not the power of conducting 
his operations on a very extensive scale, he 
succeeded, by dint of skill and perseverance, 
in hi^ object, and created a beautiful park 
around the house of his ancestors. 

The family of Stewart, descended from an 
early branch of the stock of the High Stewards 
of Scotland, has p^issessed Allauton since the 
middle of the fifteenth century. Allan Stewart, 
Laird of Allanton, was bum in M8o, and died 
in 1518. Uik son, Allan Stewart of Allauton, 



married Marion, daughter of James Lockhart 
of Lee. In his time the doctrines of the Re- 
formation made great progress in Scotland. He 
was the particiuar friend of the celebrated 
George Wishart, who frequently concealed 
himself in Allanton House. He died in 1574. 
His son, James Stewart of Allanton, boin 1537, 
manied Helen Somerville, daughter of a cadet 
of Lord Somerville *s family. He was very 
intimate with John Knox, whose doctrines he 
zealously promoted. He enjoyed much of the 
confidence of the Regent £arl of MurrsT, 
and was one of his active partisans. He died 
in 1607, of grief, on account of the death of 
his son James, who was bom in 1575, and 
died immediately before his father. By his 
wife, Marion Cannichael, daughter of ^ alter 
Caraiichael of Hyndford, sister to tlie fint 

Seer of that family, and Uiird cousin to King 
ames I. of Great Britain, he had two soosy 
Walter and James. 

James Stewart, the younger ton, bom after 
his father's death, in 1608, was bred a mei^ 
chant and banker in Edinburgh, and acquired 
a large fortune, and was knighted. He was 
Lord Provost of Edinburgh in 1649 and in 
1669; he was a zealous Covenanter, and one of 
the most influential men of his time in Scot- 
land. After the restoration of King Charh-i 
XL, he suffered much on account of nis Whig 
and Covenanting principles, by fines and im- 
prisonment, lie purchased the estates of 
Kirk field and Col mess, both of which bad 
anciently belonged to the great family of 
Somerville of Camnethan . Sir James Stewart 
died in Edinburgh in 1681, after a very active 
life, spent amid the bustle of commerce, the 
jarring of religious controversy, and the con- 
tention of parties. Ue was the founder of 
three families, each of whom obtained the 
dignity of Baronet of Nova Scotia — viz., 
Stewart of Coltness, Stewart of Goodtree*, 
and Stewart of Allanbank. The Coltness 
Baronetcy, as well as estate, became ulti- 
mately merged in the family of Goodtrees. 

The eldest son of James Stewart, younger, 
of Allanton, and of Marion Cannichael, was 
Walter, bom a year before his father's death, 
in 1606. He was a man of similar religious 
principles with his brother, and had conside- 
rable influence with the Presbyterian party in 
Scotland. He was knighted, and niarrit*d 
Margaret Hamilton, daughter of Sir James 
Hamilton of Broomhill, sister to Sir Ji»hn 
Hamilton of Broomhill; who, for hn lnynU\ 
to King Charles 1., was created, in 1647» Loril 
Bolhaven; and to James Hamilton, Bishop of 
Gallowav. It is said that in 1650, Oliver 
Cromwell, afler the battle of Dunbar, in h» 
progress through Lanarkshire, halted, with his 
attendants, at Allanton House*, where be was 
hospitably entertained by Lady Stewart, and 
where he spent the night. Sir Waltvr, tlnnu'U 
he belonged to the Whig and Co\ cuoutii)^' 



BEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



59 



party, was attached to monarchical principles, 
and wished well to Charles I. He therefore 
took care to be out of the way on this occar 
sion. On Cromwell's arrival, some choice 
canary and other refreshments were presented 
to him; but he would suffer nothing to be 
touched until he himself had first said grace, 
which he fervently did for more than half-an- 
hour. He then courteously inquired after Sir 
Walter ; and on drinking to the health of the 
family, he observed that his own mother was 
a Stewart, and that he always felt a kindness 
for the name. He had, however, found 
means to stifle those kindly emotions when he 
cut off the head of King Charles I. 

By Margaret Hamilton, Sir Walter Stewart 
had several children. His daughter Marion 
was the wife of John Boyle of Kelbum. 
Her son was the first Earl of Glasgow, and 
from him the present Earl of Glasgow, the 
iate Lord Justice General of Scotland, the 
Marquis of Hastings, and several other 
distinguished families descended. His 
daughter Anne was wife of Claud Hamilton 
of llames, M.P. She is ancestress to the 
family of Hamilton of Bams, Lord Gray of 
Gray, Mr. Hamilton Dundas of Duddmg- 
stoun. Admiral Sir Charles Napier, and the 
Rev. J. Hamilton Gray of Camtyne. Sir 
Walter died in 1672, and was succeeded by 
his son, William Stewart of Allanton, who 
was persecuted for his religious and political 
opinions in the reign of Charles IL IJe man- 
ned his cousin Margaret, daughter of his 
nnde. Sir James Stewart of Allanbank. One 
of his wife's brothers dexterously embracing 
opposite political principles, became Secretary 
Of State for Scotland under James IL, and 
Allanton 's fines were remitted. He was even 
offered a baronetcy by James II ., which he 
refused, and then it was given to his cousin of 
Allanbank. He died in 1700, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, James Stewart of Allanton, 
who, by his wife Cecilia Dunmore, had a son, 
James, and a daughter, Marion, wife of 
Andrew Mac Dowal of Logan, Lord Bankton, 
and Lilias, wife of Andrew Murray, a brother 
of Lintrose. He died in 1752, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, James Stewart of Allanton, 
who, by MaTgaret, daughter of Henry 
Stewart Barclay, of Collaimey, in Fifeshire, 
was the father of Henry Stewart of Allan- 
ton, bom in 1759. 

This gentleman, as has already been stated, 
devoted his life to the improvement and 
adornment of his property. He published a 
most useful work on arboriculture, and in 
earlier life he nublbhed a translation of Sal- 
lusu In 1787 ne married Lilias, daughter of 
Hugh Seton of Touch, in the county of 
Stirling, by whom he had an only daughter, 
KUxabeth, wife of Reginald Macdonald of 
Statfa. Sir Henry was created a Baronet by 
King George III., with remainder to the 



husband of his daughter. On the death of 
Sir Henry, about tlie year 1835, he was 
succeeded by his son-in-law, Reginald Mac- 
donald, as second Baronet, and on his death 
in 1838, his eldest son, by the heiress of Al- 
lanton, inherited the title, and is the nresent 
Sir Henry James Seton Stewart, third Baro- 
net He married in 1833 Miss Montgomery, 
niece to the late Sir James Montgomery, 
Bart. Lady Stewart, the heiress of Allanton, 
added in 1835 the surname of Seton to her 
patronymic of Stewart, on succeeding, as sole 
neiress, to her uncle, Archibald Seton of 
Touch. As representative of this very an- 
cient family. Lady Seton Stewart holds the 
honourable' office of hereditary armour- 
bearer to the queen and squire of the royal 
body. A curious coincidence that both sove- 
reign and official should be ladies ! 

1CERCHI8T0K HALL, near Homdean, 
Hampshire, the seat of Vice-Admiral Sir 
Charles Napier, K.C.B., Count Cape Saint 
Vincent 

This handsome country residence was pur- 
chased some years since by the gallant Ad- 
miral to whom the command of the Baltic 
fleet has been entrusted; and the name of 
Merchiston Hall was given to it in conse- 
quence of that having been the designation 
of the residence, near Falkirk, in Scotland, 
of Sir Charles's father, the Hon. Charles 
Napier, Captain in the navy. Merchiston 
Hall is a good modem house, with handsome 
public rooms and considerable accommodation, 
situated in the midst of a lawn, with garden, 
shrubberies, and farm-offices attached to it. 
The surrounding country is rich and beau- 
tiful. There is nothing in the place to claim 
our notice, excepting tne fact that it belongs 
to one of the most gallant and successfid 
officers in the British navy, to whom the most 
important trust that the Government of his 
country had it in its power to bestow, has 
been confided. 

Sir Charles Napier is the eldest surviving 
son of the Hon. Charles Napier of Merchiston 
Hall, in the county of Stirling, who was the 
second son of Francis, fiflh Lord Napier, by 
the Lady Henrietta Hope, daughter of the 
Earl of Hopetoun. His mother was a 
daughter of the ancient family of Hamilton 
Dundas of Duddingstoun, in M^est Lothian, 
and Westbum, in the county of Lanark. 
After a series of distinguished services during 
the late war, Sir Charles, in the long interval 
of peace, entered the Portuguese service for 
the purpose of taking the command of the 
fleet of the Queen of Portugal, with which 
he entirely defeated and destroyed that of 
Don Miguel, and may be said to have secured 
the Portuguese throne for Donna Maria da 
Gloria; and given a decisive blow to the 
pi inciples of aosolutism in the Spanish peniiK 



GO 



SEATS OF OBEAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



8u1a. For this great achieTement he was 
created a Count and Grandee of the first class 
of Portugal, with the title of Cape Saint 
Vincent ; and he had his commission of post 
captain in the British navy restored to him| 
which had heen of necessity resigned when 
he took the command of the Portuguese fleet. 
His next exploit was at Acre, when the suc- 
cessful issue of the war in Syria was decided 
hy his skill and prowess. And after dis- 
tinguishing himselt hy his valour in arms, he 
showed no less talent as a diplomatist, and 
won the respect and admiration of the veteran 
Mahomet Ali. 

Merchiston Castle, near Edinhurgh, is the 
original seat of the ancient family of Napier; 
ana it is here that that illustrious philosopher, 
John Napier, Baron of Merchiston, brought 
his logarithms to perfection. It is still the 
property of the present Lord Napier. When 
the Hon. Charles Napier acquired a landed 
estate, his regard for the traditions of his 
fdniily inducea him to g^ve to it the name of 
his father's ancient castle, and the same 
praiseworthy feeling actuated Sir Charles 
when he became by purchase a Hampshire 

Proprietor. Sir Charles married the widow of 
'aptain EUers, of the Royal Navy, by whom 
he has an only child, a daughter, the wife of 
the Rev. Henry Jodrell, nephew of Sir 
Richard Paul Jodrell, Bart, by whom she 
has a numerous family. 

WAT.AHTDE CA8TLS, co. Dublin, the resi- 
dence of that practically patriotic nobleman. 
Lord Talbot, hence styled '*de Malahide," 
— has been the unalienated, unconfiscated in* 
heritance of his lordship's ancestors, from the 
date of the grant of the manor by Henry the 
Second to Richard de Talbot, who had ac- 
companied him thither. This Richard was 
the great-grandson of Richard Talbot of 
Hereford Castle, in the time of William the 
Conqueror. His own greatp-grandson, another 
Richard, was one of the Irish chiefs who aided 
the subsidy raised to enable Edward the First 
to prosecute the Scottish War, and who af>«i^ 
wards personally si^alized himself in resisting 
Edwara Bruce 's insane invasion. In the 
reign of the fourth Edward, Thomas Talbot, 
then proprietor of Malahide, received a royal 
grant of High Admiral of the Seas, with liill 
power and aithority to him to hear and 
determine, in a Court of Admiralty, all tres- 
passes, &c., by the tenants or vassals, or others 
resident within the town of Malahide. In 
1488, Sir Richard Edgecombe, when he came 
to take oaths of impurgation and allegiance 
from those of Irelano, who had espoused the 
cause of Lambert Simnel, landed at Malahide, 
and *' there a gentlewoman called Talbot 
received him, and made him right good cheer ; 
and the same day, at aAemoon, the Buhop of 
Meath and others came to Malahide aforesaid, 



well-accompanied, and fetched the said Sir 
Richard to Dublin, and at his coming thither 
the mayor and substance of the city received 
him at the Black Friars* gate, at which Black 
Friars (the site of the pi^sent Fourth Courts) the 
said Sir Richard was lodged." In a few davs 
after. Sir Peter Talbot, then Lord of MalahiJe, 
made his homage and fealW to Sir Richard. 

From Malahide Castle, in 1545, the Lady 
" Aleanora '* Fitz Gerald directed a petition 
for pardon to the inexorable Henry VIII. 
9he was the aunt of the unfortunate 
enthusiast, Lord Thomas Fitzgerald, 
popularly styled <Uhe silken lord,** and 
had married, for her first husband, Mac 
Carty, a powerful chief of Munster, on whone 
deatn she became the wife of a yet more in- 
dependent chieftain of Ulster, Manus, won of 
Hugh O'Donnell, the Dynast of TyrconneL 
When the royal vengeance had flooded the 
scaffold of the Tower with the blood of Lady 
Aleanora*s brothers and her nephews, her 
second husband sheltered the last hope that 
remained to preserve the line — the infant 
Gerald. The '* treason*' of each of her 
marryings with such Irish houses was heart- 
lessly pressed upon the jealous King, where- 
upon she, in 1545, humbly addressed her 
'* most dread sovereign lord,*' acknowledged 
her "ofiending his princely magnificence, 
but rather by ignorance than presumption.*' 
''Yet,** she adds, ** considering your moat 
kingly clemency, extended to all sorts, and 
such, especially, as with incorrupt heart, 
submit themselves unto your accustomed 
mercy, I, your grace's humble oratrix and 
suppliant, most lowly beseech your highnesa, 
in the honour of God, not to resent my sad 
offences," &c., &c., &c. Thus this crushed 
lady, of one of the proudest Anglo-Norman 
families of Ireland, implored her appeal from 
the castle of Malsihide, the place which the 
Lord Deputy and Council had assigned for 
her sojourn," until such time as His Majesty *s 
determinate pleasure should be signified 
therein." Her pardon was a singular ex- 
tension of King Henry's mercy. 

In 16.39, Lord Stratford sought to wrest from 
Richard Talbot, the then inheritor of Mala* 
hide, the before-mentioned privileges of the 
admiralty of its port, with his valuable fran- 
chises ; but, on iiis pleading and producing 
the charters under which his ancestors had 
enjoyed them, the court gave judgment 
against the Crown, and Strafibrd's de»igns 
were on this occasion defeated. John Talboi, 
the son and heir of Richard, having, in 1 641, 
embraced that side to which misguided 
loyalty, ill-requited enthusiasm, and yet more 
religious fidelity had hurried the rallant aud 
rcKpectiible eentry of Ireland, snared with 
them the ruinous consequences. He was 
ousted from this castle, which, with a nark of 
500 acres, was granted to Mfles Corbet, the 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



61 



Tcgicide, in whose time tradition says Oliver 
Cromwell sojourned for a abort time here. 
From this port, Corhet, when outlawed at the 
Restoration, took shipping for the Continent, 
and subsequently ** expiated his errors," as 
Brewer mildly says, by a degrading death. 
In 1661 he was executed at Tyburn, and the 
Talbot family were immediately restored to 
their ancient rights here. In 1782, Richard 
Talbot of Mal&ide was one of the chivalrous 
and well-intentioned gentlemen who undertook 
to raise a regiment of volunteers for the service 
of his country. Each regiment on this memora- 
ble occasion was to consist of eight companies, 
without levy money, while Government was 
to provide accoutrements, arms, and pay. 

The casUe is large but irregular, and un- 
equal in its height; nearly square in its outer 
form, and flanked at its principal front with 
circular towers, richly invested with ivy. It 
stands elevated on a limestone rock, and com- 
mands a fine view of the town and bay. A 
handsome modem porch opens into a spacious 
hall, -whence a spiral staircase leads to an an- 
tique apartment, lighted by a single pointed 
window of stained glass. The wainscotine of 
this room is of Irish oak, that has long smce 
acquired the sombre tint of ebony, and is 
divided into compartments ornamented with 
exquisitely carved sculpture of Scriptural 
designs; while the chimney-piece presents in 
its centre, figures of the Virgin and Child beau- 
tifully executed. Adjoining this room is the 
saloon, a spacious, handsome apartment, en- 
riched with costly specimens of porcelain, and 
containing some good paintings, particularly a 
valuable uttle altar-piece that once belonged 
to Mary, Queen of Scots. It was painted by 
Albert Durer, and represents the Nativity, 
Adoration, and Circumcision; purchased by 
Charles II. for £2,000, it was eiven b^ 
him to the Duchess of Portsmouth, who is 
said to have presented it to the grandmother of 
the late Colonel Talbot. There is also a por- 
trait of that Duchess as caressing a dove ; one 
of Charles I., dancing with the Infanta of 
Spain at the Escurial, by Vandyke; James 
the Secondhand his Queen, Anne Hyde, by Sir 
Peter Lely; Richard Talbot, the celebrated 
Duke of Tyrconnel, and the ladies Catherine 
and Charlotte Talbot, his daughters, also by 
Lely ; one of Charles Talbot, Duke of Shrews- 
bury, on enamel ; with many other portraits 
of illostrious members of the Talbot family. 

The demesne is embeUished with some 

r' mdid old oaks, elms, ash, and sycamore, 
t seem the representatives of a forest 
nobility, almost as ancient as that of the 
famOy by whom they were planted. Beside 
the castle are the venerable remains of its an- 
cient chapel, the entrance to which is flanked 
by two magnificent guardian sycamores. The 
interior is now thickly shaded with venerable 
in chestnut trees, that their season of foliage 



cast a still more sombre interest over the 
monuments they shadow. 

LAIK8HAW, in the co. of Ayr, the seat of 
J. Ciminghame, Esq. 

The ancient castle of Lainshawis beautifully 
situated in a fertile meadow on the banks of 
the river Annack, at the distance of a mile 
from the thriving manufacturing town of 
Stewarton, and eighteen miles from the city 
of Glasgow. It is the manor house of a larcre 
estate, which has been much improved by the 
agricultural skill of the late proprietor, and 
which has increased in value irom the rising 
importance of the town of Stewarton, which 
is chiefly built on the property. The popu- 
lation of the parish of Stewarton, including a 
large tract of country round the town, is not 
less than from 5,000 to 6,000 souls. 

There is an approach of about a mile, 
leading through the park to the mansion- 
house, which is embowered in venerable trees, 
and stands near the river-side, with a fine 
variety of woodland and rich meadow all 
around. The ancient house of Lainshaw 
formerly consisted of a very large old square 
tower, and a lesser one of a different style, and 
some more modem erections connecting thera 
together, and forming a mansion of great size, 
and of considerable convenience, notwith- 
standing the many additions which had been 
made to it at difiTerent times. However, the 
late Mr. Cuninghame, at very great expense, 
removed the greater part of the old buildings, 
and replaced them by a large and handsome 
castellated edifice, which contains a fine suite 
of public rooms, and a great extent of bed- 
room accommodation, and servant*s ofiSces. 
Mr. Cuninghame devoted himself assiduously, 
for many years, to the improvement and em- 
bellishment of his estate and mansion, which 
is one of the most considerable in this part of 
the county of Ayr. 

Lainshaw anciently belonged to a family 
of Montgomery, founded in the beginning of 
the 16th century, by Sir Niel Montgomery', 
second son of Hugh, first Earl of Eglinton, 
who received this estate from his father as 
his patrimony. He was killed in 1547, at 
Irvine, in a feud, by the Lord Boyd and his 
adherents. His son, Sir Neil Montgomer}-, 
married Jean, only daughter of John, fourth 
and last Lord Lyle, whose ancient family were 
thenceforth represented by the Montgomery's 
of Lainshaw. At length, after six generations 
of existence as a separate family, the senior 
line of the Montgomery s of Lainshaw became 
extinct in the male line, about the middle of 
the eighteenth centur}*, but a branch estab- 
lished in America still remains, and is now 
represented by Austin Montgomerie, Esq., of 
Philadelphia. 

In the year 1 783, the ancient mansion-house 
and large estates of Laiuihaw passed, by 



62 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



■ale, to William Cuninghame (one of the 
most opulent of the great Virginian merchants 
in Glasgow), descended from an ancient 
Ayrshire family — Cuninghame of Colellan, a 
cadet of Cuninghame of Caprington, sprung 
from Thomas, younger son of Sir William 
Cuninghame, I«ord of Kilmaurs, ancestor to 
the Eari of Glencairn. Mr. Cuninghame, 
the purchaser of Lainshaw, was thrice married. 
Uy his second wife, a ladv of the name of 
Campbell, he had a son, the late proprietor 
of Lainshaw. By his third wife, whom he 
married in 1780, iMargaret Cranstoun, grand- 
daughter of the fifth Lord Cranstoun, he had 
issue the present proprietor of Lainshaw, and 
several daughters, one of whom married, in 
1805, the second Lord Ashburton. 

Mr. Cuninghame, on his death, was suc- 
ceeded by his son William, who had gone to 
India early in life, in the civil service of the 
East India Company. He was a man of very 
great abilities, and peculiar talent for business ; 
and had he remained in India, he would 
doubtless have acquired great distinction 
there. But the death of his father called him 
home, before many years, to take possession 
of his estates; and he settled himself at 
Lainshaw, whence he rarely moved, excepting 
to make an annual visit to London. 

His time was entirely occupied with the 
management and improvement of his estates, 
and with the more important undertaking of 
diffusing religious knowledge among the young 
and the poor around him. Of no man can it 
be more truly said that he ''walked with 
God,*' than of William Cuninghame of Lain- 
shaw. For many years of his life, he devoted 
himself to the study of the prophetic Scrip- 
tures, and more especially the Book of Reve- 
lation. This is not a proper place to review 
works of a religious character ; more especially 
those written on abstruse and difficult points. 
We may, however, say, that the result of Mr. 
Cuningname*s laborious and prayerful re- 
searches, has been a number of very curious 
and valuable works on sacred chronology, 
which evince great learning and uncomnion 
acquaintance with the Word of God. The 
best known of his writings is his " Dissertation 
on the A]>oca]ypse," which has gone through 
several editions. But Mr. Cuninghame 's 
time was not spent in solitary meditation. 
Tlie instruction of the young and the poor on 
his extensive property was his daily and 
Weekly task ; and some of tlie boys of his 
Simday Schools at Stewarton might have 
tiken theological honours in a university, in 
so far as knowledge of Scripture proofs and 
of sacred history was concerned. It may be 
»nfely said that no man lived in the more 
daily habit of having his loins girt, and his 
lump burning, and earnestly waiting for the 
cnniing of the Lord, than William Cuninghame. 
And a higher eulogium it b impossible to 



pronounce than that a roan evinces the 
sincerity of his faith by the activity of his 
good works. Mr. Cuninghame was removed 
ft-om the scene of his useful and benevolent 
labours by a gentle and easy death, at an 
advanced age, in autunui, 1849, and was 
succeeded by his half-brother, who it now 
proprietor of Lainshaw. 

POLOC, in the co. of Renfrew, the seat of 
Sir John Maxwell, Baronet. 

At the distance of about five miles from 
Glasgow stands the town of PoUockshaws, 
the property of Sir John Maxwell ; and in the 
immediate vicinity is his seat of Pollock 
House, or Nether Pollock, ai it is called* in 
order to distinguish it from a neighbouring 
mansion of the same name, belongmg to the 
ancient Baronet's family of Pollock, of that 
ilk. An account of this place, published a 
century and a half since, thus describes it : — 
" Not far from Pollockshaws, towards the 
west, stands the castle of Nether Pollock, the 
principal manor of an ancient family of tlie 
name of Maxwell, a branch of the nouae of 
Cacrlaverock (ancestor to the Eari of Nith^ 
dale), adorned with curious orchards and 
gardens, with large parks and meadows, 
excellently well planted with a great deal of 
regular and beautiful planting, which adds 
much to the pleasure or this seat. Upon an 
eminence near to this stood the old Castle of 
Pollock, the ancient seat of tliat family, 
where are still the remains of a drawbridge 
and fosse." These two families of Maxwell 
and Pollock, who divided this noble domain, 
were of equal antiauity ; the former being a 
branch of the great bolder house of Nithsdale, 
and the latter being an ancient indigenous 
race, existing in the neighbourhood of Guu^w 
from time immemorial. 

The town of Pollockshaws is one of th« 
most flourishing in this part of the populous 
county of Renfrew. It numbers a good many 
thousand inhabitants, having greatly in- 
creased within the last forty yeai-s, when the 
number was between three and four thou- 
sand. About half a century ago it was 
erected into a borough of barony, with a 
ma^iKtracy, consisting of a provost, a baillie, 
ami six councillors, to preside (»ver and kerp 
peace among its nmncrous inhabitants. It is 
cheerfully situated by the water of Cart, 
which amirds great facility to viuioiis brmnchrs 
of manufacture, which are carrii*d on here 
with great activity and ingenuity; such as 
bleaching, dyeing, and tanning. l*he greatest 
source or employment, however, is the cotton 
manufacture. Much work is also done by the 
aid of steam machinery, even to the weai iiig 
of cluths. From two to three hundred l<K>ntk 
are put in motiun bv one engine. It in.i> lw> 
iningined from the foregoing di itcriptiim tli/t 
the C4tutc of Pollock is of great value ; and 



SEATS OP GS£AT BRITAIK AKD IBELAND. 



<» 



this value is incressing yearly, as it extends 
from the town of PoUockshaws a considerable 
vaj towards the dtj of Glasgow. Pollock 
Hoose, or Poloc, as it is now written, possesses 
no picturesque heauty. It is an old mansion of 
▼eiy moderate mie^ and has nothing worthy of 
remark either internally or externally. It is 
situated in a flat park, with some ancient trees. 

The family of Maxwell may be regarded as 
one of the most ancient and di5tingui:shed in 
Scotland. They can be traced back, as per- 
sons of consideration, as far as the year 1100. 
About the year 1250, Aymer de MaxweU, 
Lord Chamberlain of Scotland, married the 
heiress of Roland, Lord of Meams, with 
whom he acquired a great estate in the 
neighbiNurfaood of Glasgow. He had two 
sons — ^first, Herbert, ancestor of the Maxwells 
of CaerlaTerockf afterwards created Earl of 
Nithsdale; second, John, ancestor of the 
families of Maxwell of Pollock, and Maxwell 
of Calderwood. In the re^s of Robert II. 
and III., HTed Sir John MaxweU of Pollock, 
who married Isabel, daughter of Sir Jamea 
Lindsay of Crawford, by Egidia, sister of 
King Robert II. €>f this marriage there 
were two sons: first. Sir John of Pollock; 
second. Sir Robert of Calderwood. In 1400 
these two brothers entered into a mutual in- 
denture and entail, whereby it was provided 
that in case of failure of heiis male of either of 
their bodies, their estates should devolve on 
the surviving heirs male of the other. The 
estate of Pollock was transmitted, without 
intermission, in the line of Sir John during 
five generations, until 1647, when Sir John 
Maxwell of Pollock died without issue. He 
had, in 1642, been created a Baronet of Nova 
Scotia. He was an extremely prudent man, 
who had considerably augmented his estate, 
and was much disgusted at the reckless and 
prodigal manner in which his kinsman. Sir 
James Maxwell, the first Baronet of Calder- 
wood, had dissipated a portion of his. He 
was resolved to prevent his estate firom 
falling into such profuse hands. He there- 
fore, disregarding the bond into which the 
two brothers, his ancestors, had entered in the 
year 1400, determined to disinherit his right- 
ful heir. He had a neighbour of his own name, 
though no relationship to his family could be 
traced This was John Maxwell of Auld- 
house, the proprietor of a small estate in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Pollock. Sir 
John fixed upon his son George as his heir, 
and some time before his death he made a 
disposition in his favour, and to the prejudice 
of his kinsman and real heir, the Baronet of 
Calderwood. This disposition took effect, and 
Sir John was gratified by putting his neigh- 
bour in possession of his estate twelve months 
before his own death in 1647. 

Geoige Maxwell, of a new family, thus be- 
came proprietor of Pollock. The Baronet of 



Calderwood endeavoured to reduce this dis- 
position, as being a deed in prejudice of the 
entail of 1400 ; but having greatly involved 
himself by his extravairance, he was ill 
qualified for carrying on a difiicult and ex- 
pensive lawsuit against an adversary of great 
sagacity and prudence. His claim was im- 
properly managed and neglected; and some 
of his most important papers were lost through 
carelessness. The pretensions of the house 
of Calderwood to their rightful inheritance 
of PoUock were renewed in 1G95 by Sir 
William Maxwell, the second Baronet; but 
the estate having then been nearly forty yeara 
in the possession of the Auldhouae family, his 
claim came to nothing. 

George Maxwell of Auldhouae was great- 
grandson of a John MaxweU, who obtained a 
grant of the lands of Auldhouse in 1572. AAer 
ne became proprietor of Pollock, he was 
knighted by King Charles II. ; and dying in 
1677, he was succeeded by his son, John Max- 
well, who was created a Baronet by the same 
monarch in 1682. In 1696 he was appointed a 
Lord Commissioner of the T^asur)* ; and in 
1699 a Lord of Sesaon, and Lord Justice Clerk. 
Having no son, he was succeeded in the estate 
of Pollock, as well as in his paternal lands of 
Auldhouse, by his cousin, John Maxwell of 
Blawart Hill, who became second Baronet of 
Pollock of the new creation. He had several 
children. Two of his daughters were married 
and had issue. Their descendants are the 
families of Hamilton Dundas of Dudding^ 
stoun, and Hamilton of Barns. His three 
sons were successively Baronets of Pollock. 
The youngest of these. Sir James Maxwell, 
sixth Baronet of PoUock, was grandfather of 
Sir John, the eighth and present Baronet, who 
married the Lady Matilda Bruce, daughter of 
the late Earl of Elgin. Sir John was fur 
some years Member of Parliament fur the 
county of Lanaik. He is a Deputy Lieute- 
nant of the counties of Lanark and Keufrt^w. 
His nephew is Mr. Stirling of Kier, Member 
of Parliament for the county of Perth. 

CALDERWOOD OASTLB, in the co. of 
Lanark, the seat of Sir WUliam Maxwell, 
Baronet. 

This beautiful seat is distant about ten 
miles from Glasgow, and is surroundtnl by 
extensive woods and plensure-gruunds ; its 
situation is extremely picturesque and vuiunn- 
tic, the house overhanging the ruckv and pre- 
cipitous banks of the River CaUfer. The 
place has an air of great seclusion, though 
not of gloom ; and altogether it realiies uur 
idea of an ancient mansion of tl)o dnyn of 
chivolry. Within the last few yonw, tho 
present proprietor has added coiiMiileruhly (o 
the accommodations and cmbellitiluucntii of 
this old family residence. 

The fomtder of this branch of the gieat 



u 



BEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



house of Maxwell was Robert, second son of 
Sir John Maxwell of Pollock, who got from 
his father the Barony of Calderwood and 
other lands. He greatly added to his estate 
by marriage, and became a very rich and in- 
fluential man. In 1400 he made a solemn 
contract with his elder brother, the Knight of 
Pollock, that failing heirs male of either of 
their bodies, the whole family estates should 
devolve upon the heirs male of the other. The 
descendants of Sir Robert continued in wealth, 
power, and influence as Barons of Calderwood, 
until the time of Sir James, who possessed a 
very opulent fortune, and was in 1627 created 
a Baronet of Nova Scotia by King Charles I. 
But by his prodigal expenditure he greatly re- 
duced his fortune and alienated the esteem of 
his kinsman, the last of the family of Pollock, 
who, regardless of the solemn bond between 
their ancestors, disinherited him and left his 
great estate to a different family of the same 
name. Sir James was succeeded by his son. 
Sir William, the 2nd Baronet ; and he by his 
cousin, Sir John, the 3rd Baronet, from whom 
the present and 8th Baronet is lineally 
descended. 

The Earls of Famham, in Ireland, now re- 
presented by Baron Famham, are descended 
from a younger son of this family — Robert, 
second son of John, the second Baron of Cal- 
derwood, who received from his father the 
lands of Newland, in the Barony of Kilbride. 
He went over with his family to Ireland and 
settled there in the beginning of the reign of 
King James VI. His son Robert was 
Bishop of Kilmore in the reign of Charles I., 
and from him were the Earls of Farnham 
descended. Sir William Maxwell is a deputy- 
lieutenant of the county of Lanark. 

CUBXA0HMOBS, the splendid seat of the 
Marquess of Waterford, is situated in the 
Barony of Upper-Third and county of Waters 
ford, on the picturesque river Clodiagh, about 
three miles from its junction with the Suire, 
and ten miles west of the city of Waterford. 
The demesne is five miles in length, with a 
breadth at the greatest of three miles, occupy- 
ing the valley through which the aforesaid 
river carries oflf the many streams that descend 
from the eastern declivities of the Cummeragh 
mountains, and, on emerging from the de- 
mense, works with its accumulated powers the 
fine factory of Portlaw. The greater part 
of the timber in Curraghmore is indigenous to 
the soil, and in the park are many venerable 
oaks and some of the largest firs in Ireland. 
The woods cover alxnit one half of the estate, 
the total area of which is 4,000 acres, including 
a portion of the celebrated golden valley of 
the Suire. Few scenes can in truth present 
more attractive features than are traceable in 
the lofty hills, the rich valleys, ayd almost 
impeaetablc woods of Curraghmore. l*he 



front approach to the mansion lies throogb 
an oblong court-yard of extraordinary dimen- 
sions, flanked by two magnificent ranges of 
offices, and closed at the farther end by the 
front of the ancient castle, surmounted by a 
figure larger than life of " a stag lodged," 
the le Poer crest. Immediately contiguous to 
this, the ancient stronghold of the Powers of 
Waterford, stands the present house, erected 
in 1700, as dated on the pedestal of the door- 
case. <* The portico," says Smith, " coiwsu 
of two pillars of the Tuscan order, over 
which, in a pediment, is inserted the arms 
of the familv, above which, in a niche, stands 
a statue of Minerva. The hall is lofty and 
spacious, and fronting the entrance is a fine 
staircase, which, after the first landing, 
divides on each hand by two fliers to the 
landing-place of the first story. The whole 
walls ana ceiling are adorned with beautifnl 
paintings, columns, festoons, and between 
them several landscapes by Vander Egan, 
various other of whose works are here pre- 
served, especially 'The Landing of King 
William the Third near Carrickfergus.* The 
ceiling is pain ted in perspective, and represents 
a dome, tne columns seeming to rise though 
on a flat surface. The tapestry hangings are 
agreeably designed.*' 

'*The house,*' continues Smith, *' is a large 
square building, except on the east side, from 
the centre of which the castle projects. In 
a large room, part of that castle, is a chimney- 
piece carved m wood, representing the cartoon 
of St. Paul preaching at Athens, by a Mr. 
Houghton, who had a premium from the 
DubUn Society for this performance. Besides 
the staircase, there is a spacious room below 
also entirely painted by Vander Egan ; and in 
this room a sleeping Cupid, on a marble table, 
deserves attention. There are some ancient 
family portraits here, which by their manner 
seem to have been done by Dobson, Sir Peter 
Lely, and other famous portrait paintenw The 
gardens are of a considerable extent, and laid 
out in a fine taste. On the right is a natural 
wilderness of tall venerable oaks, through 
which an artificial serpentine river is cut, 
which, from an adjacent hill, that affords an 
entire prospect of the improvements, has a 
fine cTOct. The house has the advantage of 
water on tliree sides, laid out in large, elegant 
canals and basins, well stored with carp, tench, 
and perch. Swans and other wild-fowl coo- 
tribute to enliven the scene ; and the banks and 
terraces are adorned with statues. Facing 
two fronts of the house are cascades, one of 
which falls from step to step in the form of a 
'* perron," and the other from basin to basin. 
A third is designed to face the other front. 
There is also a shell-house erecting, which 
promises when finbhed to be very curious, as 
also a handsome green-house. From the 
front of the house, besides a proqiect of the 



8EAT8 OF OBBAT BRITAIN AHD IRELARD. 



65 



gardens, jou see beyond these, in the centre, 
a beautiful extended lawn, on either hand are 
rising grounds covered with wood, and in the 
neighbouring hills are several young planta- 
tions. The prospect is terminated by the 
Cummeragh mountains, which elevate their 
rocky sides at about seven miles distance, 
Down one of their steeps a rivulet tumbles, 
and beautifies the scene with a natural 
cascade." Such is the description of Doctor 
Charles Smith in 1746. Upwards of a century 
has elapsed, and local inquiry has elicited 
nothing to improve, or even vary this descrip- 
tion. The church of Clonegam stands on a mil 
about a mile east of the house, and is an 
object of much interest. Near its communion 
table are two handsome busts of Sir Marcus 
Beresford and Lady Catherine Poer, the 
founders of the present noble family ; and in 
the graveyard are various tombs to com- 
memorate the Beresford race- From the 
door of this church is a fine prospect of 
Curraghmore and the surrounding country, 
while yet more strikingly the eye can trape, 
from a tower in the demesne, the windings of 
the Suire into Waterford, wiUi the coast and 
the sea at the south. 

Roger le Poer, one of the knights who 
accompanied Strongbow into Ireland, obtained 
for his services there, from King Henry IL, 
a grant of the city of Waterford, and the 
sarrounduig territory, to an extent that in- 
daded Curraghmore, where his descendants 
fixed their capital residence. One of these, 
Richard, was created Lord le Poer, Baron of 
Cunnaglunore, by Henry VI., in 1452, and his 
grandson and namesake. Sir Richard Poer, 
did such service to the state, that he was, on 
the advice of the Earl of Ossory, appointed a 
Baron of Parliament by the title of Baron 
Poer and Curraghmore. 

In 1537, commissioners having been 
appointed to make survey of the King's lands, 
'* towards the parts where James Desmond is," 
rtporUd that *' in the county Waterford were 
customs called 'srahe' and ' bonnet,' in addi- 
tion to coin and livery, or as modifications of 
them. Lord Kildare and Lady Katherine 
Poer (wife of Sir Richard, and daughter of 
Pierce, Earl of Ormonde), not only remiired 
coin and livery for their own horses and boys, 
but also of all their guests, English or Irish, 
particularly when they kept Easter and Christ- 
mas. When either Kildare or Poer hunted, 
their dogs were supplied with bread and milk, 
or butter. When tne Deputy or any great 
man came to Lady Poer, she levied a subsidy 
at her pleasure for meat, drink, and candle, 
under the name of ' mertiffeght. ' When Ossory 
or Poer married a daughter, the former de- 
manded a sheep from every flock, and the 
latter a sheep of every husbandman, and a 
cow of every village ; and when their sons 
were sent to England, a tribute was levied in 



every village or townland. Lady Poer took 
of a tenant, who had his horse or cattle stolen, 
five marks /or kU waul of vigiiamee ; she also 
took a fine ror disobejring her sergeant, whether 
he were right or wrong ; and a beef, called 
' keyntroisk,' for refrising coin and livery ; 
and when she took a journey to Dublin, an 
assessment was made for the charges of her jour- 
ney." Sir Richard Poer, Lord Curraghmore, 
was afterwards slain by Connor O'Cafiaghan. 
He had married, as before mentioned, the Lady 
Katherine Butler, by whom he had issue — 
Piers, the second Lord Poer, bom in 1522. 
This latter nobleman sat in the Parliament of 
1541 , as Lord Poer, though under age, and 
in consideration of that youth, and of his 
"bavin? but little to live by," the Earl of 
Ormond besoiu;ht in 1542 license for him frt>m 
the CouncO of Ireland '* to repair to the King's 
majesty, there to continue for a year or two, 
and to be admitted as a pensioner to attend 
upon his Highness." In 1544 he was ap- 
pointed a captain-general of Kerne, as '* a 
toward and a hardy young gentleman, being 
very desirous to serve the King's Highness ;" 
but in the year following he died unmarried, 
when his brother, John Poer, bom in 1527, 
succeeded to the title. 

The state papers make mention of "various 
contentions and tumults that lately chanced 
in the county of Waterford, between Lady 
Katherine Butler (as she is styled by her 
maiden name) and her son, this Lord Poer, on 
the one part, and Sir Gerald Fitzjohn of 
Desmond, on the other." This Lord Poer died 
in 1607. It was in his time that Sir Henry 
Sidney, making his report to the Lords of the 
Council of his journey through Munster, wrote 
(1575): "The day 1 departed from Water- 
fiord, I lodged that night at Curraghmore, the 
house that the Lord Power is baron of, where 
I was so used, and with such plenty and good 
order entertuned, as (adding to it the qmet of 
all the country adjoining, by the people called 
Power-country, for that surname has been 
since the begmning of Englishmen's planting 
inhabitants Uiere), it may be well compared 
with the best ordered country in the English 
Pale ; and the lord of the country, though he 
be of scope of ground a far less territory than 
his neighbour is, yet he lives in show far more 
honourably and plentifully than he or any 
other, whatsoever he be of his calling, that 
lives in this province." His great-grandson, 
Richard le Poer, was advanced to the Vis- 
county of Decies and the Earldom of Tyrone, 
and died in 1690 ; as did his eldest son John, 
the second Earl, in 1693, unmarried ; where- 
upon the honours of this house devolved upon 
James, the brother of Earl John, who diea in 
1704, leaving an only daughter and heiress, 
the Lady Catherine Poer, who, in 1717, mar- 
ried Sir Marcus Beresford, of an ancient Staf- 
fordshire family, a scion of which had settled 



bS 



8BAT8 OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRKXAND. 



bis pleasure-grounds and park; for, by his 
ingenious discoveries in tbe art of transplant- 
ing full-grown trees, and by bis perseverance 
in uniting example to precept, be bas taught 
to those who had no trees the valuable secret 
of immediately obtaining them ; while tbe 
possessor of a well-wuoded park may derive 
additional beauty from new arrangements in 
grotiptng his timber. 

Sir Henry Stewart may lay claim to the title 
of the Evelyn of Scotland ; and if inferior to 
bis English predecessor as an author of ac- 
complishment and interest, he has, at least, 
produced a work which is of much greater 
practical utility to a planter, though it has less 
pretensions to genius and fancy, to make it 
attractive to a general reader. 

Allanton is situated in an ungenial moor- 
land country, which bas neither fertility nor 
beauty to recommend it. When Sir Henry 
succeeded to the estate, in 1772, tbe park was 
destitute of trees, excepting a few old ashes, 
planted near tbe mansion-house. He was at 
that time a minor; but be bad not Ions 
settled in life before be began the omaraeutu 
improvement of bis estate ; and although his 
fortune was but limited, yet, by devoting tbe 
energies of a long life to the task, be succeeded 
in creating a scene of great picturesque beauty, 
which, under ordinary management, would 
bave been the work of three generations. By 
a careful study of the physiology of plants, and 
tbe judicious adaptation of soUs, he succeeded 
in transplanting successfully trees of large 
growth ; and in tbe course of a lifetime he 
Burruunded himself with venerable groves and 
extensive woods, which have transformed Al- 
lanton into a place of great and cultivated 
beauty, very different from the bleak and un- 
lovely domain which be inherited. 

We would strongly recommend Sir Henry 
Stewart's work on transplanting trees to the 
attention of every country gentleman. His 
method will be found invaluable by any man 
who, with ample command of money, wishes, 
in a few years, to create a place, and to obtain 
a start of half-a-century in ornamental plant- 
ing. Sir Henry's experiments have now stood 
the test of about fifty years ; and it will be 
seen by any one who examines tbe park of 
Allanton, that bis transplanted trees continue 
to grow and in Hourish tu vi<;omiihly as if they 
bad occupied the ground from iieedlings. 
Though he had not the power of conducting 
bu operations on a very extensive scale, he 
succeeded, by dint of skill and perseverance, 
in his object, and created a beautiful park 
around the bouse cif his ancestors. 

Tbe family of Stewart, descended from an 
early branch of the stock of tbe High Stt wards 
of Scotland, has p<ist»essod Allanton since the 
middle of th«' tifleenth century. Allan Stewart, 
Laird of Allaiitun, was bum in Mti6, and died 
in 15lti. Hi> ton, Allan Stewart of AUantuti, 



married Marion, daughter of James Lockbart 
of Lee. In his time tbe doctrines of tbe Ke- 
formation made great progress in Scotland. He 
was tbe particular friend of the celebrated 
George Wishart, who frequently concealed 
himself in Allanton House. He died in 1574. 
H'ls son, James Stewart of Allanton, bom 1537t 
married Helen Somerville, daughter of a cadet 
of Lord Somerville 's family. He was very 
intimate with John Knox, whose doctrines be 
zealously promoted . He enj oy ed much of the 
confidence of Oie Regent Earl of Murray* 
and was one of his active partisans. He died 
in 1607, of grief, on account of the death of 
bis son James, who was bora in 1575, and 
died immediately before his father. By his 
wife, Marion Cannichael, daughter of ^ alter 
Cannichael of Hyndford, sister to the first 

Jeer of that family, and third cousin to King 
ames L of Great Britain, be had two soQa, 
Walter and James. 

James Stewart, tbe younger ton, bom after 
his father's death, in 1608, was bred a nier^ 
chant and banker in Edinburgh, and acquired 
a large fortune, and was knighted. He was 
Lord Provost of Edinburgh in 1649 and in 
1669; be was a zealous Covenanter, and one of 
the most influential men of his time in Scot- 
land. After tbe restoration of King CharU*s 
11.,- he suffered much on account of bis Whig 
and Covenanting principles, by fines and im- 
prisonment, lie purcliased tbe estates of 
Kirkfield and Coltness, both of which had 
anciently belonged to tbe great family of 
Somerville of Camnetban. Sir James Stewart 
died in Edinburgh in 1681, afler a very active 
life, spent amid tbe bustle of commerce, the 
jarring of religious controversy, and tbe con- 
tention of parties. Ue was the founder of 
three families, each of whom obtained the 
dignity of Baronet of Nova Scotia — viz., 
Stewart of Coltness, Stewart of Goodtrees, 
and Stewart of Allanbank. The Coltness 
Baronetcy, as well as estate, became ulti- 
mately merged in the family of Goodtrees. 

The eldest son of James Stewart, younger, 
of Allanton, and of Marion Cannichael, was 
Walter, bora a year before bis father's death, 
in 1606. He was a man of similar religious 
principles with his brother, and bad conside- 
rable influence with the Presbvterian party in 
Scotland. He was knighted, and married 
Margaret Hamilton, daughter of Sir Jumes 
Hamilton of Broomhill, sister to Sir John 
Huiiiilton of Broomhill: who, for bis loynltv 
to King Charles 1., was created, in 1647, Lord 
Belhaven ; and to James Hamilton, Biifbop of 
(fnllowav. It is said that in 1650, OUver 
Cromwell, after the battle of Dunbar, in hn 
progress through Lanarkshire, halted, with bis 
attendants, at Allanton House, where be wa« 
luMipitably entertained by Lady Stewart, and 
where he spent tlie niL'ht. Sir WulttT, thuu^'h 
he belonged to the Whig and Co%'cn4tttuig 



SEATS OF OREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



59 



party, was attached to monarchical principles, 
and wished well to Charles I. He therefore 
took care to he out of the way on this occa- 
sion. On Cromwell's arrival, some choice 
canary and other refreshments were presented 
to him; but he would suifer nothing to be 
touched until he himself had first said grace, 
which he fervently did for more than haJf-an- 
hour. He then courteously inquired after Sir 
Walter ; and on drinking to the health of the 
family, he observed that his own mother was 
a Stewart, and that he always felt a kindness 
for the name. He had, however, found 
means to stifle those kindly emotions when he 
eut off the head of King Charles I. 

By Margaret Hamilton, Sir Walter Stewart 
had several children. His daughter Marion 
was the wife of John Boyle of Kelbum. 
Her son was the first Earl of Glasgow, and 
from him the present Earl of Glasgow, the 
late Lord Justice General of Scotland, the 
Marquis of Hastings, and several other 
diMtinguished families descended. His 
daughter Anne was wife of Claud Hamilton 
of liames, M.P. She is ancestress to the 
family of Hamilton of Bams, Lord Gray of 
Gray, Mr. Hamilton Dundas of Dudding- 
stoun. Admiral Sir Charles Napier, and the 
Rev. J. Hamilton Gray of Carntyne. Sir 
Walter died in 1672, and was succeeded by 
his son, William Stewart of Allanton, who 
was persecuted for his religious and political 
opinions in the reign of Charles IT. Lie mar- 
ncd his cousin Margaret, daughter of his 
uncle, Sir James Stewart of Allanbank. One 
of his wife's brothers dexterously embracing 
opposite political principles, became Secretary 
of State for Scotland imder James II., and 
Allanton 's fines were remitted. He was even 
offered a baronetcy by James II ., which he 
refused, and then it was given to his cousin of 
Allanbank. He died in 1700, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, James Stewart of Allanton, 
who, by his wife Cecilia Dunmore, had a son, 
James, and a daughter, Marion, wife of 
Andrew Mac Dowal of Logan, Lord Bankton, 
and Lilias, wife of Andrew Murray, a brother 
of Lintrose. He died in 1752, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, James Stewart of Allanton, 
who, by Margaret, daughter of Henry 
Stewart Barclay, of Collairney, in Fifeshire, 
was the father of Henry Stewart of Allan- 
ton, bom in 1759. 

This gentleman, as has already been stated, 
devoted his life to the improvement and 
adornment of his property. He published a 
most useful work on arboriculture, and in 
earlier life he published a translation of Sal- 
lust. In 1787 ne married Lilias, daughter of 
Hugh Seton of Touch, in the county of 
Stirling, by whom he had an only daughter, 
Elizabeth, wife of Reginald Macdonald of 
Stiiffa. Sir Henry was created a Baronet by 
King George III., with remainder to the 



husband of his daughter. On the death of 
Sir Henry, about the year 1835, he was 
succeeded by his son-in-law, Reginald Mac- 
donald, as second Baronet, and on his death 
in 1838, his eldest son, by the heiress of Al- 
lanton, inherited the title, and is the present 
Sir Henry James Seton Stewart, thira Baro- 
net. He married in 1833 Miss Montgomery, 
niece to the late Sir James Montgomery, 
Bart. Lady Stewart, the heiress of Allanton, 
added in 1835 the surname of Seton to her 
patronymic of Stewart, on succeeding, as sole 
heiress, to her uncle, Archibald Seton of 
Touch. As representative of this very an- 
cient family. Lady Seton Stewart holds the 
honourable' office of hereditary armour- 
bearer to the queen and squire of the royal 
body. A curious coincidence that both sove- 
reign and ofiicial should be ladies ! 

MEBGHIfiTON HALL, near Homdean, 
Hampshire, the seat of Vice- Admiral Sir 
Charles Napier, K.C.B., Count Cape Saint 
Vincent 

lliis handsome country residence was pur- 
chased some years since by the gallant Ad- 
miral to whom the command of the Baltic 
fleet has been entrusted; and the name of 
Merchiston Hall was given to it in conse- 
quence of that having been the designation 
of the residence, near Falkirk, in Scotland, 
of Sir Charles's father, the Hon. Charles 
Napier, Captain in the navy. Merchiston 
Hall is a good modem house, with handsome 
public rooms and considerable accommodation, 
situated in the midst of a lawn, with garden, 
shmbberies, and farm-offices attached to it. 
The surrounding country is rich and beau- 
tiful. There is nothing in the place to claim 
our notice, excepting the fact that it belongs 
to one of the most gallant and successful 
officers in the British navy, to whom the most 
important trust that the Government of his 
country had it in its power to bestow, has 
been confided. 

Sir Charles Napier is the eldest surviving 
son of the Hon. Charles Napier of Merchiston 
Hall, in the county of Stirling, who was the 
second son of Francis, fifth Lord Napier, by 
the Lady Henrietta Hope, daughter of the 
Earl of Hopetoun. His mother was a 
daughter of tlie ancient family of Hamilton 
Dundas of Duddingstoun, in West Lothian, 
and Westbura, in the county of Lanark. 
After a series of distinguished services during 
the late war. Sir Charles, in the long interval 
of peace, entered the Portuguese service for 
the purpose of taking the command of the 
fleet of tlie Queen of Portugal, with which 
he entirely defeated and destroyed that of 
Don Miguel, and may be said to have secured 
the Portuguese throne for Donna Maria da 
Gloria; and given a decisive blow to the 
principles of absolutism in the Spanish penin* 



GO 



BEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



suIa. For this great achievement he was 
created a Count and Grandee of the first class 
of Portugal, with the title of Cape Saint 
Vincent ; and he had his commission of post 
captain in the British navv restored to him, 
which had heen of necessity resigned when 
he took the command of the Portuguese fleet. 
His next exploit was at Acre, when the suc- 
cessful issue of the war in Syria was decided 
by his skill and prowess. And after dis- 
tinguishing himselt by his valour in arms, he 
showed no less talent as a diplomatist, and 
won the respect and admiration of the veteran 
Mahomet Ali. 

^f erchiston Castle, near Edinburgh, is the 
original seat of the ancient family of Napier ; 
and it is here that that illustrious pliilosopher, 
John Napier, Baron of Merchiston, brought 
his logarithms to perfection. It is still the 
property of the present Lord Napier. When 
the Hon. Charles Napier acquired a landed 
estate, his regard for the traditions of his 
fdiuily induced him to give to it the name of 
his Mther's ancient castle, and the same 
praiseworthy feeling actuated Sir Charles 
when he became by purchase a Hampshire 
proprietor. Sir Charles married the widow of 
Captain Ellers, of the Royal Navy, by whom 
be has an only child, a daughter, the wife of 
the Rev. Henry Jodrell, nephew of Sir 
Richard Paul Jodrell, Bart., by whom she 
has a numerous family. 

XAIAHIDS CA8TLB, co. Dublin, the rest- 
dence of that practically patriotic nobleman, 
Lord Talbot, hence styled "de Malahide," 
— has been the unalienated, unconfiscated in- 
heritance of his lordship's ancestors, from the 
date of the grant of the manor by Henry the 
Second to Richard de Talbot, who had ac- 
companied him thither. This Richard was 
the great-grandson of Richard Talbot of 
Hereford Castle, in the time of William the 
Conqueror. His own great-grandson, another 
Richard, was one of the Irish chiefs who aided 
the subsidy raised to enable Edward the First 
to prosecute the Scottish War, and who after- 
wards personally signalized himself in resisting 
Edwani Bruce 's insane invasion. In the 
reiipi of the fourth Edward, Thomas Talbot, 
then proprietor of Malahidr, received a royal 
grant of High Admiral of the Seas, with hill 

Sower and aithority to him to hear and 
eterminc, in a Court of Admiralty, all tres- 
passes, &c., b^ the tenants or vassals, or others 
resident withm the town of Malahide. Jn 
1488, Sir Richard Edgecombe, when he came 
to take oaths of impurgation and allegiance 
from those of Ireland, who had espoused the 
cause of Lambert Stmnel, landed at Malahide, 
and "there a gentlewoman called Talbot 
received him, and made him right good cheer ; 
and the same day, at afternoon, the Bishop of 
Meath and others came to Malahide aforesaid, 



well-accompanied, and fetched the laid Sir 
Richard to Dublin, and at his coming thither 
the mayor and substance of the city received 
him at the Black Friars* gate, at which Black 
Friars (the site of the pitsent Fourth Courts) the 
said Sir Richard was lodged." In a few davs 
after, Sir Peter Talbot, then Lord of Malahide, 
made his homage and fealty to Sir Richard. 

From Malahide Castle, in 1545, the Lady 
" Aleanora *' Fits Gerald directed a petition 
for pardon to the inexorable Henrv VIII. 
3he was the aunt of the unfortunate 
enthusiast, Lord Thomas Fitzgerald, 
popularly styled "the silken lord," and 
had married, for her first husband, Mac 
Cartv, a powerful chief of Munster, on whov 
death she became the wife of a yet more in- 
dependent chieftain of Ulster, Manus, son of 
Hugh O'Donnell, the Dynast of Tyrconnel. 
When the royal vengeance had flooded the 
scaflbld of the Tower with the blood of loidy 
Aleanora*s brothers and her nephews, her 
second husband sheltered the last hope that 
remained to preserve the line — the mfant 
Gerald. The ''treason" of each of her 
marryings with such Irish houses was heart- 
lessly pressed upon the jealous King, where- 
upon she, in 1545, humbly addressed her 
'* most dread sovereign lord," acknowledged 
her "ofiending his princely magnificence, 
but rather by lenorance than presumption." 
"Yet," she adds, "considering your moat 
kingly clemency, extended to all sorts, and 
such, especially, as with incorrupt heart, 
submit tnemselves unto your accustomed 
mercy, I, your grace's humble oratrix and 
suppliant, most lowly beseech your highnosn, 
in the honour of God, not to resent my sad 
offences," &c., &c., &c. Thus this crushed 
lady, of one of the proudest Anglo-Norman 
families of Ireland, implored her appeal from 
the castle of Malabide, the place which the 
Lord Deputy and Council had assigned for 
her sojourn," until such time as His Majesty's 
determinate pleasure should be signified 
therein." Her pardon was a singular ex- 
tension of King Henry's mercy. 

In 16.39, Lord Stratford sought to wrest from 
Richard Talbot, the then inheritor of Mala- 
hide, the before-mentioned privileges of the 
admiralty of its port, with his valuable frao* 
chises ; but, on nis pleading and producing 
the charters under which his ancestors bad 
enjoyed them, the court gave judgment 
against the Crown, and Strafibrd's designs 
were on this occasion defeated. John Talbot, 
the son and heir of Richard, having, in 1G41, 
embraced that side to which misguided 
loyalty, ill-requited enthusiasm, and yet more 
religious fideUty had hurried the nllant a*jd 
reApuctnble gentry of Ireland, snared with 
them the ruinous consequences. He was 
ousted from this castle, which, with a park of 
500 acres, was granted to Miles Corbet, the 



f 



L 



SEATS or GSEAT BKTTAIV AKI 



XT;, 



\ 



n^cide, m vlifMie time tradition nyi Oliver 
Cromwell sojoamed for a sliort time here. 
From tlus port, Corbet, when outlawed at the 
Reatomtion, took ahipping for the Conthient 
ind faWquently *' expiated his ermn," a» 
Brewer mudly says, by a degrading death. 
In 1661 he was executed at Tybam, and the 
Talbot family were immediately restored to 
their ancient righta here. In 1782, Richard 
Talbot of Mai^ide was one of the dirralrons 
andweB-intentioned gentlemen whomidertDok 
to raise a regiment of Tolunteen for the service 
of his coontry . Each regiment on this memora- 
ble occasion was to consist of eight companies, 
without levy money, while Government was 
to provide accoutrements, anns, and pay. 

The castle is large but irregular, and un- 
equal in its height ; nearly square in its outf? 
form, and flanked at its principal front with 
circular lowers, richly invested with iry. it 
stands elevated on a limestone rock, and com- 
mands a fine view of the town and hay. A 
handsome modem porch opens into a spacit^us 
hall, w^hence a spiral staircase leads to an an- 
tique apartment, lighted by a nngle poiuu-d 
window of stained glass. The wainscoting of 
this room is of Irish oak, that has long siiice 
acquired the sombre tint of ebony, and is 
divided into compartments ornamented with 
exquisitely carved sculpture of Scnptund 
designs ; while the chimney-piece presf nli in 
its centre, figures of the Virgin and Child beau- 
tifully executed. Adjoining this room is the 
saloon, a spacious, handsome apartment, en- 
riched with costly specimens of porcelaio, and 
containing some good paintings, particularly a 
valuable little altar-piece that once belcm^td 
to Mary, Queen of Scots. It was painted by 
Albert Dnrer, and represents the Nativity, 
Adoration, and Circumcision ; purchased bv 
Charles II. for £2,000, it was given b^- 
him to the Duchess of Portsmouth, who is 
said to have presented it to the grandmother of 
the late Colonel Talbot. There is also a por- 
trait of that Duchess as caressing a dove ; one 
of Charles I., dancing with the Inianu of 
Spain at the Escurial, by Vandyke; Jaines 
the Secondhand his Queen, Anne Hyde, by Sir 
Peter LeW; Richard Talbot, the celebrated 
l>uk<* of T yrconnel, and the ladies Catherine 
■Lzid Charlotte Talbot, his daughters, also by 
Lely ; one of Charles Talbot, Duke of Shrews- 
bury, on enamel ; with many other portraits 
of illustrious members of the Talbot family. 

The demesne is embellished with some 
splendid old oaks, elms, ash, and sycamore, 
that seem the representatives of a forest 
nobility, almost as ancient as that of the 
family by whom they were planted. Beside 
the castle are the venerable remains of its an- 
cient chapel, the entrance to which is flanked 
by two magnificent guardian sycamores. The 
iiiterior is now thickly shaded witli venerable 
in chestnut trees, that their season of foliage 



a ani. mort 
monnmeuu ti*?^ 



!.•> 






Ti** a:.n*Tr v'«jr:^ <r 1^— ••:;?^ t •-•Tr — 
situai^L u i. i-e-^.1* t*-*-. >w *k Z,^ ^'..^. 
tilt rrv«T Aniui'^ sr t:j* t.ri^s-r^ c 2 t .« 
ir'iiu ti»* ♦ii-r— ..... T,^' • <— i-^' ; • nr: -^ 

St*»vanoL., ai r * 'jz'^n 2. »- t. * •• •-. 
u: GuihjrTiv i" 1 :u* i la; *»' * nj*- w i^- • 

e«fUtt*: W!;8'*t I sS' iP^f^ r*"-'- '• '\r-'n*' • ' .. 

»liivi l;2c» ntrr*-***-! n '*.**.»• T"n !«#' ^w.^ 
ixj»t»*naiit» *f !!*♦ I'nri */ •.■-^ vr.*^. v 
ii- ciiit'i*; uuir *n :■*- v "v^-* 7 ^ v /v— 
iaiifiL rif til* •\fer>»\ ** "••*■-»<-'■.. •; r.-v;-' • ; j. 
larpt trar* 'i* v'-nr**"* »-,■«•• ' *.^ t'*r:„ ^ i*-^ 
lee» iiiai i«-im Z.*^f* v» •'.*•• •*./.»» 

Ti»*T»- » ai sn'fjfe'i «*• »*->•- -r t r',- 
l^acji^: *»!*•••.;': ::.* mci u t #* r^ «, »,^ 
huuat.. w i:*M 9 'm:i0"9,*^»'\ n ■^'t**—-- .»• i'--»a 
auo fcaiiii» i**^!* t:** ■^-.— 1-» *,» v-'i i j ^ 

ariimiL. Tii* ani-pnr wnu^ v 
ffirijie^ « ♦r«n»»j«i*-t */ i •\*-^ .,->'* •,,* 
ttnrtrr. azic «. **»•»- *jtt* */ i *,is''.-t: r- ^ j,,,^ 

KUJii:::.|r 'li*- ni<si'^ bU'4r.iifi» v: *'i i^tt u*.*^ 
inao* It XT a* t!f.»-*nr: Ini***. /.•rr»^«-* ♦j^ 
li:*-t Kr. (^ uiuLi'tji'ii* . ff «*^t f>'«r *-/jM-t»^ 
Tirunn*^ ti»* jr'»'a>-* lAj— «/ •»»* v»t On i' M.jr, 
aiiC r*^#.a'j:*< *i»*ii t" t tn'y* aiit i/*ist(wi,|.^ 
ct.<* !,ii*-t *rc ii'A.. i» ii*''t KXftt^nit t. iii«» »..».^ 
oi PL.L.*'. rv/Wit. anic i; >"*«• *-r.>i»* u* i^-^^ 
r'^'Jiii v.'^'*t»'T*i'/Ci:t,«rt^ ai,t »•— *«u- t «/it.«j^ 
Mr. C ui.jL!^'uaii«» u»'*ov*^ ]jiii>»*';^ UMiit u«/i«. . 
f'*T ii.abi.'T i»-aiyi_ tit '.ij*^ iji$/»v»»-ii»^f* «tii( »-f,^ 
lM-*.i»»jjt',«>i-^ yj l'j» t-rttfl* ai«C 11.i11r.4n ».,i'i 
i» cawr of "At*- u*'^ couvi'u*r«.v*» A U'j« xmrx \4 
tSMr c-our IT uf A vr. 

L4!;*'»T:»w aj»«ri*-»'**T *>«lv?^»< u. « fi-.v* r 
of M '>•*;• 'jf«**Ti. ivu!»VfC Ji *'»» iM-r'>.>i-« ^ 'jf 
tilt j</Ui t*^i*Mrr. %n St *».» V-r ♦^'-n-^-r. 

I'-ri'.*., in a f^a^l bl IJ,*- I>^^4 br/^d a,,fl'i„^ 

mnTTifti imn, tpt..\ <i>-.j"t>T of }*Ani, f^/u/ih 
ai,d la^t I»rd L%>, w.'.'/m- hi#'>nt lai/jjJy nf-re 
thi'nc^-f'/rth repr*-*»^ji^o by ti*** Mr/nt^orum *s 
of Lajti«haw« At Uri^h, aftw »jx g«'Tierations 
of exiftt' nee as a separate family, the senior 
line of the Mf/ntfrom^Tys of Lain^haw became 
extinct in the male line, about the middle of 
the eighteenth centnr}-, but a branch estab- 
lished in America still remains, and is now 
represented by Austin Montgomerie, £8q., of 
Philadelphia. 

In the year 1 783, the ancient mansion*hou»e 
and large estates of Lainihaw passed, by 



62 



8EAT8 OF GREAT BBITAIH AND IBBLAKD. 



•ale, to William Cuninghame (one of the 
most opulent of the great Virginian merchants 
in Glasgow), descended from an ancient 
Ayrshire family — Cuninghame of Colellan, a 
cadet of Cuninghame of Caprington, sprung 
from Thomas, younger son of Sir >\illiam 
Cuninghame, liOrd of Kilniaurs, ancestor to 
the Harl of Glcncaim. Mr. Cuninghame, 
the purchaser of Lainshaw, was tlirice married. 
hy nis second wife, a ladv of the name of 
CamphcU, he had a son, the late proprietor 
of Lainshaw. By his third wife, whom he 
married in 1780, Margaret Cranstoun, grand- 
daughter of the fifth Lord Cranstoun, he had 
issue the present proprietor of Lainshaw, and 
several daughters, one of whom married, in 
1805, the second Lord Ashburton. 

Mr. Cuninghame, on his death, was suc- 
ceeded by his son William, who had gone to 
India early in life, in the civil service of the 
East India Company. He was a man of very 
great abilities, and peculiar talent for business ; 
and had he remained in India, he would 
doubtless have acquired great distinction 
there. But the deatn of his father called him 
home, before many years, to take possession 
of his estates; and he settled himsi'lf at 
Lainshaw, whence he rarely moved, excepting 
to make an annual visit to London. 

His time was entirely occupied with the 
management and improvement of his estates, 
and with the more important undertaking of 
diffusing religious knowledge among the young 
and the poor around him. Of no man can it 
be more trulv said that he "walked with 
(fod," than of William Cuninghame of Lain- 
shaw. For many vears of his life, he devoted 
himself to the study of the prophetic Scrip- 
tures, and more especially the Book of Reve- 
lation. This is not a proper place to review 
works of a religious character ; more especially 
those written on abstruse and difficult points. 
We may, however, say, that the result of Mr. 
Cuninghame *s laborious and prayerful re- 
searches, has been a number of very curious 
and valuable works on sacred chronology, 
which evince great learning and uncomnion 
acquaintance with the Word of God. The 
best known of his writings is his '* Dissertation 
on the Apocalypse,** which has gone through 
several editions. But Mr. Cunindmnie's 
time wi» not spent in solitary meditation. 
The instruction of the young and the poor on 
his extensive property was his daOy and 
woekly task; and some of tlie boys of his 
Stmday Schools at Stewarton might have 
tkken theological honours in a university, in 
so far as knowledge of Scripture proofs and 
of sacred history was concerned. It may be 
fi.ifrly said that no man lived in the more 
daily habit of ha\'ing his loins girt, and his 
lamp burning, and earnestly waiting for the 
coming of the Lord, thanWiuiam Cuninchami*. 
And a higher eulogium it is impossible to 



pronounce than that a roan evinces the 
sincerity of his faith by the activity of his 
good works. Mr. Cuninghame was removed 
from the scene of his useful and benevolent 
labours by a gentle and easy death, at an 
advanced age, in autumn, 1819, and was 
succeeded by his half-brother, who is now 
proprietor of*^ Lainshaw. 

FOLOC, in the co. of Renfrew, the seat of 
Sir John Maxwell, Baronet. 

At the distance of about five miles from 
Glasgow stands the town of Pollockshaws, 
the property of Sir John Maxwell ; and in the 
immediate vicinity is his seat of Pollock 
House, or Nether Pollock, as it b called, in 
order to distinguish it from a neif^hbouring 
mansion of the same name, belongmg to the 
ancient Baronet's family of Pollock, of that 
ilk. An account of this place, published a 
century and a half since, thus describes it :— 
'* Not far from Pollockshaws, towards the 
west, stands the castle of Nether Pollock, the 
principal manor of an ancient family of the 
name of Maxwell, a branch of the bouse of 
Caerlaverock (ancestor to the Earl of Niths- 
dale), adorned with curious orchards and 
gardens, with large parks and meadows, 
excellently well planted with a great deal of 
regular and beautiful planting, which adds 
much to the pleasure or this seat. Upon an 
eminence near to this stood the old Castle of 
Pollock, the ancient seat of that family, 
where are still the remains of a drawbridge 
and fosse.*' These two families of Maxwell 
and Pollock, who divided this noble domain, 
were of equal antiquity ; the former being a 
branch of the great norder house of Nithsdale, 
and the latter being an ancient indifirenous 
race, existing in the neighbourhood of Glasgow 
from time immemorial. 

The town of Pollockshaws is one of the 
most flourishing in this part of the populous 
county of Rennrew. It nmnbers a good many 
thousand inhabitants, having greatly in- 
creased withui the last forty years, when the 
number was between three and four thou- 
sand. About half a century ago it was 
erected into a borough of barony, with a 
nmcihtracy, consisting of a provost, a baillie, 
and six coimcillors, to preside over and keep 
peace among its numerous inhabitants. It is 
cheerfully situated by the water of Cart, 
which afu)rds great facility to various branchrs 
of manufacture, which are carriiHl on here 
with great activity and ingenuitv ; such as 
bleaching, dyeing, and tanning. The greatest 
source of employment, however, u the cotton 
manufictive. Much work is also done bv the 
aid of steam machinery, even to the weaving 
of clothe. From two to three hundred Uhmtis 
are put in motion bv one engine. It in.i\ Ih' 
inia<:iii(d ftoni the fori going ilfM'ript'.na iii.^t 
the cAtutc of Pollock is of great %alue: and 



BEATS OF GBEAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



m 



this value ift increasing yearly, as it extends 
from the town of Pollockshaws a considerable 
way towards the city of Glasgow. Pollock 
House, or Poloc, as it is now written, possesses 
no picturesque beauty. It is an old mansion of 
very moderate size, and has nothing worthy of 
remark either internally or externally. It is 
situated in aflat park, with some ancient trees. 

The family of Maxwell may be regarded as 
one of the most ancient and distinguished in 
Scotland. They can be traced back, as per- 
sons of consideration, as far as the year 1100. 
About the year 1250, Aymer de Maxwell, 
Lord Chamberlain of Scotland, married the 
heiress of Roland, Lord of Mearns, with 
whom he acquired a great estate in the 
neighbourhood of Glasgow. He had two 
sons — first, Herbert, ancestor of the Maxwells 
of Caerlaverock, afterwards created £arl of 
Nithsdale; second, John, ancestor of the 
families of Maxwell of Pollock, and Maxwell 
of Calderwood. In the reigns of Robert II. 
and III., lived Sir John Maxwell of Pollock, 
who married Isabel, daughter of Sir James 
Lindsay of Crawford, by Egidia, sister of 
King Robert II. Of this marriage there 
were two sons: first, Sir John of Pollock; 
second. Sir Robert of Calderwood. In 1400 
these two brothers entered into a mutual in- 
denture and entail, whereby it was provided 
that in case of faihure of heirs male of either of 
their bodies, their estates should devolve on 
the surviving heirs male of the other. The 
estate of Pollock was transmitted, without 
intermission, in the line of Sir John during 
Bre generations, until 1647, when Sir John 
Maxwell of Pollock died without issue. He 
had, in 1642, been created a Baronet of Nova 
Scotia. He was an extremely prudent man, 
who had considerably augmented his estate, 
and was much disgusted at the reckless and 
prodigal manner in which his kinsman, Sir 
James Maxwell, the first Baronet of Calder- 
wood, had dissipated a portion of his. He 
was resolved to prevent his estate from 
falling into such profuse hands. He there- 
fore, disregarding the bond into which the 
two brothers, his ancestors, had entered in the 
year 1400, determined to disinherit his right- 
ful heir. He had a neighbour of his own name, 
though no relationship to his family could be 
traced This was John Maxwell of Auld- 
bouse, the proprietor of a small estate in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Pollock. Sir 
John fixed upon his son George as his heir, 
and some time before his death he made a 
disposition in his favour, and to the prejudice 
of his kinsman and real heir, the Baronet of 
Calderwood. This disposition took effect, and 
Sir John was Ratified by putting his neigh- 
bour in possession of his estate twelve months 
before his own death in 1647. 

(f eorge Maxwell, of a new family, thus be- 
came proprietor of Pollock. The Baronet of 



Calderwood endeavoured to reduce this dis- 
position, as being a deed in prejudice of tlie 
entail of 1400 ; but having greatly involved 
himself by his extravagance, he was ill 
qualified for carrying on a difficult and ex- 
pensive lawsuit against an adversary of great 
sagacity and prudence. His claim was im- 
properly managed and neglected ; and some 
of his most important papers were lost through 
carelessness. The pretensions of the house 
of Calderwood to their rightful inheritance 
of Pollock were renewed in 1695 by Sir 
William Maxwell, the second Baronet; but 
the estate having then been nearly forty years 
in the possession of the Auldhouse family, his 
claim came to nothing. 

George Maxwell of Auldhouse was great- 
grandson of a John Maxwell, who obtained a 
frant of the lands of Auldhouse in 1572. After 
e became proprietor of Pollock, he was 
kniglited by King Charles II. ; and dying in 
1677, he was succeeded by his son, John Max- 
well, who was created a Baronet by the same 
monarch in 1682. In 1696 he was appointed a 
Lord Commissioner of the Treasury ; and in 
1699 a Lord of Session, and Lord Justice Clerk. 
Having no son, he was succeeded in the estate 
of Pollock, as well as in his paternal lands of 
Auldhouse, by his cousin, John Maxwell of 
Blawart Hill, who became second Baronet of 
Pollock of the new creation. He had several 
children. Two of his daughters were married 
and had issue. Their descendants are the 
families of Hamilton Dundas of Dudding- 
stoun, and Hamilton of Bams. His three 
sons were successively Baronets of Pollock.- 
The youngest of these. Sir James Maxwell, 
sixth Baronet of Pollock, was grandfather of 
Sir John, the eighth and present Baronet, who 
married the Lady Matilda Bruce, daughter of 
the late Earl of Elgin. Sir John was for 
some years Member of Parliament for the 
county of Lanaik. He is a Deputy Lieute- 
nant of the counties of Lanark and Renfrew. 
His nephew is Mr. Stirling of Kier, Member 
of Parliament for the comity of Perth. 

CAXDEBWOOD CASTLE, in the co. of 

Lanark, the seat of Sir William Maxwell, 
Baronet. 

This beautiful seat is distant about ten 
miles from Glasgow, and is surrounded by 
extensive woods and pleasure-grounds ; its 
situation is extremely picturesque and roman- 
tic, the house overhanging the rocky and pre- 
cipitous banks of the River Calder. The 
place has an air of great seclusion, though 
not of gloom ; and altogether it realizes our 
idea of an ancient mansion of the days of 
chivalry. Within the last few years, the 
present proprietor has added considerably to 
the accommodations and embellishments of 
this old family residence. 

The founder of this branch of the. great 



64 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



house of Maxwell was Robert, Recond ion of 
Sir John Maxwell of Pollock, who got from 
hta father the Barony of Calderwood and 
other lands. He greatly added to his estate 
by marriage, and became a very rich and in- 
fluential man. In 1400 he made a solemn 
contract with his elder brother, the Knight of 
Pollock, that failing heirs male of either of 
their bodies, the wnole family estates should 
devolve upon the heirs male of the other. The 
descendants of Sir Robert continued in wealth, 
power, and influence as Barons of Calderwood, 
until the time of Sir James, who possessed a 
very opulent fortune, and was in 1627 created 
a Baronet of Nova Scotia by King Charles I. 
But by his prodigal expenditure he greatly re- 
duced his fortune and alienated the esteem of 
his kinsman, the last of the family of Pollock, 
who, regardless of the solemn bond between 
their ancestors, disinherited him and left his 
great estate to a different family of the same 
name. Sir James was succeeded by his son. 
Sir William, the 2nd Baronet ; and he by his 
cousin, Sir John, the 3rd Baronet, from whom 
the present and 8th Baronet is lineally 
descended. 

The Earls of Famham, in Ireland, now re- 
presented by Baron Famham, are descended 
from a youneer son of this family— Robert, 
second son of John, the second Baron of Cal- 
derwood, who received from his father the 
lands of Newland, in the Barony of Kilbride. 
He went over with his family to Ireland and 
settled there in the beginning of the reign of 
King James VI. His son Robert was 
Bishop of Kilmore in the reign of Charles I., 
and from him were the Earls of Farnham 
descended. Sir William Maxwell is a deputy- 
lieutenant of the county of Lanark. 

CUBSAOHMOBB, the splendid seat of the 
Marquess of Waterford, is situated in the 
Barony of Upper-Third and county of Water- 
ford, on the picturesaue river Clodiagh, about 
three miles from its junction with the Suire, 
and ten miles west of the city of Waterford. 
The demesne is five miles in length, with a 
breadth at the greatest of three miles, occupy- 
ing the valley through which the aforesaid 
river carries ofl* the many streams that descend 
from the eastern declivities of the Cummeragh 
mountains, and, on emerging from the de- 
mense, works with its accunmlated powers the 
fine factory of Portlaw. The greater part 
of the timber in Curraghmore is indigenous to 
the soil, and in the park are many venerable 
oaks and some of the largest fin in Ireland. 
The woods cover about one half of the estate, 
the total area of which is 4,000 acres, including 
a portion of the celebrated golden valley of 
the Suire. Few scenes can in truth present 
more attractive features than are traceable in 
the lofty hills, the rich valleys, ayd alnuwt 
impenetrable woods of Curraghmore. llie 



front approach to the mansion lies throvgfa 
an oblong court-yard of extraordinary dimen- 
sions, flanked by two magnificent ranges of 
oflices, and closed at the farther end by the 
front of the ancient castle, surmounted by a 
figure larger than life of '<a stag lodged,** 
the le Poer crest. Immediately contiguous to 
this, the ancient stronghold of the Powers of 
Waterford, stands the present house, erected 
in 1700, as dated on the pedestal of the door- 
case. " The portico,*' siws Smith, " coniisU 
of two pillars of the Tuscan order, over 
which, in a pediment, is inserted the arms 
of the familv, above which, in a niche, stands 
a statue of Minerva. The hall is lofty and 
spacious, and fronting the entrance is a fine 
staircase, which, after the first landing, 
divides on each hand by two flien to the 
landing-place of the first story. The whole 
walls and ceiling are adorned with beautiful 
paintings, columns, festoons, and between 
them several landscapes by Vander Egan, 
various other of whose works are here pre- 
ser\'ed, especidly 'The Landing of King 
William the Third near Carrickfergus.' The 
ceiling is painted in perspective, and represents 
a dome, tne columns seeming to rise though 
on a flat surface. The tapestry hangings are 
agreeably designed.'* 

'*The house," continues Smith, ** is a large 
square building, except on the east side, from 
the centre of which the castle projects. In 
a large room, part of that castle, is a chimney- 
piece carved m wood, representing the cartoon 
of St. Paul preaching at Athens, by a Mr. 
Houghton, who had a premium m»m the 
Dublin Society for this performance. Beside* 
the staircase, there b a spacious room below 
also entirely painted by Vander Egan ; and in 
this room a sleeping Cup>c^ on a marble table, 
deserves attention. There are some ancient 
family portraits here, which by their manner 
seem to have been done by Dobson, Sir Peter 
Lely, and other famous portrait painters. The 
gardens are of a considerable extent, and laid 
out in a fine taste. On the right is a natural 
wilderness of tall venerable oaks, through 
which an artificial serpentine river is cut, 
which, from an adjacent hill, that affords an 
entire prospect of the improvements, has a 
fine e^t The house has the advantage of 
water on three sides, laid out in large, elegant 
canals and basins, well stored with carp, tench, 
and perch. Swans and other wild-fowl con- 
tribute to enliven the scene ; and the banks and 
terraces are adorned with statues. Facing 
two fronts of the house are cascades, one of 
which falls fh>m step to step in the form of a 
'* perron," and the other from bason to basin. 
A third is designed to face the other front. 
There is also a shell-house erecting, which 
promises when finished to be very curious, as 
also a handsome green-house. From the 
front of t)i« house, besides a prospect of the 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



65 



gardens, you tee beyond these, in the centre, 
A beautinil extended lawn, on either hand are 
rising grounds covered with wood, and in the 
neighbouring hills are several young planta- 
tions. The prospect is terminated by the 
Cununeragh mountains, which elevate their 
rocky sides at about seven miles distance, 
Down one of their steeps a rivulet tumbles, 
and beautifies the scene with a natural 
cascade.'* Such is the description of Doctor 
Charles Smith in 1 746. Upwards of a century 
has elapsed, and local inquiry has elicited 
nothinj? to improve, or even vary this descrip- 
tion. The church of Clonegam stands on a hill 
about a mile east of the house, and is an 
object of much interest. Near its communion 
table are two handsome busts of Sir Marcus 
Beretford and Lady Catherine Poer, the 
founders of the present noble family ; and in 
the graveyard are various tombs to com- 
memorate the Beresford race* From the 
door of this church is a fine prospect of 
Curraghmore and the surrounding country, 
while yet more strikingly the eye can trape, 
from a tower in the demesne, the windings of 
the Suire into Waterford, widi the coast and 
the sea at the south. 

Roger le Poer, one of the knights who 
accompanied Strongbow into Ireland, obtained 
for his services there, from King Henry II., 
a grant of the city of Waterford, and the 
sunounding territory, to an extent that in- 
cluded Curraghmore, where his descendants 
fixed their capital residence. One of these, 
Richard, was created Lord le Poer, Baron of 
Curraglunore, by Henry V I., in 1452, and his 
mndson and namesake. Sir Richard Poer, 
did such service to the state, that he was, on 
the advice of the Earl of Ossory, appointed a 
Baron of Parliament by the title of Baron 
Poer and Curraghmore. 

In 1537, commissioners having been 
appointed to make survey of the King's lands, 
" towards the parts where James Desmond is, " 
reported that " in the county Waterford were 
customs called 'srahe' and 'bonnet,' in addi- 
tion to coin and livery, or aa modifications of 
them. Lord Kildare and Lady Katherine 
Poer (wife of Sir Richard, and daughter of 
Pierce, Earl of Ormonde), not only required 
coin and livery for their own horses and Doys, 
but also of all their guests, English or Irish, 
particularly when they kept Easter and Christ- 
mas. When either Kildare or Poer hunted, 
their dogs were supplied with bread and milk, 
or butter. Whentne Deputy or any great 
man came to Lady Poer, siie levied a subsidy 
at her pleasure for meat, drink, and candle, 
under the name of ' mertigeght. ' When Ossory 
or Poer married a daughter, the former de- 
manded a sheep from every flock, and the 
latter a sheep of every husbandman, and a 
cow of every village ; and when their sons 
were sent to England, a tribute was levied iu 



every village or townland. Lady Poer took 
of a tenant, who had his horse or cattle stolen, 
five marks /or his want of vigilance ; she also 
took a fine &r disobeying her sergeant, whether 
he were right or wrong ; and a beef, called 
' keyntroisk,' for refusing coin and livery; 
and when she took a joiurney to Dublin, an 
assessment was made for the charges of her jour- 
ney . " S ir Richard Poer, Lord Curraghmore, 
was afterwards slain by Connor O'Ca&aghan. 
He had married, aaberore mentioned, the Lady 
Katherine Butler, by whom he had issue — 
Piers, the second Lord Poer, bom in 1522. 
This latter nobleman sat in the Parliament of 
1541, as Lord Poer, though under age, and 
in consideration of that youth, and of his 
<*havine but little to live by," the Earl of 
Ormona besought in 1542 license for him from 
the Council of Ireland '* to repair to the King's 
majesty, there to continue for a year or two, 
and to be admitted as a pensioner to attend 
upon his Highness." In 1544 he was ap- 
pointed a captain-general of Kerne, as '* a 
toward and a hardy young gentleman, being 
very desirous to serve the King's Highness ;" 
but in the year following he died unmarried, 
when his brother, John Poer, bom in 1527, 
succeeded to the title. 

The state papers make mention of "various 
contentions ana tumults that lately chanced 
in the county of Waterford, between Lady 
Katherine Butler (as she is styled by her 
maiden name) and her son, this Lord Poer, on 
the one part, and Sir Gerald Fitzjohn of 
Desmond, on the other." This Lord Poer died 
in 1607. It was in his time that Sir Henry 
Sidney, making his report to the Lords of the 
Council of his journey through Munster, wrote 
(1575): "The day 1 departed from Water- 
ford, I lodged that night at Curraghmore, the 
house that the Lord rower is baron of, where 
I was so used, and with such plenty and good 
order entertained, as (adding to it the qmet of 
all the country adjoining, by the people called 
Power-country, for that surname has been 
since the beginning of Englishmen's planting 
inhabitants Siere), it may be well compared 
with the best ordered country in the English 
Pale ; and the lord of the country, though he 
be of scope of ground a far less territory than 
his neigh Dour is, yet he lives in show far more 
honourably and plentifully than he or any 
other, whatsoever he be of his calling, that 
lives in this province." His great-grandson, 
Richard le roer, was advanced to the Vis- 
county of Decies and the Earldom of Tyrone, 
and died in 1690 ; as did his eldest son John, 
the second Earl, in 1693, unmarried; where- 
upon the honours of this house devolved upon 
James, the brother of Earl John, who died in 
1704, leaving an only daughter and heiress, 
the Lady CaSierine roer, who, in 1717, mar- 
ried Sir Marcus Beresford, of an ancient Staf- 
fordshire family, a scion of which had settled 



66 



8EATB OP ORKAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



in Coleraine npon the plantation of Uliter. 
Sir Marcus, in consequence of this alliance, 
was, in 1720, advanced to the peerage of 
Ireland, as Baron Beresford of Bererford, 
County Cavan, and Viscount T3rrone. He 
was subsequently, in 1746, created Earl of 
Tyrone, and died in 1763. His son, the 
second Earl of Tyrone, was, in 1789, created 
Marquis of Waterford, in the peerage of Ire- 
land. He was the father of the present 
Primate of Armagh, and the grandfather of 
Henr^ de la Poer Beresford, now the noble 
propnetor of Curraghmore. 

XTBTLB 0X07B, at Youghal, in the co. of 
Cork, formerly the seat of the Ha3rman 
family,* is rendered interesting from its asso- 
ciations with Sir Walter Raleign. 

This mansion originally formed part of 
*<Our Lady's College of Toughal,*' and is 
traditionally remembered as the residence of 
the Warden. Youghal College was founded 
27th December, 1464, by Tliomas, eighth 
Earl of Desmond, Lord Deputy of Ireland, 
and proprietor of the town. The community 
consisted at first of a warden, eight fellows, 
and eight choristers, who lived in a collegiate 
manner, having a common table and all other 
necessaries provided for them, with an annual 
stipend each. The value of the whole dona- 
tion was £600 per annum, a very consider- 
able sum in those days. This house was 
endowed with the following parsonages and 
vicarages : — the churches of Youghal, Clon- 
priest, Kilcredan, Ardagh, lehtermurragh, 
Garrivoe, and the vicarage of Kilmacdonough ; 
all adjacent to the town of Youghal; which 
churches were to be served by the warden 
and fellows. They had the parishes of Bal- 
lynoe, alias Newtown, Ahern, and Moyallow, 
in the diocese of Cloyne ; Carrigaline, in that 
of Cork ; Myrot and Caheragh, in that of 
Ross ; and four more in that of Ardfert. In 
the charter of foundation there is mention 
made only of the parishes of Newtown, 
Olchun, Ahem, and Moyallow; but the 
others were granted afterwards by the Earl of 
Desmond and some of the Popes. The foim- 
dation was confirmed by James, ninth Earl 
of Desmond, in 1472, and by Maurice, the 
tenth Eari, in 1496 ; and the several appro- 

• Nofw ifridcDtst Sooth AMwy, Tooglial. This Abbej. 
or nthcr Friary, waa a iKMiae of the Frandfloana, aad 
waa tha flnt of ita kiad in Ireland. It wan founded in 
1324 by Mawioe, woood Lord Ophalry: and at the dia- 
aolntioB, waa granted to Qcorirp laham hj Icttcra patent, 
bearinff date of ISth Juno, 1M7. TUa grant paaaed, 
toon after, bf porehaae, to 8lr Richard Bojrie, rabfo. 
qnentiy eraated Karl of Oork. His mni and tnoceMor, 
Mehard, the weood EarU br Icaaabrarlnr date »tt July, 
IttM, donlMd the Hooth Abbey, together with the dia- 
aolred Nunnery or ChapeU called 8U Anne*» Chapel, and 
the Mveral heoMa, tanemcnta, and landa, to Samuel 
tiayman, Esq.. a Bo m eraetahire gcatleman ; ttam wlioai 
deicienda, in the fifth ranwTe, If Amnw Hatmam, Eaa., 
now of Booth Abbey, a migictrate of the oo. Oon. 
(bee •« ViaitatlMi of Anw*' and •« Landed Ocntry.**) 



priations were ratified, at ▼arioua periodf,by 
the Bishops of Goyne, in whose oiocese the 
establishment was situated, and by Popes 
Alexander, Julius, and Paul, who^ granted 
indulgences to such persons as contributed to 
the revenues, llie college enjoyed its lands 
and privileges for a considerable period after 
the Reformation ; but, about the year 159(^ 
Nathaniel Baxter, the warden, finding that 
the establishment was likely to share the fate 
of other monastic institutions, privately 
authorized Godfrey Armitage, Edmund Har- 
ris, and William Parker, to dispose of the 
college revenues i who accordinglv demised 
them and Uie college house to Sur Thomas 
Norris, the Lord President of Minister. Dr. 
Meredith Hanmer, the author of the well- 
known ''Chronicle of Ireland," succeeded 
Baxter, and renewed the lease made by hie 
predecessor, demising the revenues of the ce- 
tablishment to William Jones, in trust for Sir 
Walteb Raleigh. We have thus brought 
down the accoimt of the place (which, as the 
reader will perceive by glancing at the name 
heading our paper, is now called *' Myrtle 
Grove,^') to Ilaleigh's time; and we shall here 
supply a few particulars of his personal hie* 

tOlT. 

When Raleigh first came to Ireland, in 
1579, he was a mere soldier of fortune. On 
the breaking out of the Desmond* revolt in 
this year, reinforcements were sent to the 
Lord Deputy, Lord Grey de Wilton, from 
Devonshire ; and Raleigh, then in his twenty- 
seventh year, raised a troop of horse in his 
native countiy, and with them repaired to the 
scene of Irish hostilities. Here he did such 
good service with his few troopers— exhibiting 
undaunted heroism, united with clear-headed 
discretion — that he rose without delay to the 
highest honours. Before the close of the 
succeeding year, we find him one of three 
Royal Commissioners, who were appointed to 
govern Munster during Ormonde's absence in 
England ; and on the attainder of Deemond* 
a warrant of privy seal, dated 3rd Feb.* 
1585-86, granted him three seignories and a 
half, containing forty-two thousand acres of 
land, of the Eari's forfeitures in the countica of 
Cork and Waterford ; which grant was con- 
firmed by letters patent bearing date 16lh 
October, 29 Elix. (1586). The locale of thw 
grand allotment waa the valley of the river 



* Gerald, the onlbrtanate afa rt e ent h Bwl «i , 

the ** inffcn* rebelliboa exemplar.** aa the hialoriana call 
him, waa, at the tine of nla inaorrectlOB, the wmA 
powerfhl aabject In Kurope. Hia landa in Mansttr 
atrrtehed finon tea to tea, eempriaine the eoontin at 
Corl^ Watrrfaid, Umerich, and Kerry, or the frrater 
part of them, and were oonaidered to eootain 57i,cSi 
Knfliiih aerea. He could brinf together by hia Mm- 
aione aix hnadred eavalry and two fhoneand ftinf n ; 
and of theae, five hundr«l were geptlame u of hb own 
name and kindred. He perished mlaerably, tlth Nov.; 
ISSS, beinf alain by one Daniel Kelly i aad Ua ' 
spiked on the old LoBdOQ BrUge. 



8BAT8 OF GREAT BRITAIN AND HffiLAND. 



67 



Blaekwater, extoading from the ci^ of Lifl- 

more to the sea, and mcluding the Geraldine 

town of Youghal, where Raleigh now took up 

hia rendenee, in the warden's house of the 

(dissolved) collegiate establishment. 

In this quiet retreat, far away from the 

noise of courts and the intrigues of narty, and 

in the company of his beloved friend Spenser, 

Raleigh is heUeved to have written some of 

hia moat pathetic veisesi as the following, for 

instance : — 

•* Heart4earing cans tad onir'Tfaig fesn, 
Aazlous sWbs, untimely tean. 

Fly, flj to Courts. 

Fly to fond worldling's sports ; 
ITbere ttrain'd sardonio smiles an gloslng still. 
And Orief is fore'd to laugh against nw will ; 

Wbera mirth's bat mnmmery, 

And sorrows only real be. 

•• Fir fma oar country pastimrs, fly, 
8ai^ troop of human misery I 

Come, serene lo<^. 

Clear as the crystal brooks, 
Or the pure axur'd hearen, that smfles to see 
The rich attendance of our porerty— 

Peace, and a serene mind, 

Which aU men seek, we only find. 

** Abused mortals, did you know 
Wherejoy. heart's ease, and comforts grow, 

You'd scorn proud towers. 

And seek them in these bowers ; 
Where winds,perhaps, our woods may sometimeB shako; 
But Idustering care could never tempest make, 

Kor murmurs e^er come nigh us, 

SuTing of fountains that glide by us. 

• • • • • 

** Blest silent groros I O may ye be 
For ever mirth's best nursery I 
May pure contents 
Fur ever pitch their tents 
Upon these downs, these meads, these rocks, fheae 

moantains; 
And peace still slumber by these purling foantalns I 
Which we may erery year 
Find, when we eome a-fiahing here." 

If these breathings of tunefrd song poured 
themaelves forth at nis Youghal residence, are 
not they sufficient in themselves to immor- 
talize it? 

How long the restless spirit of Raleigh may 
have contented itself in the privacy of retire- 
ment, it is difficult to determine. He was 
Mayor of Youghal in the years 1588 and 1589 ; 
an appointment which would imply settled resi- 
dence, save that the Corporate records show 
he discharged his duties for the most part by 
a deputy, Mr. William Magnor. In the latter 
rear he was certainly in Ireland ; for we find 
him then visiting his friend Spenser at his 
castle of Kilcolman. This interview the poet 
has celebrated in <* Colin Clout :"— 

** I sate, as was my trade. 

Under the foot of Mole, that mountain hore ; 
Keeping my sheep amongst the cooling shade 

Of the green aloeara^ by the MuUa's shore. 
There a strange shepherd chanced to find me out. 

Whether aUured with my pipe's delight, 
Whose pleaaing sound yshnlled far about. 

Or thither led by chsinee, I know not right ; 
Hhom when I asked from what plaoo he came. 

And how he bight himself, he did ydecp 
The libeplierd of the Ocean by name. 

And said he oame Cur from the main sea deep." 



Here we find manifest aUudon to Raleigh's 
dwelling by the sea-shore at Youghal, where 
the ocean- wave breaks freshly from the Irish 
sea. 

The biographers of Spenser generally state 
that the approval which Raleigh gave during 
this visit, to the '' Faerie Queen," submitted to 
him in manuscript, was the immediate cause 
of the appearance of that magnificent allegory 
in the early part of the succeedmg year. It 
is certain that the twain "friends beloved" 
embarked for England together, soon after 
this memorable interview; and as Youghal 
was at the time the favourite port for all such 
voyages, we may without olame conclude 
that here was the scene of their departure. 
" In this spot," writes Mrs. S. C. Hall,* of 
the garden at Myrtle Grove, " beyond Ques- 
tion, have been often read portions of the 
' 'Faerie Queene, ' ' long before the world became 
familiar with the divine conception — 

* At whoee approach the soul of Petrarch wept.' 

For here, certainly, the immortal bard held 
communion with his ' deare friend ' and 
brother poet, whom he described as 'the 
somer nightingale' — 

< Himselfe as skilfbl in that art as any.' 

In the garden there is a group of four aged 
yew trees, which tradition states to have been 
planted by Raleigh ; and where it requires uo 
stretch of fancy to believe that he has many 
a time sat, read, and talked, or lolled in the 
summer time, dreaming of £1 Dorado, in the 
vain search for which he sacrificed his fortune, 
and ultimately his life." Another modem 
writerf pursues the train of meditations sug- 
gested by the theme and place, and warms 
into enthusiasm: — ''To the pilgrim, who 
loves to linger on scenes whicn genius has 
hallowed by sojouminff amongst them, the 
whole place [Youghal J is ftiU of — Raleigh. 
His house is here, quite unchanged in its 
outward appearance, and but slightly modi- 
fied in its mtemal arrangements ; and while 
one eazes on that rooftree, it is hard to keep 
the fancy from wandering away to the inci- 
dents in the chivalrous being's history. Gene- 
rations have come and gone since tnen ; and 
from Raleigh's day to our own, his old man- 
sion has never wanted occupants — ^but what 
of them ? ' How lived, how loved, how died 
they V will comprise everything. They fretted 
out their little hour here, and then the grave- 
sod sufiiced to enwrap their fame and their 
frailties all at once ; and you, good beholder I 
care not for their names, nor inquire for their 
condition. It is not so with the soldier^ 
poet : he is not only your one leading thought, 

• Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall's " Ireland," yol. i., p. 87. 
i "Dublin University," yol. xxvi., p. 319. Sept, 1845. 



\ 



08 



8EAT8 OF OBEAT BBITAni AMD IBELAND. 



but, without effort, the broken events of a 
life where romantic adventure was a daily 
occurrence, pass before you in shadowy re- 
view. Aye, with half-closed eye you behold 
again the first introduction to his sovereign — 
so admirably painted in ' Kenil worth' — when 
the 'broidered cloak, hastily removed from 
the shoulder, was made a carpet for the royal 
foot to tread upon ; and you remark the be- 
nignant expression of tnat proud woman's 
eyes, as with one glance she rewarded such 
duteous gfdlantry. You see him again, when 
Ambition had enkindled her fires m his 
bosom, tracing out on the pavilion's window 
pane, the legend — 

•FainwcraldloUmbylmttbatlllBtftQ fiJl'— 

that motto which first conducted him to 
the proudest heights of glory, and then 
brought him down to defeat and ruin. You 
accompany his restless spirit to the new 
world, where, in remembrance of its royal 
donor, his settlement received the name it 
yet bears, 'Virginia;* a graceful and ao> 
ceptable tribute. You picture him, too, a 
prisoner in the Tower, with his matchless 
lady sharing joyfully his captivity, when the 
evening closed in dark ana wild, after his 
busy day ; and still you behold a great man. 
He turned, as you know, calmly to study 
and reflection ; and prepared to meet his 
death with a serenity of purpose which 
baffled the malice of his many foes. And 
then the last scene of all flits before you ; 
the headsman*s axe in the Old Palace Yard, 
' that sharp cure for all diseases ; ' the my- 
riads of human faces encircling the scafibld, 
some indignant, some pitying, a few trium- 

5 bant; the sun-ravs flashed back from the 
escending steel ; the dull, dead sound, and — 
stillness. 

<*And in the gardens of his Youghal 
retreat, with the world aU untried by him, as 
it then was, you can readily imagme what 
day-dreams were doubtless present to that 
mind, now expanding in youthful freshness 
and vigour. Beneath those trees — they are 
not too young for the honour — he must often 
have sate in his fixed musings on the Dorado 
which he was never to find; and here, in more 
thoughtful moments, were haply composed 
some of those writings which remain to our 
day, to prove him an almost universal genius. 
*\outh IS the period of our busiest thoughts, 
of endless and unwearied speculation.' To 
all it is the season of romance ; but to those 
whose lips the muse has touched with her 
hallowed are, it is al»o the era of their chief 
poetical expression. What visions of fame are 
theirs, and of future greatness ! — what desires 
to live and make known the thronging, tumul- 
tuous imaginings of their minds ! What 
longings, too, to be known beyond the small 



circle of their daily acquaintance l-^yea, more f 
beyond the generation bom with them, who 
are daily passing down into the gaping grave, 
that they may not, like the rest, ' die and be 
forgot,' but hereafter be kept in memory — 

* Contcmporalns de tcnu \m homiWi 
£t dtojent de tooi las Ueox I' 

These feelings, and others still higher and 
exceeding our expression, were, we doubt 
not, present to the heroic knight on these 
scenes ; for here, with Spenser himself for a 
companion, did he linger over the " Faerie 
Queene," as yet in manuscript, and pronounce 
upon it the approving fiat which gave it forth 
to an admiring world." 

The mansion of Myrtle Grove is in the 
Old English style, and bears so dose a resem- 
blance to Raleigh's birthplace in Devon, 
Hayes* Farm, that his quick eye must have 
often noticed the similarity. Three high- 
pointed gablets crown the east front, and 
beneath the central one are the hall and 
entrance doorway. Within, the house has 
undergone but little alteration. The windows 
have been modernised — the old glazing con- 
sisted of small lozenge panes set in lead; and 
the position of the chief staircase has been 
changed. The laige dining-room is on the 
groimd floor, and from it is a subterraneoua 
passage into the great church-tower, being 
one of the old communications of the college. 
In one of the kitchens the ancient wide-arched 
fireplace remains, but is disused. The walls 
of the mansion are in great part wainscoted 
with Irish oak, which some former occupier 
sought to improve by partially painting in 
colours (I) Tne drawing-room retains roost 
of its antique beauty in the preservation of 
its fine dark wainscot, its deep projecting bay- 
window, and its richly-carvea oak mantle- 
piece, which b worthy of Grinling Gibbons. 
The mantlepiece rises to the full height of 
the ceiling, its cornice resting upon three 
figures representing Faith, Hope, and Charity, 
between which are enriched, circular-beaded 

Sanels; and a variety of emblematical 
evices fill up the rest of'^ the structure. Tl»e 
Dutch tiles, which anciently adorned the fire- 
place, have been removed ; and instead of the 
low andirons on which the bickering yule-log 
would bum, a modem grate andstave chimney- 
piece have been, withbad taste, inserted. In 
an adjoining bed-room is another mantlepiece 
of oak, barbarously painted over ; and here 
the tiles remain, 'lliey are about four inches 
square, with Scriptural devices inscribed in a 
circular border. Behind the wainscoting of 
this room, a recess was a few years since re- 
vealed, in which a part of the old monkish 
library, hidden at the period of the Refonn^ 
tion, was discovered. One volume especially 
is a curious specimen of early printmg. It 



-«• 






ike ewLiuauLM 
"tit Xdomcx^ T 




diBBB <if Sar^mniL -Ftvsitk' inn tm i^wiiinii ti 
tW ^nv of 'tttf: fii»w*<**^ ^tui Rills' wrrtioL 

PctB- CAniOBar* ^Mtta^m. A rM4*«uzrv, iwdf- 

jDA nomt BUL ]i» iiDiiiTE Tji>fliauiiiiL 
jf rtiilfr— "rr ^u vuiiif ^p g* 

.*' "Vt Ol mailUH : UL -tut llIQK 

inssr vat mc ol & iif 

JL tsttt 'VqiBL bh. iuBBt i£^ 

die Bntjcs fmawnht Twin isffi: jl ly^irtn . ant 

place f^ moBsat df JM^jritf: 'i^r^m^ I^ -vas 

YongfaaL" Ix aat ^a^sL jts fvar j^pv s«9k, 
to fcstv l«eK }i;aii]«t£ 17 afciiH'ifn s rvna 

« ^ . ^« -^^JT Ikufcr. BUL il£3L A «imKs 

crixa rr Sm •:h., :^ 
Cork \amaaaau at Bnnwnig : *- i!!* fsxm 






being dag 



:;.. "S^ f: 



fcrsishrii 



mai ■Bpme of tbe 
Fram tboe lev 

Vidl wed.'* It ■ dJ&CKJA toBJ 

iatrodnctkm of tlUB cacnlcat bai 
or B Mctmig to IielaDd, if ve look to the 
matter in the abatnct. Cobbea'i denmicto- 
tson of tbe nnt m too wcD-knovn than to be 
HKVC tban aDadcd to; and tbe recent diiU e ia 
in the island heart tettmoay to the tznth- 
fiihie«of some of bb poritinn^L 

It but renuBBt for of btieflj to notice the 
histoiy of this interesting place sobeeqnent to 
Raleigh's occopatioB of it. His sun went 
down at the death of bis royal mistfeas ; and 
00 the accession of her successor, he was ac- 
cused, and, thiough the instrumentality of a 
▼enal jury, conyicted of participation in the 
alleged treason of the Lady AiabeUa Stuart. 
Fearing an attainder, he had disposed of his 
Irish estotes, in 1602, for £1,500, to Sir 
Richaid Boyle, created subsequently Earl of 
Cork. In the deed of transfer, which ia dated 
7th December of this year, special mention 
is nude of the College of Youghal, including 




tic xht 

3 " nvin a or jLimuttci mfe^ BnnnmiAL {^Ktifnutr 
n: T nuriuu am. inos. 'tn2^ maxHtm r-on tt«f 

^rBsun&. 3ii^ It Bm jwr •>»"<< 

I"^ ^anDE-r . jiiiL ^ 1*iO%f<n 

.. d: Ih'ai ainiiiwiii. ju*. SJimcn . 

iac & iniiiBaDiL ynnik & & ittu nvc^um. Tsofv 

of tnc BOIL nf i:r«^v wia. 

RL 1^ thf JjOT. tZ V^CV fC « 

BimaiiBr '^^^ic*^ . ITilhan: ^iutct^ aftfl>- 

J iaciBL - ' . liTf. iM vunr Arirn*. £«^ j^ 
TraunuL HDL -hit msffr. Vr tis^ l&ic wiJ*. 
msec. 2itzL CtsuQ^SL. I^fc^ i»mwhc :shf Vmiw 
TM. 'm r^animnu. vumi HxtmBb. ¥;<«<».. ^ 3\ 
iir TrtoriiM^ ""B^I'^^R. «W tuaKt .m«*- 
zmusL -axt ?wnoflnwt it -ibt HixnuBt &ntN 
and 3tf n"init ii ^uius Aaa K^YrmsiL 



b^pid 



to the natcsre 



i£JiEx4: wi* » sucTM^tv ^»e K,'«k ««;ia 

Yitt ei2nm» %: U:u« h i v tftm n "m-m^^c^tttmam^ 

Af^br^ifi^ lLsic n 3Sf> k*j>»i :)kiA «iai W 
mhc^iti^L* -Gat dirt's**."" W |«v«ci(^(«ibi. 

t2ie sioe «c :^ <><4r, idusrir^ Mv>Mk« «^vX 
it.7^,£ m liiile c&£arscs$«. ^^«^ «Mk^ «k>«sM^r.wB 

IB «m<fald ciqfs ^ iiihJK;«^ 

to havY bun|cr th<^Y a» tnttW|NKal 
gates for the beneficent naaad of ih* \a««ry 
to pass throufh.'* 

This manor was granted hr King J\^ t«k 
Sir Geoffiy Luttr^l : and in tht^ i%i%s»«'$4LhMi 
of his dcsoendantt ^ennobled as EaA» of l>ww 
bampton) it remained until th^ c^Himwn^^ 
ment of the pi«*ent centxin\ whc^n thip U«l 
Lord Caihampton disposed of th« o«laU» t^\ 
Luke White, Esq., lather of Utit pnvn^nt |mv 
prielor. Woodlands is c«t«»«m<Hi %mi<^ of lK« 
finest residences in the vicinity of tlte lri»h 
metropolis. It is a castellated mnusion of th« 
Tudor period, situated in b demttne rich m 
picturesque scenic attr«ction« 

KILLTMOOV CA8XLS1 CO. Tyrone, the mm! 
of Lieut.-Col. Stewart. 

This property originally belongt^ to lh« 
Earls of Tyrone, from whom it passed, by 
purchase, to the ancestor of the prvsvnt pr^ 
prietor. The ancient mansion was many 
years since destroyed by an accidental firv; 
and the present edifice was erected after the 
designs of the walUknown architeoti Mr, 



70 



SEATS OF ORBAT BBtTAIM AKD XBBLAHD. 



Nash, at a cost of £80,000. Ki]];p(ioon 
formi a quadrangle, the north and east flidet of 
which contain the chief apartments, and pre- 
sent two grand architectural fronts,in the Saxon 
style. The great hall is at the north side, and 
conducts to a staircase of stone haring double 
flights. At the east end open off the dining 
and drawing-rooms, the wood-work of which 
throughout is polished oak. The east front 
has a large circular tower about midway, and 
terminates towards the north in an octagon 
tower of exceeding beauty. The Kildrest 
river flows througn the demesne, and is 
spanned not far from the castle by a pictu- 
resque bridge of five arches. The lanos are 
celebrated for their varied beauty, and rich 
succession of charming views ; and Killjrmoon, 
taken as a whole, occupies a deserved pre- 
eminence among the chief seats in the wealthy 
province of Ulster. 

QTHTRATT co. Down, the seat of the Mar- 

quess of Donegal, on the river Lagan, within 
a mile and a quarter of Belfast. 

The original residence of the family was in 
the town of Belfast. It was a large castel- 
lated building, erected in the early part of the 
seventeenth century, and continuea in occu- 
pation until the year 1708, when it was burned 
to the ground by a fire caused th/ough the 
carelesness of a female servant. By this 
catastrophe, the Ladies Jane, Frances, and 
Henrietta, daughters of Arthur, third Earl of 
Donegal, unhappily lost their lives. The 
family, after this terrible visitation, removed to 
their present residence. 

Ormeau is in the Tudor style, and has been 
at different times considerably added to by the 
flucceasive occupants. It u now a mansion 
of large sixe, containing every accommodation 
becoming a family of our nobili^. The 
demesne is of limited extent ; but the views 
from it are of considerable beauty. The 
■cenerr of the Belfast Lough, with the sur- 
roundmg mountains, is largely taken in ; and 
walks, skilfully designed, conduct the visitor 
to every point whence the prospect is desirable 
or is best attainable. 

AimX OAfTU, the seat of Viscount 
Massareene, situated at the town of Antrim, 
CD the banks of the Six-MQe- Water river, and 
immediately adjoining to Lough Neagh. 

The great front of the castle hM souare 
towers built at its angles ; and these apain have 
circular turrets earned up along their quoins, 
as high as the summit. The entrance is in the 
Louis Quatorxe style, and is reached by a 
magnificent double stone staircase of con- 
siderable sixe. The front b fiirther embellished 
with medallion portraits of Charles I. and II., 
and in conspicuous places with armorial 
shields of the Clotwortnys and Skeffingtons. 
The side of the Castle runs parallel with the 



river, and is divided from it by a low parapei 
walL In the gardens are several fish-ponas ; 
and the flower-knots are laid out in the fanci- 
ful French style of the seventeenth century, 
the beds forming pemies, ^eurt^de^lU, and 
other elegant devices. The trees are of great 
age and beauty ; and there are some spedmens 
of rhododendrons fifteen feet high. The gate- 
house, which leads to the town of Antrmi, is 
built of limestone, and is in the Tudor style 
of architecture. 



EOLLTBBOOS SA£L. eo. of Wicklow, the 
seat of Sir Frederick John Hodson, Bart 

This manor was anciently the proper^ of 
the Adair family, who claimed descent from 
Maurice Fitzgerald, fourth Eari of KOdare. 
The last of the Adairi, Mr. Foster Adair, of 
Hollybrook, M.P., left an only daughter and 
heir, Anne, who became the first wife of 
Robert Hodson, Esq., created a Baronet of 
Ireland, 28th Aug., 1787, and brought with 
her this fine estate. 

Hollybrook is eleven miles from Dublin, and 
about one from the town of Brav. It was 
erected by Mr. Morrison, an aole Dublin 
architect, and is an exauisite specimen of the 
domestic Tudor or Old English style of 
architecture. The material used was mountain 
granite, squared and chiselled; and the 
mansion has three several fronts. That to the 
east contains the library and drawing-roonit 
and overhangs a picturesque lake* The 
principal front b to the north ; and die hall 
IS of smgular beauty. It is panelled with oak, 
and is lighted by one stained-glass window, 
fourteen feet six mches high, bv eight feet six 
inches wide. The staircase is of oak^ and 
conducts to a gallery crossing the hall, from 
which open out the several sleeping apart- 
ments. All the chief rooms are ligtitea by 
oriel windows, commanding the richest views 
of the scenery for which Wicklow county is 
celebrated. 

KAHUT HALL^ Staffordshve, n in the 
parish of Wisford, four miles from Lichfield. 

The present edifice was built bv John 
Shawe Manley, Es^. It is in the Tudor s^le 
of architecture, which prevailed in the reign 
of Henry VII. for the country residences of 
the nobility and gentry. 

The interior of the mansion was arranged 
on Mr. Manley 's own plan, and the external 
architecture was designed by Mr. Thomas 
Trubshaw, architect, of Great Haywood, 
Staffordshire. The building was commenced 
in 1831 and completed in 1836. It stands oo 
an eminence, commaadinf a view of a beao- 
tifbl valley, through which passes a conaidei^ 
able stream, which has been enlarged, oppo- 
site the house, into an ornamental piece of 
water. 



SEATS OF GREAT BBITAm AND IRELANI). 



€3 



this value iB increasing yearly, as it extends 
from the town of PoUockshaws a considerable 
way towards the city of Glasgow. Pollock 
House, or Poloc, as it is now written, possesses 
no picturesque beauty. It is an old mansion of 
very moderate size, and has nothing worthy of 
remark either internally or externally. It is 
situated in a flat park, with some ancient trees. 

The family of Maxwell may be regarded as 
one of the most ancient and distinguished in 
Scotland. They can be traced back, as per- 
sons of consideration, as far as the year 1100. 
About the year 1250, Aymer de Maxwell, 
Lord Chamberlain of Scotland, married the 
heiress of Roland, Lord of Meams, with 
whom he acquired a great estate in the 
neighbourhooQ of Glasgow. He had two 
sons — first, Herbert, ancestor of the Maxwells 
of Caerlaverock, afterwards created Earl of 
Nithsdale; second, John, ancestor of the 
families of Maxwell of Pollock, and Maxwell 
of Calderwood. In the reigns of Robert II. 
and III., lived Sir John Maxwell of Pollock, 
who married Isabel, daughter of Sir James 
Lindsay of Crawford, by Egidia, sister of 
King Robert II. Of this marriage there 
were two sons : first, Sir John of Pollock; 
second. Sir Robert of Calderwood. In 1400 
these two brothers entered into a mutual in- 
denture and entail, whereby it was provided 
that in case of failure of heirs male of either of 
their bodies, their estates should devolve on 
the surviving heirs male of the other. The 
estate of Pollock was transmitted, without 
intermission, in the line of Sir John during 
hye generations, until 1647, when Sir John 
Maxwell of Pollock died without issue. He 
had, in 1642, been created a Baronet of Nova 
Scotia. He was an extremely prudent man, 
who had considerably augmented his estate, 
and was much disgusted at the reckless and 
prodigal manner in which his kinsman. Sir 
James Maxwell, the first Baronet of Calder- 
wood, had dissipated a portion of his. He 
was resolved to prevent his estate from 
falling into such profuse hands. He there- 
fore, disregarding the bond into which the 
two brothers, his ancestors, had entered in the 
year 1400, determined to disinherit his right- 
ful heir. He had a neighbour of his own name, 
though no relationship to his family could be 
traced This was John Maxwell of Auld- 
house, the proprietor of a small estate in the 
immediate neighbourhood of Pollock. Sir 
John fixed upon his son George as his heir, 
and some time before his death he made a 
disposition in his favour, and to the prejudice 
of his kinsman and real heir, the Baronet of 
Calderwood. This disposition took efiect, and 
Sir John was gratified by putting his neigh- 
boiv in possession of his estate twelve months 
before his own death in 1647. 

George Maxwell, of a new family, thus be- 
came proprietor of Pollock. The Baronet of 



Calderwood endeavoured to reduce this dis- 
position, as being a deed in prejudice of the 
entail of 1400 ; but having greatly involved 
himself by his extravagance, he was ill 
qualified for carrying on a difficult and ex- 
pensive lawsuit against an adversary of great 
sagacity and prudence. His claim was im- 
properly managed and neglected ; and some 
of his most important papers were lost through 
carelessness. The pretensions of the house 
of Calderwood to their rightftd inheritance 
of Pollock were renewed in 1695 by Sir 
William Maxwell, the second Baronet; but 
the estate having then been nearly forty years 
in the possession of the Auldhouse family, his 
claim came to nothing. 

George Maxwell of Auldhouse was great- 
grandson of a John Maxwell, who obtained a 
frant of the lands of Auldhouse in 1572. After 
e became proprietor of Pollock, he was 
knighted by King Charles II. ; and dying in 
1677, he was succeeded by his son, John Max- 
well, who was created a Baronet by the same 
monarch in 1682. In 1696 he was appointed a 
Lord Commissioner of the Treasury ; and in 
1699 a Lord of Session, and Lord Justice Clerk. 
Having no son, he was succeeded in the estate 
of Pollock, as well as in his paternal lands of 
Auldhouse, by his cousin, John Maxwell of 
Blawart Hill, who became second Baronet of 
Pollock of the new creation. He had several 
children. Two of his daughters were married 
and had issue. Their descendants are the 
families of Hamilton Dundas of Dudding-- 
stoun, and Hamilton of Bams. His three 
sons were successively Baronets of Pollock.- 
The youngest of these. Sir James Maxwell, 
sixth Baronet of Pollock, was grandfather of 
Sir John, the eiehth and present Baronet, who 
married the Lady Matilda Bruce, daughter of 
the late Earl of Elgin. Sir John was for 
some years Member of Parliament for the 
county of Lanaik. He is a Deputy Lieute- 
nant of the counties of Lanark and Renfrew. 
His nephew is Mr. Stirling of Kier, Member 
of Parliament for the county of Perth. 

CALDERWOOD CASTLE, in the co. of 
Lanark, the seat of Sir William Maxwell, 
Baronet. 

This beautiful seat is distant about ten 
miles from Glasgow, and is surrounded by 
extensive woods and pleasure-grounds ; its 
situation is extremely picturesque and roman- 
tic, the house overhanging the rockv and pre- 
cipitous banks of the River Calder. The 
place has an air of great seclusion, though 
not of gloom ; and altogether it realizes our 
idea of an ancient mansion of the days of 
chivalry. Within the last few years, the 
present proprietor has added considerably to 
the accommodations and embellisluuents of 
this old family residence. 

The founder of this branch of the. great 



64 



8EAT8 OF ORBAT DRITAIN AKD IRELAND. 



house of Maxwell was Robert, second son of 
Sir John Maxwell of Pollock, who got from 
hts father the Barony of Calderwood and 
other lands. He greatly added to his estate 
by marriage, and became a very rich and in- 
fluential man. In 1400 he made a solemn 
contract with his elder brother, the Knight of 
Pollock, that failing heirs male of either of 
their bodies, the whole family estates should 
devolve upon the heirs male of the other. The 
descendants of Sir Robert continued in wealth, 
power, and influence as Barons of Calderwood, 
until the time of Sir James, who possessed a 
verv opulent fortune, and was in 1627 created 
a Baronet of Nova Scotia by King Charles I. 
But by his prodigal expenditure he greatly re- 
duced his fortune and alienated the esteem of 
his kinsman, the last of the family of Pollock, 
who, regardless of the solemn bond between 
their ancestors, disinherited him and left his 
great estate to a different family of the same 
name. Sir James was succeeded by his son. 
Sir William, the 2nd Baronet ; and he by his 
cousin, Sir John, the 3rd Baronet, from whom 
the present and 8th Baronet is lineally 
descended. 

The Earls of Famham, in Ireland, now re- 
presented by Baron Famham, are descended 
from a younger son of this family — Robert, 
second ion of John, the second Baron of Cal- 
derwood, who received from his father the 
lands of Newland, in the Barony of Kilbride. 
He went over with his family to Ireland and 
settled there in the beginning of the reign of 
King James VI. His son Robert was 
Bishop of Kilmore in the reign of Charles I., 
and from him were the EarU of Farnham 
descended. Sir William Maxwell is a deputy- 
lieutenant of the county of Lanark. 

CVBRAOHMOBX, the splendid scat of the 
Marqueas of Waterford, is situated in the 
Barony of Upper-Third and county of Water- 
ford, on the picturesGue river Clodiagh, about 
three miles from its junction with the Suire, 
and ten miles west of the city of Waterford. 
The demesne is five miles in length, with a 
breadth at the greatest of three miles, occupy- 
ing the valley through which the aforesaid 
river carries off the many streams that descend 
frt>m the eastern declivities of the Cummeragh 
mountains, and, on emerging from the de- 
mense, works with its accumulated powers the 
line factory of Fortlaw. The greater part 
of the timber in Curraghmore is indigenous to 
the soil, and in the park are many venerable 
oaks and some of the largest fin in Ireland. 
The woods cover about one half of the estate, 
the total area of which is 4,000 acres, including 
a portion of the celebrated golden valley of 
the Suire. Few scenes can in truth present 
more attractive features than are traceable in 
the lofry hills, the rich vulleys, ayd almost 
impenetrable woods of Curraghmore. l*he 



front approach to the mansion lies through 
an oblong court-yard of extraordinary dimen- 
sions, flanked by two magnificent ranges of 
oflices, and closed at the farther end by the 
front of the ancient castle, sunnounted by a 
figure larger than life of '<a stag lodged,** 
the Ic Poer crest. Immediately contiguous to 
this, the ancient stronghold of the Powers of 
Waterford, stands the present house, erected 
in 1700, as dated on the pedestal of the door- 
case. '* The portico," savs Smith, ** consbts 
of two pillars of the Tuscan order, over 
which, in a pediment, is inserted the arms 
of the family, above which, in a niche, stands 
a statue of Minerva. The hall b lofly and 
spacious, and fronting the entrance is a fine 
staircase, which, iJler the first landing, 
divides on each hand by two fliers to the 
landing-nlace of the first story. ^ The whole 
walls ana ceiling are adorned with beautiful 
paintings, columns, festoons, and between 
them several landscapes by Vander Egan, 
various other of whose works are here pre- 
served, especially 'The Landing of King 
AVilliam the Third near Carrickfergus.' The 
ceiling is painted in perspective, and represents 
a dome, tne columns seeming to rise though 
on a flat surface. The tapestry hangings are 
agreeably designed.*' 

"The house," continues Smith, ** is a large 
square building, except on the east side, from 
the centre of which tlie castle projects. In 
a large room, part of that castle, is a chimney- 
piece carved in wood, representing the cartoon 
of St. Paul preaching at Athens, bv a Mr. 
Houghton, who had a premium from the 
Dublin Society for this performance. Besides 
the staircase, there is a spacious room below 
also entirely painted by \ ander Egan ; and in 
this room a sleeping Cupid, on a marble table, 
deserves attention. There are some ancient 
family portraits here, which by their manner 
seem to have been done by Dobson, Sir Peter 
Lely, and other famous portrait painters. The 
gardens are of a considerable extent, and laid 
out in a fine taste. On the right is a natural 
wilderness of tall venerable oaks, through 
which an artificial serpentine river is cut, 
which, from an adjacent hill, that affords an 
entire prospect of the improvements, has a 
fine efllect. The house has the advantage of 
water on tliree sides, laid out in large, elegant 
canals and basins, well stored with carp, tench, 
and perch. Swans and other wild-fowl con- 
tribute to enliven the scene ; and the banks and 
terraces are adorned with statues. Facing 
two fronts of the house are cascades, one of 
which falls fh)m step to step in the form of a 
** perron," and the other from basin to basin. 
A third is designed to face the other front. 
There is also a shell-house erecting, which 
promises when finished to be very curious, as 
also a handsome green-house. From the 
front of tlie house, besides a proqiect of the 



SEATS OF OBBAT BBITAIN AMD IBELAND. 



e? 



Blaekwater, extrading from the citv of Lis- 
more to the sea, and including the Geraldine 
town of Youghali where Raleigh now took up 
his readence, in the warden's house of the 
(dissolved) collegiate establishment. 

In this quiet retreat, far away from the 
noise of courts and the intrigues of party, and 
in the company of hisbeloyed friend Spenser, 
Raleigh is beueyed to have written some of 
his most pathetic yerses, as the following, for 
instance : — 

** HeBrt-tMriBg eares tad qoiTMng fears, 
AaxiooM aigfaa, onttmely toMi, 

Fl7,fl7toOourtB. 

Fly to fond worluing's sports ; 
Where etniii'd •aidonio emilce ere riosiiw ttiU, 
And Grief ie fore'd to laugh agaiaet ner iml ; 

Where mirth's but mmnxnery, 

And BorrowB only real be. 

** 7!y from our ooontry iwetimeei fly, 
Bed troop of human misery 1 

Come, serene looks. 

Clear aa the erystal brooks, 
Or the pore aaor'd heaTen, that soiHee to see 
The rioh attendanoe of oar poyerty— 

Peaee, and a serene mind. 

Which all men seek, we only ihid. 

** Abased mortals, did yon know 
Whcrejoy. heart's ease, and oomforts grow, 
Toa'd seoni proad towers. 
And seek than in these bowers ; 
Where windB,perhaps, oor woods may sometimee shake; 
Bat blustering care could never tempest make, 
Nor murmurs e'er come n^h us. 
Soring of fountains that ^de by us. 
• • « • • 

" Eleet silent grores I O may ye be 
For eTCT mirth's best nursery I 
May pure contents 
Fur ever pitch their tents 
Upon these downs, these meads, these rocks, fheea 

mountains; 
And peace still slumber by these purling fountains t 
Which we may erery year 
Find, when we oome a.>fiidilng here." 

If these breathings of tuneful song poured 
themselves forth at nis Youghal residence, are 
not they sufficient in themselves to immoF- 
talizeit? 

How long the restless spirit of Raleigh may 
have contented itself in the privacy of retire- 
ment, it is difficult to determine. He was 
Mayor of Youghal in the years 1588 and 1589 ; 
an appointment which would imply settled resi- 
dence, save that the Corporate records show 
he dischaiged his duties for the most part by 
a deputy, Mr. William Magnor. In ^e latter 
year he was certainly in Ireland ; for we find 
him then visiting his friend Spenser at his 
castle of Kilcolman. This interview the poet 
has celebrated in " Colin Clout :"-^ 

** 1 sate, as was my trade, 

Under the ftwt of Hole, that mountain bore ; 
Keeping my sheep amongst the cooling shade 

Of the green alders, by the M ulla's shore. 
There a strange shepherd chanced to find me out. 

Whether allured with my pipe's ddight. 
Whose pleasing sound yshrilled fkr about, 

Or thither led by ehanee, I know not right ; 
Whom when I asked flrom what place he came. 

And how he bight himself, he did ydeep 
The bbepherd of the Ooean by name. 

And said he eame far firom the main sea deep." 



Here we find manifest alKurion to Raleigh's 
dwelling by the sea-shore at Youghal, where 
the ocean- wave breakB freshly from the Irish 
sea. 

The biographers of Spenser generally state 
that the approvid which Raleigh gave during 
this visit, to the ** Faerie Queen," submitted to 
him in manuscript, was the immediate cause 
of the appearance of that magnificent allegory 
in the early part of the succeeding year. It 
is certain that the twain ''friends oeloved" 
embarked for England together, soon after 
this memorable interview; and as Youghal 
was at the time the favourite port for all such 
voyages, we may without blame conclude 
that nere was the scene of their departure. 
" In this spot," writes Mrs. S. C. Hall,^ of 
the garden at Myrtle Grove, " beyond ques- 
tion, have been often read portions of the 
''Faerie Queene, " long before the world became 
familiar with the divine conception — 

* At whoee approach the sonl of Petrarch wept.' 

For here, certainly, the immortal bard held 
communion with his 'deare friend' and 
brother poet, whom he described as 'the 
somer nightingale' — 

* Hifflselfe as skilAil in that art as any.' 

In the garden there is a group of four aged 
yew trees, which tradition states to have been 
planted by Raleigh ; and where it requires uo 
stretch of fancy to believe that he has many 
a time sat, read, and talked, or lolled in the 
summer time, dreaming of £1 Dorado, in the 
vain search for which he sacrificed his fortune, 
and ultimately his life." Another modem 
writerf pursues the train of meditations sug- 
gested by the theme and place, and warms 
into enthusiasm: — "To tne pilgrim, who 
loves to linger on scenes whicn genius has 
hallowed by sojourning amongst them, the 
whole place [Youghal] is full of— Raleioh. 
His house is here, quite unchanged in its 
outward appearance, and but slightly modi- 
fied in its mtemal arrangements ; and while 
one eazes on that rooftree, it is hard to keep 
the xancy from wandering away to the inci- 
dents in the chivalrous being's hlstoty. Gene- 
rations have come and gone since then ; and 
from Raleigh's day to our own, his old man- 
sion has never wanted occupants — ^but what 
of them ? * How lived, how loved, how died 
they V will comprise everything. They fi^tted 
out their little hour here, and then the grave- 
sod sufficed to enwrap their fame and their 
frailties all at once ; and you, good beholder ! 
care not for their names, nor inquire for their 
condition. It is not so with the soldier^ 
poet : he is not only your one leading thought, 

* Mr. and Mrs. 8. C. HaU's " Ireland." yoL i.. d. 87 
f "Dublin UniTwrrity," yol. «t1., pT 319. SvfiC, 1845.' 



06 



8BAT6 OF GREAT BRrTAIN AMD IBELANt). 



but, irltbout effort, the broken events of a 
life where romantic adventure was a daily 
occurrence, psss before you in shadowy re- 
view. Aye, with half-closed eye you behold 
again the first introduction to his sovereign — 
so admirably painted in ' Kenilworth* — when 
the 'broidered cloak, hastily removed from 
the shoulder, was made a carpet for the royal 
foot to tread upon ; and vou remark tbe oe- 
nignant expression of that proud woman's 
eyes, as with one glance she rewarded such 
duteous gallantry. You see him again, when 
Ambition had enkindled her fires ra his 
bosom, tracing out on the pavilion's window 
pane, the legend — 

• PUn would I ollmbt bat that I JIbw to lUI '^ 

that motto which first conducted him to 
the proudest heights of glory, and then 
brought him down to defeat and ruin. You 
accompany his restless spirit to the new 
world, where, in remembrance of its royal 
donor, his settlement received the name it 
yet bears, * Virginia;' a graceful and ac- 
ceptable tribute. You picture him, too, a 
nruoner in the Tower, with his matchless 
lady sharing joyfully his captivity, when the 
evening closed in dark and wild, after his 
busy (Uy ; and still you behold a great man. 
He turned, as you know, calmly to study 
and reflection ; and prepared to meet his 
death with a serenity of purpose which 
baffled the malice of his many foes. And 
then the last icene of all flits before you ; 
the headsman's axe in the Old Palace i ard, 
' that sharp cure for all diseases ; ' the my- 
riads of human faces encircling the acafibld, 
some indignant, some pitying, a few trium- 

5 bant; the sun-ravs flashed back from the 
escending steel ; the dull, dead sound, and— 
stillness. 

**And in the gardens of his Youghal 
retreat, with the world all untried by him, as 
it then was, you can readily imagme what 
day-dreams were doubtless present to that 
mind, now expanding in youthAil freshness 
and vigour. Beneath those trees — they are 
not too young for the honour — ^he must often 
have sate in his fixed musings on the Dorado 
which he was never to find; and here, in more 
thoughtful moments, were haply composed 
some of those writings which remain to our 
day, to prove him an almost universal genius. 
* ^ outh IS the period of our busiest thoughts, 
of endless and unwearied speculation.' To 
all it is the season of romance ; but to those 
whose lips the muse has touched with her 
hallowed nre, it is al»o the era of their chief 
poetical expression. What visions of fame are 
theiis, and of future greatness ! — what desires 
to live and make known the thronging, tumul- 
tuous imaginings of their minds ! What 
longings, too, to be known beyond the small 



circle of their daOy acquaintance (-—yea, more f 
beyond the generation bom with them, who 
are daily passing down into the gaping grave, 
that thev may not, like the rest, ' die and be 
forgot,' but hereafter be kept in memory — 

' CoatanporBtau de toos les *»**""*—, 
£t dtofsns de toos les Ueuz P 

These feelings, and others still higher and 
exceeding our expression, were, we doubt 
not, present to the heroic knight on these 
scenes ; for here, with Spenser nimself for a 
companion, did he linger over the " FaSrie 
Queene," as yet in manuscript, and pronounce 
upon it the approving fiat which gave it forth 
to an admiring world." 

The mansion of Myrtle Grove is in the 
Old £nglish style, and bears so close a resem- 
blance to Rafeifh's birthplace in Devon, 
Hayes* Farm, that his quick eye must have 
often noticed the similarity. Three high- 
pointed gablets crown the east front, and 
Deneath the central one are the hall and 
entrance doorway. Within, the house has 
undeTgone but little alteration. The windows 
have been modernized — the old glazine con- 
sisted of small lozenge panes set in lead; and 
the position of the chief staircase has been 
changed. The large dining-room is on the 
ground floor, and from it is a subterraneous 
passage into the great church-tower, being 
one of the old communications of the college. 
In one of the kitchens the ancient wide-arched 
fireplace remains, but is disused. The walls 
of the mansion are in great part wainscoted 
with Irish oak, which some former occupier 
sought to improve by partially painting in 
colours (I) The drawing-room retains most 
of its antioue beauty in the preservation of 
its fine dark wainscot, its deep projecting bay- 
window, and its richly-carved oak mantle- 
piece, which is worthy of Grinling Gibbons. 
The mantlepiece rises to the full height of 
the ceiling, its cornice resting upon three 
figures representing Faith, Hope, and Charity, 
between which are enriched, circular-beaded 

Sanels; and a variety of emblematical 
evices fill up the rest of the structure. The 
Dutch tiles, which anciently adorned the fire- 

{>lace, have been removed ; and instead of the 
ow andirons on which the bickering yule-log 
would bum, a modem grate and stave chimney- 
piece have been, with bad taste, inserted. In 
an adjoining bed-room is another mantlepiece 
of oak, barbarously painted over ; and here 
the tiles remain. 'I*hey are about four inches 
square, with Scriptural devices inscribed in a 
circular border. Behind the wainscoting of 
this room, a recess was a few years since re- 
vealed, in which a part of the old monkish 
library, hidden at the period of the Reforma- 
tion, was discovered. One volume especially 
b a curious specimen of early printmg. It 



8EATB OF GREAT BRITAIN AMD IRELAND. 



69 



codiAbU of two distinct portions. The first 
was printed at Mantua in 1479, in black 
letter, with coloured initials, being a compen- 
dium of Scriptural events from the creation to 
the days of the Apostles ; the other portion 
was printed at Strasburg in 1483, and is 
Peter Comester's HUtoria SchoUutiea, dedi- 
cated to Prince Gonzales by John Schallus, 
Professor of Physic at Homfield. The owner 
took some pains to inscribe on its leaves, more 
than once, nis name and his ability to establish 
his claim if disallowed. He wrote very 
plainly the solemn words, ** Johanea NeUang, 
eat Pitfu poaaessor hufftu UhL Poaaum pro- 
dueere Uatem." We do venture on the hope 
that the good monk's piety was not on a par 
with his Latinity. This ancient volume is 
in the possession of Matthew Hayman, Esq., 
of South Abbey. 

The grounds are remarkable for the luxu- 
riant CTowth of myrtles, bays, the arbutus, 
and omer exotics, in the open air. Some of 
the myrtles exceed twentv feet in height ; and 
from their embowering shade, have given the 
place the name of Myrtle Grove. It was 
Known to Raleigh as '* The College House of 
Youghal." In the garden are four yew trees, 
•aid to have been planted by Raleigh's own 
hand ; they are very lofty, and form a square 
with a complete canopy at the top. Here, 
also, potatoes, originaUy brousht from Vir- 
ginia, were first pumted in Ireland ; and the 
traditionary story, as given by Smith, the 
Cork historian, is amusing: ''The person 
who planted them, imagining that the apple 
which grows on the stalk was the part to be 
used, gathered them, but not liking their 
taste, neglected their roots, till the eround 
being dug afterwards to sow grain, the po- 
tatoes were discovered therein, and, to the 
great surprise of the planter, vastly increased. 
From these few this country was furnished 
with seed." It is difficult to say whether the 
introduction of this esculent has been a bane 
or a blessing to Ireland, if we look to the 
matter in the abstract. Cobbett's denuncia^ 
lion of the root is too well-known than to be 
more than alluded to ; and the recent distress 
in the island bears testimony to the truth- 
fulness of some of his positions. 

It but remains for us briefly to notice the 
history of this interesting place subsequent to 
Raleigh's occupation of it. His sun went 
down at the death of his royal mistress ; and 
on the accession of her successor, he was ac- 
cused, and, through the instrumentality of a 
▼enal jury, convicted of participation m the 
alleged treason of the Lady Arabella Stuart. 
Fearing an attainder, he had disposed of his 
Irish esUtes, in 1602, for £1,500, to Sir 
Richard Bovle, created subsequently Earl of 
Cork. In the deed of transfer, which ia dated 
7th December of this year, special mention 
is made of the College of Youghal, including 



of course the warden's house. In 1616, Sir 
Lawrence Parsons, Attorney-General for the 
Province of Munster, was appointed Recorder 
of Youghal, and took this mansion from the 
Earl of Cork for a residence. His grandson, 
Lawrence Parsons, Esq., of Birr, conveyed 
the house, 17th January, 1661, to Robert 
Hedges, Esq., of Beacanstown, co. Kildare, 
for a thousand years, at a peppercorn rent, 
in consideration of the sum of £135, with 
the rent reserved by the Earl of Cork, of a 
new almanac yearly. William Hedges, after- 
wards Sir WiUiam Hedges, son of the afore- 
said Robert Hedges, sold the house, 24th 
February, 1670, to John Atkin, Esq., of 
Youghal; and the latter, by his last wiU, 
dated 20th October, 1705, demised the house 
to his grandson, John Hayman, Esq., M.P. 
for Youghal, 1703-1713. The place con- 
tinued the residence of the Hayman family 
until the death of Walter Atkin Hayman, 
Esq., in 1816. 

WGODLAimB, CO. Dublin,the seat of Thomas 
White, Esq., Colonel of Uie Dublin County 
Militia ; who is married to the Hon. Julia 
Vereker, daughter of the late Viscoimt Gort. 
The entrance to this demesne was pronounced 
by Prince Puckler Muskau to be " the most 
delightful thing in its kind that can be 
imagined.'* '*Gay shrubs," he proceeds, 
'* and wild flowers, the softest turf and giant 
trees, festooned with creeping plants, fill the 
narrow glen through which the path winds, by 
the side of the clear, dancing brook, which, 
falling in little cataracts, flows on, sometimes 
hidden in the thicket, sometimes resting like 
liquid silver in an emerald cup, or rushing 
under overhanging arches of rock, which 
nature seems to have hung there as triumphal 
gates for the beneficent naiad of the valley 
to pass through." 

This manor was granted by King John to 
Sir Geofiry Luttrell ; and in the possession 
of his descendants (ennobled as Eans of Car- 
hampton) it remained imtil the commence- 
ment of the present century, when the last 
Lord Carhampton disposed of the estate to 
Luke White, Esq., fattier of the present pro- 
prietor. Woodlands is esteemed one of the 
finest residences in the vicinity of the Irish 
metropolis. It is a castellated mansion of the 
Tudor period, situated in a demesne rich in 
picturesque scenic attraction. 

BULTIIOOV CASTLE, co. Tyrone, the seat 
of Lieut.-Col. Stewart. 

This property originally belonged to the 
Earls of Tyrone, from whom it passed, by 
purchase, to the ancestor of the present pro- 
prietor. The ancient mansion was many 
years since destroyed by an accidental fire; 
and the present edifice was erected after the 
designs of the well-known architect, Mr. 



70 



SEATS OP ORBAT BBtTAIN AKD IBBLAHD. 



Nash, at a coft of £80,000. Killyinoon 
formi a quadrangle^ the north and eaat aides of 
which contain the chief apartments, and pre- 
sent twoffrand architectural fronts, in the Saxon 
style. The great hall is at the north side, and 
conducts to a staircase of stone haring double 
flights. At the east end open off the 
and drawing-rooms, the wood-work of whicl 
throughout is polished oak. The east front 
has a large circular tower about midway, and 
terminates towards the north in an octagon 
tower of exceeding beauty. The KUdress 
riyer flows throu^ the demesne, and is 
spanned not far from the castle by a pictu- 
resque bridge of five arches. The lands are 
celebrated for their varied beauty, and rich 
succession of charming views ; and Killjrmoon, 
taken as a whole, occupies a deserved pre- 
eminence among the chief seats in the wealthy 
province of Ulster. 

OBMEAU, CO. Down, the seat of the Mar* 
quess of Donegal, on the river Lagan, within 
a mile and a Quarter of Belfast. 

The origin J residence of the family was in 
the town of Belfast. It was a large castel- 
lated building, erected in the early part of the 
seventeenth century, and continued in occu- 
pation until the year 1708, when it was burned 
to the ground by a fire caused thi^ugh the 
carelessness of a female servant. By this 
catastrophe, the Ladies Jane, Frances, and 
Henrietta, daughters of Arthur, third Earl of 
Donegal, unhappily lost their lives. The 
family, slier this terrible visitation, removed to 
their present residence. 

Ormeau jm in the Tudor style, and has been 
at different times considerably added to by the 
•uceeaive occupants. It is now a mansion 
of large size, containing every accommodation 
becoming a family of our nobilitv. The 
demesne is of limited extent ; but the views 
from it are of considerable beauty. The 
•ceneiT of the Belfast Lough, with the sur- 
roundmg mountains, is largely taken in ; and 
walks, skilfully designed, conduct the visitor 
to every point whence the prospect is desirable 
or is best attainable. 

AHUM €A81U, the seat of Viscount 
Massareene, situated at the town of Antrim, 
on the banks of the Six-Mile-Water river, and 
immediately adjoining to Lough Neagh. 

The great front of the castle has sonare 
towers built at its angles ; and these again have 
circular turrets earned up along thenr quoins, 
as high as the summit. The entrance b in the 
Louis Quatorxe style, and is reached by a 
magnificent double stone staircase of con- 
siderable sise. The front is further embellished 
with medallion portraits of Charles I. and II., 
and in conspicuous placet with armorial 
shields of the Clotwortnys and Skeffingtons. 
Tha side of the Castle mas parallel with the 



river, and is divided firom it by a low parapet 
wall. In the gardens are several fish-ponds ; 
and the flower-knots are laid out in the fanci- 
ful French style of the seventeenth century, 
the beds foiming penties, Jleun-de^f and 
other elegant devices. The trees are of great 
age and beauty ; and there are some spedmena 
of rhododendrons fifteen feet high. The gate- 
house, which leads to the town of Antrim, is 
built of Ifanestone, and is in the Tudor style 
of architecture. 



KOIXTBBOOE HALL. eo. of Wieklow, the 
seat of Sir Frederick John Hodson, Bart 

This manor was anciently the proper^ of 
the Adair family, who claimed descent from 
Maurice Fitzgerald, fourth Earl of Kildare. 
The last of the Adairs, Mr. Foster Adair, of 
Holly brook, M.P., left an only daughter and 
heir, Anne, who became the first wife of 
Robert Hodson, Esq., created a Baronet of 
Ireland, 28th Aug., 1787, and brought with 
her this fine estate. 

HoUybrook is eleven miles from Dublin, and 
about one from the town of Bray. It was 
erected by Mr. Morrison, an able Dublin 
architect, and is an exouisite specimen of the 
domestic Tudor or Old English style of 
architecture. The material used was mountain 
granite, squared and chiselled; and the 
mansion has three several fironts. That to the 
east contains the library and drawing-room, 
and overhangs a picturesque lake. The 
principal front is to the north ; and the hall 
IS of smgular beanty. It is panelled with oak, 
and is lighted bv one stained-glass window, 
fourteen feet six mches high, bv eizht feet six 
inches wide. The staircase is of oak, and 
conducts to a gallery crossing the hall, from 
which open out the several sleeping apart- 
ments. All the chief rooms are lighted by 
oriel windows, commanding the richest views 
of the scenery for which Wieklow county b 
celebrated. 

MAXLS7 HALL, Staflbrdshhv, is in the 
parish of Wisford, four miles from Lichfield. 

The present edifice was built by John 
Shawe Manley, Es^. It b in the Tuoor style 
of architecture, which prevailed in the reign 
of Henry VII. for the country residences of 
the nobility and gentry. 

The interior of the mansion was arranged 
on Mr. Mauley's own plan, and the external 
architecture was designed by Mr. Thomas 
Tnibshaw, architect, of Great Hajrwood, 
Staffordshire. The building was commenced 
in 1831 and completed in 1836. It stands on 
an eminence, commanding a view of a beau- 
tiful valley, through which passes a consider- 
able stream, which has been enlarged, oppo- 
site the house, into an ornamental piece of 
water. 



tat^mam 



mx^' . 



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I • 



I. 






^ . 



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Si " 

E3 S 



n 



BEATS OF OBEAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



71 



TAIRIEU) HOUSE, SomerBetshire, the seat 
of William Edward Surtees, Esq., D.C.L. 
(the author of '*A Sketch of the Lives of Lords 
Stowell and Eldon," and some contributions 
to periodical literature), and of his wife, 
La^ Chapman. 

The stagnations of a little stream, flowing 
from Cothelston, one of the Quantock hills, 
aeroto the rich valley of Taunton Dean, into 
the river Tone, gave, as late as the com- 
mencement of this century, the name of 
Middle Marsh to the property now called 
Tainfield. 

In 1808, Lieutenant-General Richard Chap- 
man, of the Royal Artillery, laid the founda- 
tion of the present mansion, and named it 
Tainfield, after an estate called Tain, which 
he possessed in Berbice. He died 2nd Feb., 
1812, having devised the house and land to 
his widow, a lady of the family of Remnant. 
Of her they were afterwards purchased by her 
third son, Lieutenant-General Sir Stephen 
Remnant Chapman, C.B. and K.C.H. This 
distinguished officer of engineers served with 
the highest credit in the Peninsular War; and 
was hence permitted to bear, as an augmen- 
tation to his arms, a castle, with the super- 
scription ''Torres Vedras," and was deco- 
rate with a gold medal, engraved with the 
name of " Busaco." He subsequently filled 
the situation of Secretary of the Ordnance, 
and concluded his public career as Governor 
of the Bermudas. In 1840 he retired to 
Tainfield, where he died, 6th March, 1851. 
He devised the mansion and estate to his 
widow, Caroline, the daughter of the Rev. 
George Pyke, of Bay thorn Park, an old family 
property in Essex. This lady married se- 
condly, in 1853, her second cousin, WiUiam 
Edward Surtees, Esq., of a family widely 
scattered amongst the landed gentry of Dur- 
ham and Northumberland. 

Tainfield House is built in the Italian villa 
style, and commands an extensive view of the 
▼ale of Taunton. It contains some eood pic- 
turesy amongst which may be specified — " The 
Circumcision," by Rembrandt; "A Holy Fa- 
mily,'* by Murillo; "A lady squeezing into 
an urn the blood from the heart of her mur- 
dered lover," by Guercino; and "The Rat- 
catcher," by Viflcher. It contains also a few 
antiquities brought from Italy, both in terra- 
toUa and marble. 

nOUBTOV CASTLE, Staffordshire, vene- 
rable on account of its antiquity, and inte- 
resting from its historical associations, stands 
in a beautiful valley, through which the river 
Stour winds along beneath its walls. The 
situation is thus described by Mr. Scott in his 
" History of Stourbridge and its Neighbour- 
hood :"— 

^ On a commanding eminence on the west 
nde of the river stands the ancient castle, 



overlooking a verdant vale beneath ; while at 
a short distance to the south-west the bold 
edge of Kinver, with its contiftuous range of 
hills, rises majestically to view. Nor is the 
opposite acclivity on the left bank of the river 
dencient in picturesque effect. A range of 
minor eminences, branching from Dunsley 
bank, and crowned with clumps of trees, flank 
the road which leads to Kidderminster, fi^m 
whence a branch from Dunsley to the town 
of Kinver rises above the village. Part of a 
sand-rock intercepting the view down the 
valley, being excavated by art, affords a pas- 
sage for the channel of the canal. The entire 
cottp-d'ceil of Stourton, with its extensive 
wharf and rural accompaniments, with the 
parallel rivers, the respective formation of 
nature and art, stretchmg to the town of 
Kinver, is pleasing and interesting." 

Dr. Plot knew this castle to be of great an- 
tiqui^, although he could not exactly trace 
the descent. Local tradition asserts that it 
was either the birthplace of King John, or 
his residence at some time. Until within the 
last thirty years it retained marks of great 
age, and indeed even now some few archi- 
tectural data can be discovered which point to 
a remote period of erection. 

The earliest mention we find of the castle is 
in the time of Edward IV., when John 
Hampton was lord of Stourton and its castle ; 
but as it was in existence more than 300 
years previous to thb date, we may trace the 
descent of the manor, supposing that its lords 
were probably possessea of the castle also. 
Philip Holgate held the manor and forest of 
Kinver, temp, Henry II. Richard I. gave 
the town and forest of Kynefare and Storton 
to Philip, son of Holgate, in which family it 
seems to have remained for a considerable 
time. John de Vaux of Stourton was Lord of 
Kinfare, 9 Edward II. (1315); Hugo Tirel, 
34 Edward III. (1359), held both Kenefare 
and Stourton (Rot. pat.); and in Edward I V.'s 
time, as above, the castle was held by John 
Hampton, who died in 1472. The arms of 
this family still remain in the windows of the 
parish church, ^he forest of Kinver, men- 
tioned above, extended over many of the 
neighbouring parishes, according to the Great 
Perambulation, 28 Edward I. (1299) now pre- 
served in the Tower. It was afforested by 
Henry II., and disafforested by the Chartade 
Forestis, 9 Henry III. (1224). 

In the year 1500, Reginald Pole was bora 
here, afterwards a cardinal, and the avowed 
enemy of Henry VIII. He was younger son 
of Sir Richard role, Lord Montague (cousin- 
german to Henry VII.) and of Lady Mar- 

faretPlantagenet, his wife, daughter of Geom 
>uke of Clarence (brother to Edward IV.) 
and the Countess of Salisbury. This cele- 
brated man obtained church preferment at a 
very early age, and after having been sent as 



72 



BEATS OP GREAT BRITAIll AND IRELAND. 



papal legate to England, erentually lucceeded 
Cranmer as Archbishop of Canterbtxry in 
1555, and died in 1558-— sixteen houn after 
Queen Mary. He had been twice elected 
Pope, and twice had declined the papal crown. 
In the 1 Edward VI. (1546), Edward, aon of 
John Whorwood, died, wised of this castle, 
Thomas, his son, being then seven years of 
age ; and in this family, very anciently seated 
at Compton Park, a few mdes distant, it re- 
mained till about 1679, when Wortley, son of 
Sir William Whorwood, sold Stourton Castle 
and Kinver to PhiUp Foley, in whose descen- 
dant, the present W. Hodgetts Foley, Esq., of 
Prestwooo, it still remains. 

During the Civil Wars, Stourton Castle was 
a garrison, and surrendered to the King, 23rd 
March, 1644. There are many traditions 
still extant relating to the siege. Two towers 
are said to have been completely demolished, 
and a cannon-ball, shot by Cromwell (I!) 
from Kinver Edge (about three miles distant) 
u described to have passed through the oak 
entrance-door and struck a porringer from the 
hands of a domestic who was crossing the 
court-yard. Certain it is, there were for- 
merly three towers, one of which only remains 
(the foundations of another were discovered 
on the north side some years ago), and the 
ancient oak door is probably stul preserved 
pierced with balls, which were discharged 
certainly at a shorter range than three mUes, 
and most likely out of cannon bearing the 
royal crown, and under the command of Gil- 
bert Gerrard. It is said some broken cannon 
were dug up in the gardens during alterations 
tome years ago. 

In 1659, William Talbot was bom here ; 
afterwards successively Bishop of Oxford, 
Salisbury, and Durham ; and it appears to 
have been occupied by his family, probably 
only as tenants, tor about thirty years or more. 
His father died here 1686. After this date it 
seems to have fallen into disrepair, and Dr. 
Wilkes says in his time it was occupied as a 
farm-house; but for the last fifty years it has 
been held by the following '* respectable 
tenanU"— Thomas SellicIT Brome, Esq., 
and afterwards by Mrs. Stewart; the late 
Thomas Worrall Graaebrook, Eso., resided 
here for many^ears; Mn. Graiebrook, his 
relict, occupies it at the present time^lSiSO. 

Mr. Graaebrook extensively repaired the 
old castle, which in his days retained all its 
feudal characteristics. Entering on the west 
side, under the sole remaining tower, lofty 
and massive, by mounting a flight of steps 
which led up to the portal deeply sunk in waUs 
upwards of six feet in thickn ess t he large oak 
door itself, thickly bossed over with iron, was 
much perforated ny cannon-balls, the effects 
of its former siege. Passing over the thrcs- 
old, the feet struck upon a large square trap- 
door (also studded with iron lutls) by which 



prisoners were let down to the dungeons be« 
neath ; and extending over head was a beau- 
tifully groined roof. Immediately beyond 
this was the open court-yard, on entering 
which, the chambers on the left were devoted 
to kitchens and servants' lodgings, which 
opened into the court, while the other two 
sides of the auadrangle contained the private 
apartments of the family. Immediately oppo- 
site was the great haU, out of which all the 
other rooms and passages entered. The door 
of the haU was through a small turret in the 
right-hand comer, and above the **fine 
arch" in this were some mosaics and the date 
1101. Mr. Scott describes this « eastern 
part of the building as containing a noble 
ranee of apartmenU, rising boldly from the 
valley." Along a passage at the north end of 
the hall stood the great wide staircase, which 
led to the rooms above; and in this, the 
north-east comer of the castle, b the room in 
which Cardinal Pole was bora ; it contained 
a large and handsome fireplace, about six feet 
wide, and verj deeply and handsomely 
moulded. Besides this there was nothing 
particularhr interesting in the castle, except 
the large nreplace in the great hall, and also a 
winding stone staircase, which led to the top 
of the tower, and gave entrance to its 
vaulted rooms. 

Mr. Scott says : '* On a minute examination 
it appears that the tower is built of stone, as 
also a part of the northern side-wall of the 
interior of the area. The remaining build- 
ings, consisting of a capacious mansion with 
appurtenances, are entirely of brick. This 
part, though ancient, is probably of a date 
considerably later than tne period when the 
towers were erected, the latter may be con- 
jectured to have been constituent parts of the 
original fortress." In addition to this account, 
we would remark that evidently the ancient 
fortress extended over the whole area at pre- 
sent occupied, and was also of much Itrger 
dimensions; the foundations mentioned before 
were those of a tower which must have stood 
some little distance to the north. An ancicni 
terrace-walk passed round all this northern, 
and also a portion of the eastern part on the 
outside. 

About twenty-five years ago, James Foster, 
Esq., entering as a leaseholmng tenant, made 
immense alterations, and changed the old 
castle we have been describing into the 
splendid modem mansion which it now is. 
The open court was turned into a very large and 
lofty nail, round which now hangs the valua- 
ble collection of paintings of the present 
holder; the old hall was changed into a 
splendid receiving room ; rooft were raised ; 
floors were lowered; wings were erected; a 
wide and handsome terrace was built round 
three sides of the castle ; and although all the 
old still remains, yet so much has it been 



SEATS OF GREAT BBITAIN AND IRELAMD. 



73 



changed, that it would be difficult to recognise 
the residence of the Hamptons and Whor woods 
in the elegant Stourton Castle of modern 
days. William Orme Foster, Esq., nephew to 
the late tenant, now occupies it. 

The grounds are pleasant, and the sardens 
extensive, with the river Stour winding uirough 
them, and forming a handsome waterfall. The 
surrounding neighbourhood abounds in beau- 
tiful scenery. The village of Enville, with its 
celebrated woods and sheep-walk, is within a 
few miles; and the whole district is alike 
interesting to the lover of Nature and to the 
antiquary. Rinver Edge is a conspicuous 
object from the windows. Some say that thh 
ancient camp on its summit is the work of 
Danes, and some of the Ancient British. 
Kinvaur signifies a great edge in Celtic^ to 
which nation we are inclined to attribute the 
fortification. It was used as an outpost by 
Henrv IV. in 1405, when pursuing Owen 
Glendwr, who had plundered Worcester. Near 
to it is an ancient bolt -stone — ^a curious relic. 
On the east side is a barrow surrounded by 
a ditch, and assigned by tradition as the 
burial place of some great chief. On the north 
side is a curious cavern, called Meg oTox 
Hole, supposed to have been a hermit's cell, 
and from which a subterranean passage is said 
to extend to a well in the village (a curious 
and ancient one), about a mile and a half 
off. 

The seats of many noblemen and gentlemen 
are scattered round, and the country town of 
Stourbridge is about three miles distant. 
Views of this castle are ensr^^^ed in Shaw's 
History, and also among "West's Views in 
Staffordshire." 

MITFOBD CASTLE, in the co. of Northum- 
berland, the seat of Admiral Mitford. 

The ancient castle of Mitford, near which 
stands the modem dwelling, is now little more 
than a heap of ruins, ft u unknown by 
whom or when this fortress was erected ; but 
according to all probability it dates from a 
period anterior to the Norman Conquest. At 
that time it was possessed by Sir John Mit- 
ford, whose only aaughter and heir, Sibille, 
was given in marriage by the conqueror to 
Sir Bertram, a Norman knight. 

In the seventeenth year of King John's 
reign, Roger Bertram joined the northern 
barons in opposing that fickle tyrant, who, at 
the head of nis Flemish rutters, was laying 
waste the land without remorse. Upon this 
occasion John seized the castle and burnt the 
town of Mitford, at the same time putting the 
inhabitants to death. The riitten &ove 
alluded to were German mercenaries, who, 
like the Swiss and the Italian condottieri, 
were ready to fight for any one who would 
pay them. Their name is probably derived 
from the German word rotte, which, in the 



olden warfare, was used to signify a body of 
men under one common leader, but of uncer- 
tain number. The phrase almain — that is, 
German, riitter — is of frequent occurrence in 
our early dramatists. 

The next yean and probably while it re- 
mained in King John^s hands, the castle was 
besieged by Alexander, King of Scotland, as 
we read in '' Leland's Collectanea," though he 
omits to tell us whether it was or was not 
taken. 

The barony of Mitford was given by the 
Crown to Philip deUlcote; but upon John's 
demise, Bertram not only contrived to make 
his peace with Henry III., and obtain a 
restitution of his lands, but even grew into 
hieh favour with that monarch. In the same 
reign, however, Bertram's successor was un- 
lucky enough to unite himself with the insur- 
gents at ^rthampton, when he was taken 
prisoner and his estate seized to the King's 
use. Subsequently it was granted by Edward 
III. to Eleanor Stanour, the wife of Robert 
de Stoteville. 

We next find it successively passing through 
the hands of Gilbert Middleton, a freebooter, 
and of Adomer de Valence, Earl of Pem- 
broke, ''who seems," says Hutchinson, "to 
have a divine interdict impending over him 
for his atrocious deeds. He was a tool to 
his prince, and servilely submitted to the 
manaates of the crown, contrary to the dic- 
tates of humanity, honour, and Justice. He 
sate in judgment on Thomas, Earl of Lan- 
caster, and impiously acquiesced in his sen- 
tence. He was a chief instrument in appre- 
hending the famous Scotch patriot, William 
Wallace, in 1305, accompushing his cap- 
ture by corrupting his bosom friends, and by 
the treachery of his most intimate associates, 
and those in whom he placed his utmost confi- 
dence — Sir John Monteith and others of 
infamous memory. Adomer, on his bridal 
day, was slain at a tournament held in honour 
of his nuptials, and left a wife at once a 
maiden, bride, and widow. It is said that for 
several generations of this family a father was 
never happy enough to see his son, the pro- 
scribed parent being snatched off by the hand 
of death before the birth of the issue." 

The above passage is worth quoting, as an 
example of what men will write, and perhaps 
believe, when led away by party feeling or 
national prejudice. True it is that old chro- 
niclers have given this tale with much solem- 
nity, but it is not very creditable for a writer 
in the eighteenth century to have repeated 
such absurdities except to express dissent. 
That the fathers of many successive genera- 
tions should die without seeing the birth of their 
issue would hardly find a httuig place in a 
romance. 

This barony afterwards came to the Earl of 
Athol by hb wife, Johanna, of the Pembroke 



74 



SEATS or GKSAT HUTAIH AKD IBSULim. 



ftmily. From tlwra H Maed bj feniak 
hein to the PeTC3rs. In Uie nign of King 
Hennr VIII. the caatk and manor were poa- 
■e»ed by Lord Brooffh. In the fourth Tear 
of Queen Mary, Lord Brough granted tbete 
poMesrions to Cnthbert Mitfoid and Robert 
nb ion, for erer— collateral descendants of the 
ancient owner before the Norman Conquest. 
He, howcTer, reserred the she of the castle 
and the royalties, which, coming afterwards to 
the crown, were granteid to the abore^-named 
Robert Mitford in the rogn of Charles II. 

Thb castle stands upon an eminence on the 
southern brink of the Wansbeck. On the 
south and east, great labour has been em- 
ployed in forming a ditch out of the rock 
under its walls, which are still in many placet 
thirty feet high. The keep is circular, of 
rough, strong masonry, and contains small 
gloomy dungeons, with Uiick walls and narrow 
Mx>p-holes. The other buildings within the 
area are totally demolished. 

The modem edifice, as we have already 
obferved, stands near iheue ruins, in the midst 
of a picturesque and interesting country. 

JIUTWKLL OOVBT, Deronshire, the seat of 
Sir Thomas Trayton Fuller Elliott Drake, 
Bart. 

Rtsdon says : « This Nutwell Court, which 
signifies a mansion-house in a signiory, came 
to the family of Prideaux as L3rmp6ton did**-» 
that is, by purchase. In later times it was in 
the possession of Lord Dynham ; but it owes 
its chief celebrity to having been at one time 
the abode of the gallant Sir Francis Drake, 
an ancestor of the present owner, and, indeed, 
the founder of the family. As such, a brief 
sketch of his life will be hardly out of place. 

Sir Francis was bom in or near Taristock, 
in 1545. His father was a minister, who fled 
into Kent for fear of the six articles, in King 
Henry VIlI.'s time, and who, probably being 
in narrow circumstances, bound his son ap- 
prentice to the master of a small bark, which 
tradod into France and Zealand. In this 
hard service he acquired the first elements of 
that nautical skill for which he was afterwards 
so eminently distinguished, and gave such 
satisfaction to his master, that when the 
latter died he beoueathed his vessel to the 
young seaman. Drake, however, found this 
sphere of life much too contracted for his 
bounding spirit ; and selling his ship, he 
embarked with Captain John Hawkins upon 
a venture to the West Indies, where his g(x>ds 
were seized by the Spaniards at St John de 
Uloa, and he himself narrowly escaped. This 
single circumstance seems to have given the 
direction of his ftiture life; or, as Prince 
quaintly tells it — '*To make him satisfaction, 
Mr. Drake wim persuaded by the minister of 
his ship that he might lawfully recover the 
value of the King of Spain ty reprisal, and 



repair bAs kMsea opoo him anjrwhere else. 
Tab eaae was elear in sea-divimty ; and few 
are such infidek as not to believe doctrines 
which make for their profit; whereupon 
Drake, though then a poor private man, under- 
took to revenge hinaelf upon to mighty a 
mooarch.*' 

From this moment Drake carried on a con- 
stant war against the ** so mighty a monarch '* 
upon his own account — a system ouite in hai^ 
mooy with the general feehngs of lus country- 
men in those days, and for the carrying out of 
which he found little difficulty in obtaining 
the requiate supplies. The very name of 
Spaniard was as bateful to English patriotism 
as the galleons, with their cargoes or gold and 
■Over, were attractive to English cupidity; 
and when Drake returned loaded with plun- 
der, *'his return being carried into the 
church, there remained few or no people with 
the preacher ; all running out to observe the 
blessing of God upon the dangerous adven- 
tures and endeavours of the captain, who had 
wanted [qy. wasted f] one year, two months, 
and some odd days in this voyage.*' Un- 
questionably the success of Drake did much 
to foster the national spirit, while it taught 
the seamen to regard notning as impossible lo 
their courage. His achievements, so great in 
proportion to his means, would almost seem 
mcredible, were it not that we find similar 
enterprises undertaken and carried out by 
others of the same age. He had sailed with only 
two ships, the one of seventy tons burden, 
and the other of twenty>fiye, their joint crews 
consisting of no more than seventy-three men 
and boys ; vet, with this inconsiderable force, 
he attacked, and, in a few hours, stormed the 
city of Nombre de Dios. He next carried 
and pillaged Vera Cruz ; and though he found 
but little spoil in the town, on returning to 
join his ships he was fortunate enough to take 
" a rewe of fifty mules, each carrying three 
hundred pound weight of sil%er, and some 
bars and wedges of gold.*' 

The same restlessness and love of enterprise 
which had sent Drake to the Spanish coast, 
now led him to embark as a volunteer in the 
wars in Ireland, that were now being carried 
on under Walter, Eari of Essex. Upon his 
return, he was presented by Sir Christopher 
Hatton to Queen Elizabeth, and found so 
much favour with her that he was soon 
enabled to undertake his celebrated voyage 
round the world. The wonders that the ad- 
venturers met with in thb expedition have 
been detailed with all that simple good faith 
which characterizes our early voyagers, their 
own implicit confidence in tne miracles they 
relate lending that same peculiar cham to 
them which belongs to a welUtold story of 
romance. 

l^pon his coming home, he was stacioualy 
received by the Queen, who visited him aboard 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAUI AKD IBELAND. 



75 



Us ship at Deptford, and knighted him in 
1581. Seven yean afterwar£, when the 
Spanish Armada threatened England, Sir 
Francis was appointed vice-admiral, under 
Charles Lord Howard of Effingham, and had 
the good fortune to capture the great galleon, 
commanded hy Don Pedro de Valoez, the 
reputed projector of the enterprise. By this 
hlow the captors divided amongst them fifty- 
five thousand ducats. 

Drake now undertook, in company with 
Hawkins, what proved to he his last and only 
unsuccessful voyage. The Spaniards having 
had timely notice of his coming, removed 
their treasures to a distance from the shore ; 
and the failure of the enterprise so preyed 
upon his spirits, that he fell into a nux, of 
which he died. " Sickness," says his his- 
torian, ** did not so properly untve, as sorrow 
did wrend at once the roah of nis mortality 
asunder. This great spirit, always accus- 
tomed to victory and success, was not able to 
bear so great a check of fortune; so that 
coming near Bella Porta, in America, he 
departed this mortal life upon the sea." 

Nutwell stands upon the east side of the 
river £xe, nearly opposite to Powderham 
Castle. Originally it was a castellated 
building, but when Lord Dynham came into 
poeaession of it, about the time of Edward IV., 
" he altered it and made it a fair and stately 
dwelling-house. It standeth very low, by an 
arm of the sea, so that the high floods rise 
almost to the house. It is open only to 
the west, being defended otherwise with 
little hills." Since Risdon's time — from 
whom we have taken the above quotation — 
the house has been nearly rebuilt. The plan- 
tations, also, have been extended and much 
improved. 

LOVOWOBTH, in the co. of Hereford, the 
seat of Robert Biddulph Phillipps, Esq., a 
Justice of the Peace and Deputy Lieutenant 
for the county. This gentleman also served 
as High Sheriff of Herefordshire in 1838. 

The Longfords, who took their name firom 
the place, are its earliest known possessors. 
Subsequently we find it held by tne Tuber- 
TiUea, and at a later period by the raunceforts. 
The next change upon record was in the time 
of Henry V., when we have a deed conveying 
it to Joan, Lady Beauchamp. In 1418, 
only four years afterwards, it was sold by her 
to William Walwayne. In the reign of 
Charles II., it was disposed of by one of his 
descendants to Herbert Croft, Bishop of 
Hereford; but in about six years the place 
once more passed into the family of the Wal- 
wyns or Walwayns, the bishop selling it to 
James Walwyn, a West India merchant, and 
cousin to the Nicholas before mentioned. 
With his descendants it remained until the 
year 1806, when the last proprietor of that 



name sold the property to his maternal uncle, 
Robert Phillipps, £)sq., a younger son of the 
family of Eaton Bishop in this county. 

The present house was nearly rebmlt some- 
what more than sixty years ago. It is a 
handsome structure, built of brick, and stands 
in a pleasant situation at a convenient dis- 
tance from the Hereford and Ledbury road. 
The view it commands is highly picturesque, 
extending to the Malvern Huls and the Black 
Mountains on the east and west; while to 
the south is the village of Mordesford, em- 
bosomed in trees. It is fitted up with much 
taste, and decorated with a few good pictures. 
In the library is a small but v^uable collec- 
tion of books. 

At no great distance from the present seat ^ 
are the ruins of Old Longworth, at one time 
the mansion-house, though for many years 
used for a farm-house. It is surrounded by 
a moat, and has a small chapel that presents 
a very interesting example of the early per- 
pendicular style of architecture. 

FRT8T0N HALL, Yorkshire, in the West 
Riding, one mile from Ferrybridge, two fron» 
Pontefract, eleven firom Wakefield, and fifteen 
from Doncaster; the seat of Robert Pemberton 
Milnes, Esq., who is a Deputy Lieutenant for 
Yorkshire, and has represented the borough 
of Pontefhu;t in several parliaments. 

At one period this estate belonged to the 
family of Crowle; from them it was pur- 
chased by Richard Milnes, Esq., of Great 
Houghton and Peniston, and in this family 
it stiU remains. 

The mansion is a commodious building, 
with a handsome Ionic front ; the date of its 
erection being uncertain. It is an old manor- 
house, to which the Ionic front b no doubt a 
modem addition. 

The gardens are fine, and provided with 
hot-houses for the cultivation of the more 
delicate kinds of fruit. There is in them a 
sarcophagus of Thomas, Duke of Lancaster, 
beheaded at Pontefract. 



LLAHEBOHTDOL, Montgomeryshire, about 
a mile from Welsh Pool, and seven and 
a half from Montgomery, the seat of 
David Pugh, Esq., a Magistrate and 
Deputy Lieutenant for this county. Major 
Pugh served as High Sheriff for Mont^ 
gomeryshire in 1823, and was returned for 
the Montgomeryshire boroughs to the 
reformed parliament in 1832. 

The house in which the owners of this estate 
formerly dwelt was accidentally destroyed 
by fire. The existing edifice was erected 
about the year 1776, out it has been very 
much altered and improved by the gentleman 
now possessing it. The entrance-hall and 
the two drawing-rooms make together forty- 



76 



8EAT8 OP GREAT BEITAIN AKD IBELAND. 



one feet, opening into a conflenrmtoij twenty- 
eight feet long. The dinine-room u a hmnd- 
lome apartment, thirty-one net in iensth, and 
twenty-one and a half in hreadth. Tnere are 
two ntting-roonit of lew dimensions, with 
good bed-rooms, and excellent domestic 
offices. The ascent to the bouse from the 
town of Welsh Pool is by a winding road, 
which at every turn presents a new and ro- 
mantic scene, with ail the varied and pic- 
turesque features of a Welsh landscape. 

Llanerchydol is a compact estate m a ring 
fence, including a fertile garden, walled rouno, 
and having within its circuit hot-houses, ice- 
houses, and the various other appurtenances 
of modem luxury and refinement. 



in the co. of Northumber* 
land ; the seat of Charles William Orde, Esq., 
a Magistrate for the county. 

This place was comprised in Ranulph de 
Merley s grant of Ritton to Newminster, the 
abbot of which house buQt here a chapel, a 
tower, and other edifices. Time, however, or 
the ravages of war, or other accidents, have 
completely swept away all that the good abbot 
raised at so much cost; nor is there any de- 
scription of it remaining to us, so far as is 
known, in either book or record. Hutchinson 
says, that ** fragments of buildinn have indeed 
been found, and human bones dug up lately 
in sinking for new foundations ; and wnen the 
crown granted it in 1610 to Sir Ralph Grey, 
the letters patent described it as a tower and 
other buildm^ called Nunkirke, with all the 
lands belonging to it, lying near toRedesdale, 
late in Uie tenure of John Fenwick, and now 
of Sir Ralph Grey, Knight, and of the 
annual rent of £200." 

We next find this estate in thepossesnon of 
the Wards of Morpeth, who bought it of the 
descendants of Sir Ralph Grey. From the 
Wards it devolved by inheritance to the 
present owner, who has made large additions 
to the old manor-house. 

Mr. Orde*s mansion is situated near the 
head of a winding haugh, in a narrow valley, 
which is closed in upon all sides with steep 
woody banks, except the south. Througn 
this opening is seen tne little hamlet of Heley- 
■ide, which terininates the prospect at the 
distance of about a mile. The Trent here 
Israes from a deep rocky dell, overhung with 
oaks, and continues its course on the west side 
of the haugh and house in a southern direc- 
tion. The bed in which the stream flows is 
rocky ; and on its right is an oak wood, whQe 
on the other side spreads a curtain of tall 
trees and underwood, that screen it ftt>m the 
meadow. 



HAIX, Gloucestershire, about 
five mOes from Bristol ; the seat of J. Whittuck 
Whittttck, Esq. 



Hanham Hall has been possessed by the 
ancestors of the present owner for a great 
number of years. Before their time it was 
probably possessed by the ancestors of Sir 
William Newton, to whom the valuable 
estate and formerly magnificent seat of Barr*s 
Court at one perioa certainly belonged. This 
last named place, however, has auo been in 
the family or the Whittucks for several genera- 
tions, though not so long as Hanham. 
Annexed to Barr's Court b a beautiful little 
chapel, in Bitton Church— one of the finest in 
this part of Enfland— which Mr. Whittuck 
has fitted up with memorial windows ; a large 
one at the east end to his father, and at the 
side of it smaller ones to his brothers and 
sisters. The design of the floor is also very 
beautiftil, on encaustic tiles. This chapel has 
for years been the burial-place of the Whit- 
tucks and before their time was used for the 
same purpose by the Newtons. 

The mansion of Hanham Hall was erected 
in the year 1570, and belongs to the Elix»- 
bethan style of architecture, so picturesque 
and at the same time so truly national. It 
has a double staircase, lined with oak, of £real 
beauty, and stronsty recalling to the mind the 
memory of the olden time. The dining-room, 
which IS spacious, presents the same charac- 
teristic features, as indeed do the rest of the 
apartments. 

The grounds attached to the dwelling are 
richly wooded, and laid out in parterres and 
terraces. These are surrounded by handsome 
avenues of lime and elm in the distance. 

BAOIAra (or Rairlan) OAtlU, Mon- 
mouthshire, near the village of the same name, 
and about seven miles and a half from Mon- 
mouth; the property of the Duke of 
Beaufort. 

It is difficult to trace the pedigree — ^if we 
may be allowed the term — of this estate 
through all its ramifications, even the accurate 
Dugdale involving himself in some contradic- 
tions with regard to it. In his ** Baronage*' he 
telk us that the great family of Clare was 
seised of the Castle of Raglan ; and Richard 
Strongbow, the last male heir of that line, 

fave the castle and manor, in the time of 
lenry IL, to Walter Bloet, from whom it 
came to the family of Berkeley But in 
another document (Article — Lord Herbert of 
Cherbury) he states that Sir John Morley, 
who lived in the reign of Richard II., resided 
in thu castle; and that his daughter and 
heiress conveyed it by marriage into the family 
of Herbert From the Henierti it came to 
the Somersets, with whom it still remains. 

Without attempting to reconcile theee 
accounts, so inconsistent nith each other, we 
may observe that Raglan Castle does not 
appear to have continued long in the Berkdey 
family ; and that Sir William ap Thomas, son 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



77 



of Sir Thomas ap Gwillim by Maud his wife, 
daughter and coheir of Sir John Morley, of 
Ra^and Castle, was proprietor in the reign 
of Henry V. His eldest son, William, a 
man of distinguished abilities, was created 
by Edward IV., Lord of Raglan, Chepstow, 
and Gower. By the king's command, his 
pedigree was traced by four bards, who are 
called, *' chiefest men of skill within the pro- 
vince of South Wales ;" and he was ordered to 
discontinue the Welsh custom of changing the 
surname at every descent, and to assume that 
of Herbert, in honour of his ancestor, Herbert 
Fits Henry, who was chamberlain to King 
Henr^ I. 

This William was a zealous friend to the 
House of York, and so highly was his loyalty 
esteemed by Edward IV ., that he entrusted to 
his safe-keeping the Earl of Richmond, after- 
ward King Henrv VII. The Earl, whom 
Lord Herbert haa treated with the greatest 
kindness, was during his absence relea^ied 
from confinement by Jasper, Earl of Pem- 
broke, and conveyed into Brittany. 

Upon the attainder of Jasper in 1469, Lord 
Herbert was created Earl of Pembroke, and 
warmly exerted himself in favour of his royal 
benefactor by raising an army of Welshmen 
amongst his numerous retainers, and marching 
at then- head to oppose the Lancastrians under 
the Earl of Warwick. Being taken prisoner 
at the battle of Danes Moor, he was beheaded 
at Banbury, when he met his fate with forti- 
tude, giving a striking instance of his fraternal 
affection as well as oi his contempt for death. 
As he was about to lay his head upon the 
block, he exclaimed to Sir John Conyers, 
who superintended the execution, '*Let me 
die, for I am old ; but save my brother, who 
is young, lusty, and hardy, mete and apt to 
serve the greatest prince in Christendom." 
His son Wuliam, Earl of Pembroke, resigned 
that title in 1479, and was created Earl of Hun- 
tingdon, — Edward IV. wishing to dignify his 
son, the Prince of Wales, with the Earldom of 
Pembroke. At his lordship's death in 1491, 
without male issue, his daughter and heiress, 
Elizabeth, conveyed the Castle of Raglan to 
her husband. Sir Charles Somerset, a naturd 
•on of Henry Beaufort, Duke of Somerset (who 
was beheaded in 1463 for his adherence to the 
House of Lancaster). Upon the accession of 
Henry VII., to whom he was nearly allied in 
blood, he was rapidly advanced to high honours, 
being successively appointed a privy coun- 
cillor, admiral of the king's fleet at sea, a 
knight banneret, knight of the garter, captain 
of tne guards, and lord chamberlain. He 
was twice employed as ambassador to the 
Emperor Maximilian, the first time conveying 
to him the order of the garter, and the secona 
concluding two treaties against the Turks. 
His high favour with the lung, and perhaps 
no less bis personal attractions, obtained for 



him in marriaee the hand of Elizabeth, sole 
daughter and heiress of William, Earl of Hun- 
tingdon, and in her right he bore the title of 
Baron Herbert of Raglan, Chepstow, and 
Gower. 

Even the death of his royal benefactor 
proved no impediment to his farther increase 
in rank and honours, for he attained to an 
equal degree of favour with Henry VIII. In 
the French wars he highly distinguished him- 
self. At the siege of Terouenne he com- 
manded a division of six thousand men, and 
greatly contributed in forcing the place to a 
surrender ; at the siege and capture of Tour- 
nay, where he held a high command, he con- 
ducted himself with no less skill and intre- 
pidity. Beinff deputed, on the pacification, 
to restore the last-named place to France, he 
would not allow the Marshal de ChatiUon to 
enter it with banners displayed, but furled, it 
being, he said, yielded voluntarily, and not 
obtained by conquest ; and he is highly praised 
by Lord Herbert of Cherbury, in his history of 
Henry VIII., for having thus vindicated the 
honour of his prince and country. In 1518, 
he ratified the articles of peace with France ; 
and in 1521, mediated the pacification between 
Francis I. and his great rival, the Emperor 
Charles V. In reward for these signal ser- 
vices he was appointed lord chamberlain for 
life, and advanced to the dignity of Earl of 
Worcester. 

'* He had the honour of representing the 
person of Henry VIII. at the coronation of 
the Princess Mary ; and soon after the acces- 
sion of Francis I., was commissioned to be- 
troth the king's infant daughter to the infant 
dauphin, according to an article of the recent 
pacification. But a report being circulated 
which gave rise to mucti raillery among the 
wits of the times, that the young bridegroom 
was either notyet bom or had died soon after 
his birth, the Earl of Worcester, with his col- 
league, the Bishop of Ely, were ordered to 
verify the child's existence. They accord- 
ingly repaired to the Castle of Amboise, 
where the queen resided, and being intro- 
duced to the dauphin affectionately embraced 
him." 

William, Earl of Worcester, in virtue of 
his descent from the royal blood, was per- 
mitted to assume the arms of England, which 
are still borne by his descendant, the present 
Duke of Beaufort. 

Raglan was long considered as the chief 
fortress in Monmouthsire, its ^reat strength 
making it more capable of resisting artillery 
than any other stronghold of the kind in the 
same county. It is particularly distinguished 
for the siege which it sustained b v the Parlia- 
mentarians under the command of Fairfax. 
It was then defended by Henry, fifth Earl, 
and first Marquess of Worcester, and notwith- 
standing its scanty garrison and extensive 



78 



SEATS OF OKEAT BRlTAni AND IftELAND. 



outworks, WM almost the last fortress in the 
kingdom that was reduced by the forces of the 
Roundheads. Heath, however, gives a some- 
what different account of its capabilities for 
sustaining a siege. He says, *' The Castle of 
Ragland was a very strong place, having a 
deep moat encompassing it, besides the river 
running by it. There were delivered up 
with it twenty pieces of ordnance, only three 
barrels of powder ; but they had a mill with 
which thev could make a barrel a day. There 
was found great store of com and malt, wine 
of all sorts, and beer. The horses they had 
left were not many, and those that were, 
almost starved for want of hay ; so that the 
hones had like to have eaten one another for 
want of meat, and therefore were tied with 
chains. Th^re were also great store of goods 
and rich furniture found in the castle, which 
Fairfax committed to the care and custody of 
Mr. Herbert, commissioner of the army, Mr. 
Roger Williams, and Major Tulidav, to be in- 
ventoried, and that in case any of the country 
should make a just claim to any of them, as 
having been violently taken from them, or 
they compelled to brmg them in thither, Uiey 
should have them restored." 

The castle was surrendered upon conditions, 
one of them being to the effect that '' the 
officers, gentlemen, and soldiert of the garri- 
son, with all other persons therein, shall march 
out of the said garrison with their horses and 
arms, with colours flying, drums beating, 
trumpets sounding, matches lighted at both 
ends, bullets in their mouths, and every sol- 
dier with twelve charges of powder, match 
and bullet proportionable, and has and bag- 
gage, to any place within ten miles of the 
garrison where the governor shall nominate ; 
where, in respect his Majesty hath no earrison 
in £ngland, nor army anywhere wiuin thia 
kingdom and dominion of Wales, their arms 
shsll be delivered up to such as his Excellencv 
shall appoint to receive them, where the woU 
diers shall be disbanded." 

There were other clauses providing for the 
personal security of all who had borne arms, 
unless such as had been especially exempted 
from pardon and composition by any previoua 
orders of the parliament 

AAer the surrender, a long conference took 
place between the Marquess and Fairfax, of 
which the following characteristic details 
are given in the ''Apophthegms of the Earl of 
Worcester." 

** After much conference between the Mai^ 
Quesse and Generall Fairfax, wherein many 
things were requested of the Generall by the 
Marquease, ana being, as he thought himself, 
happy in the attainment, his Lordship waa 
pleased to make a merry petition to the 
General] as he was taking his leave, — vix., in 
the behalf of a couple ofpigeons, which were 
wont to come to his hana and feed out of it 



constantly — in whoae behalf he desired the 
Generall that he would be pleased to give 
him his protection for them, faring the little 
commana that he should have over his soldiers 
in that behalf. To which the Generall said. 
' I am glad to see yoor Lordship so merry. 
' Oh,* said the Marouesse, * you have given me 
no other cause ; ana, as ha^ as you are, jrou 
shall not go until I have told you a story :— 
There were two men going up Uolbom to be 
hanged ; one of them being very merry and 
jocund, gave offence unto the other, who was as 
sad and dejected, insomuch as that the down- 
cast man said unto the other, 'I wonder, 
brother, that you can be so foolish, considering 
the business that we are going about.* ' Tush,* 
answered the other, 'thou art a fool; thou 
wentest a thieving, and never thought what 
would become of uiee ; wherefore, being on a 
sudden surprised, thou lallest into such a 
shaking fit that I am ashamed to see thee in 
that condition ; whereas I was resolved to be 
hanged before ever I fell to stealing, which is 
the reason, nothing happening strange or un- 
expected, I go so composed unto mv death.'— 
' So,' said the Marquesee, ' I resolved to un- 
dergo whatsoever, even the worst of evils that 
you were able to lay upon me, before ever I 
took up arms for my sovereign ; and therefore 
wonder not that I am so merry.' '* 

From this conference it would appear that 
the Marquess was included on the black list of 
those excepted from hopes of grace and par- 
don. At sill events he was brought up to Lon- 
don, committed to the custody of the Black 
Rod, put upon his trial, and condemned, not- 
withstanding his advanced age-*he being at 
the time in his eighty-fifth year. It seems, 
however, that hopes of mercy had been held 
out to lUm, for only a few hours before hia 
death he observed to Dr. Bay ley, "If to 
seixe upon all my goods, to pull down mv 
house, to sell my estate, and send for such 
a weak body as mine was, so enfeebled 
by disease, in the dead of winter, and 
in the dead winter of my age— be merciful, 
what are they whose mercies are so cruel ! 
Neither do I expect that they should stop at 
all this, for I fear they will persecute me after 
death." Being informed, however, that Paiw 
liament would permit him to be buried in hia 
family vault in n indsor Chapel, be cried out 
with great sprightliness of manner, " Why, 
God bless us aU ! why, then, I shall have a 
better castle when I am dead than they took 
from me whilst I was alive." 

The losses sustained by the Marquess in the 
royal cause were enormous, for hts liberality 
was equal to his gallantry. Of either, many 
instances might be given. Upon one occasion, 
when the kin^ was thanking him for his largo 
loans, he replied, " Sir, I h^ you? word for the 
money, but I never thought I should be so 
soon repayed; for now you have given na 



BfiATS OF OREAT BRITAIN AKD IRELAND. 



79 



thankt, I have all I looked for." At another 
time, the kin^, apprehensive lest the stores of 
the garvison should he consumed by his suite, 
empowered him to exact irom the country 
sucn provisions as were necessary for his 
maintenance and recruit. ** I humbly thank 
your Majesty,'* he said, ''but my castle will 
not stand long if it lean upon the country ; 
I had rather be brought to a morsel of bread, 
than any morsels of bread should be brought 
me to entertain your Majesty." 

Raglan Castle stands upon a gentle emi- 
nence near the village. It is thus auaintly 
described by Churchyard in his *' Wortnines of 
Wales." After having spoken of the castle 
wherein Henry V. was bom : — 

** Not turn from thence, a fiunooB castle fine. 

That Raffland hlght, standfl moted almoit roand ; 
Made of freestone, npright as straight as line. 
Whose workmanship in heautie doth abound. 

The cnrioQs Vnott, wrought all with edged toole, 
The stately tower, that looks ore pond and poole, 
The foontaane trim, that runs both day and night — 
Doth yield in showe a rare and noble sight.'* 

When Raglan Castle surrendered to Fairfax 
it was dismantled ; but in addition to the 
injuries it sustained from the Parliamentary 
army, considerable dilapidations have since 
been occasioned by the numerous tenants in 
the vicinity, who have carried away from 
time to time considerable portions of stone, 
as well as other materials, for their own uses. 
No less than twenty-three staircases were 
removed by these spoilers, though this havoc 
has of late years been put an end to by the 
good taste of the ducal owner. 

At a little distance it apnears only as a 
heavy, shapeless mass, half tiid by the inter- 
vening trees; on a nearer approach, it 
assumes a more distinct form, presenting an 
assemblage no less grand tnan beautiful. 
Including the citadel, these magnificent 
remains occupy a tract of ground not less 
than one-third of a mile in circumference. 

The citadel stands to the soutli of the 
castle. It is a detached building, at present 
half demolished, but which was at one time 
a larae hexagon, defended by bastions, sur- 
rounded with a moat, and connected with the 
castle by means of a drawbridge. Its original 
appellation was Melun y Gttent^ or the Yellow 
Tower of Gwent. A stone staircase leads to 
the top of the remaining tower, from which 
is an extensive prospect, bounded by the 
distant hills and mountains in the neighbour- 
hood of Abergavenny. 

The shell of the castle encloses two courts, 
each of which communicated with the terrace 
by means of a gatewav, and a bridge carried 
over the moat. The pile was faced with hewn 
freestone, not much injured by time, and im- 

n'ng a light, elegant appearance to theruins. 
of a whitiSi-erey colour, beautifully 
grained, andaasmoothasif ithad been polished. 
The grand entrance is the most magnificent 



portion of the ruins. It is formed by a Gothic 
portal, flanked by two massive towers; the 
one beautifully tufled with ivy, the other so 
entirely covered that not a single stone is 
visible. At a short distance, upon the right, 
appears a third tower, lower in height, almost 
wnolly free of ivy, and, with its machicolated 
summit, presenting a highly picturesque ap- 
pearance. The porch, which still retains the 
grooves for two portcullises, leads into the first 
court, once paved, but now covered with turf, 
and sprinkled with shrubs. The eastern and 
northern sides contained a range of culinary 
offices, of which the kitchen is remarkable for 
the size of its fireplace; the southern side 
appears to have formed a grand suite of 
apartments, and the great bow-window of 
the hall, at the south-western extremity of 
the court, is finely canopied with ivy. The 
stately haJl, which divides the two courts, and 
seems to have been built in the days of 
Queen Elizabeth, retains the vestiges of 
ancient hospitality and splendour ; the ceiling 
has fallen down, but tne walls still remain. 
It is sixty feet long, twenty-seven broad, and 
was the great banqueting-room of the castle. 
At the extremity are placed the arms of the 
first Marquess of Worcester, sculptured in 
stone, and surrounded with the garter ; under- 
neath is the family motto, which fully marks 
the character of him who so gallantly de- 
fended his stronghold against Fairfax — 
*'Mutare, vel timere, spemo" (I scorn to 
change or fear). The fireplace is remarkable 
for its size, and the peculiar construction of 
its chimney. This hall is occasionally used as 
a fives' court. 

To the north of the hall are ranges of offices, 
which appear to have been butteries ; beyond 
are the traces of splendid apartments. In the 
walls above I observed two chimney-pieces in 
high preservation, neatly omamentea with a 
light frieze and cornice ; the stone frames of 
the windows are likewise in manv parts, par- 
ticularly in the south front, dlstinguishea by 
mouldings and other ornaments. 

The western door of the hall led into the 
chapel, which is now dilapidated; but its 
situation is marked by some of the flving 
columns, rising from grotesque heads, which 
supported the roof. At the upper end are two 
rude, whole-length figures in stone, several 
yards above the ground, discovered by Mr. 
Heath under the thick clusters of ivy. Be- 
yond the foundations of the chapel is the area 
of the second court, skirted by a range of 
buildings, which at the time of the siese 
formed the barracks of the garrison. Not tne 
least vestiges remain of the marble fountain 
which once occupied the centre of the area, 
and was ornamented with the statue of a white 
horse. 

Most of the apartments of this splendid 
edifice were of great dimensions, and the com- 
munications easy and convenient. The 



80 



BEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



Strength of the walU U itill to great that if the 
parts yet standing were roofed and floored, it 
might even now oe formed into a magnificent 
moaem dwelling. 

Raglan is more than most of the castles in 
Monmouthshire. If any parts of the old cas- 
tellated mansion, which existed in the time of 
Sir John Morley or his predecessors, still re- 
main in the present structure, they have heen 
so much altered and adapted to the subsequent 
improvements as not to be easily discriminated. 
The earliest style perceivable in the building 
is not anterior to the reign of Henry V., 
and the more modem as late as the tune of 
Charles I. ; the fashion of the arches, doors, 
and windows, and the style of the ornaments, 
are progressively of the intermediate ages. 
We may therefore ascribe its construction 
principally to Sir William ap Thomas and his 
son, the Larl of Pembroke. Parts were since 
added by the £arls of Worcester ; the citadel 
and outworks probably originated with the 
gallant marquess who last resided here. 

The great extent of the castle, with the size 
of its cellars and offices, gives proof of a 
baronial magnificence scarcely conceivable in 
the present day. In the account of Raglan 
CasUe by Heath, already alluded to, is a 
minute account of his household and re- 
tainers — more resembling the palace of a 
sovereign than the mansion of a subject For 
a considerable time he maintained a garrison 
of eight hundred men ; and on the surrender 
of the castle, besides his own family and 
friends, the officers alone were no less than 
four colonels, eighty-two captains, sixteen 
lieutenants, six comets, four ensigns, and four 
Quartermasters. In addition to these were 
iifty-two esquires and gentlemen. 

The demesnes of the castle correspondpe 
with all this splendour. Besides the gardens 
and pleasure-grounds adjoining the house, 
the farms were numerous and well-conditioned. 
The meadows around Landenny were appro- 

{»riated to the dairy; an extensive tract of 
and, clothed with beech and oak, formed the 
home-park, while the red-deer park stretched 
beyona Llandeilo Cresseney. 

From 'this ancestral Castle, so rich in 
chivalric associations, the gallant Lord Fitxroy 
Somerset has chosen the title, by which he 
will hereafter be recorded in History as the 
Commander of the British forces in Turkey. 

HAXEFISLD FIAOS, in the co. of Middle- 
sex, three miles from Uxbridge and eighteen 
from London ; tbe seat of Charles Newdigate 
Newdegate, Esq., Member of Parliament for 
Warwickshire. 

It is remarkable, as Lysons observes, that 
the manor of Harefield, with the exception of 
a temporary alienation, has descended by 
inleraiarriages and a regular succession, in 
the families of Backe worth, Swanland, and 
Newdegate, from the year 1284, when, by 
verdict of a jury, it appeared that Roger de 



Backeworth and his ancestors had then held 
it from time immemorial. The same writer 
adds, that it u the only instance in which he 
had traced such remote possession in the 
county of Middlesex. The alienation above 
alluded to occurred in 1585, when John 
Newdegate, Esq., exchanged the manor of 
Harefield for that of Arbury, in Warwick- 
shire, then possessed by Sir Edmund Ander- 
son, Lord Chief-Justice of the Common Pleas. 
In 1601, Sir Edmund conveyed this estate to 
Sir Thomas Egerton, Lord Keeper of the 
Great Seal, his wife Alice, Countess Dowager, 
and to her three daughters, the Ladies Anne, 
Frances, and Elizabeth Stanlev. 

The mansion-house, which is situated near 
the church, was the ancient residence of the 
' lords of the manor, and Norden tells us that 
" Harefield Place was a fair house, standing 
on the edge of the hill ; the river Colne pus* 
ing near the same, through the pleasant 
meadows and sweet pastures, jrielding both 
delight and profit." Here it was that, in 1602, 
the Lord Keeper Egerton and the Countess 
Dowager of Derby were honoured by a visit 
from Queen Elisabeth, in one of her usual 
progresses; and it says not a little for her 
patience that she could endure the entertain* 
ments provided for her. On this occasion it 
happened to rain, and sitting on horseback, 
under a tree for shelter, she had to listen to a 
long dialogue between " twopersons-^heone 
representing a bayliffe, the other a dayrie- 
maide, who met her in the demesne grounds 
of Harefielde, near the Dayrie Howse.*' 
Then came '*The humble Petition of a guilt- 
lesse Lady, delivered in writing upon Mundaj 
Mominge, to the Q. by the La. WaUngham :*' 

" Beaatie** rose sad Vertae*i booke, 
AngvU'fl minde snd Anpreira looke. 

To all Saint* and AnscUa deare; 
riaareat Migestie an carta, 
Hearen did nnilc at roor (kire birtb« 

And since, your daies hare bean okm 

** OnlT poor St. Rwvtben now 
Doth neare yon blame hU elood j brow ; 

But the poore Salnte deTontly •wcana, 
It la bot a tradition ralae 
That his moch weepinir caoaeth ralne. 
For Sainta in HeaTen ahedde no teares. 

•* But thia he laith, that to his feast 
Coounrth Iris, an unbidden nest, 

In her moist roabe of oollers gmj ; 
And she oometh, she erer stai«a 
For the spaee of fortie daiea. 

And more or lease raines cf wj day. 



asmnch 



'* But the good fiaint when onoe he knew 
This raine wm like to fUl on m. 

If Saints eould weepe, ite had wept 
As when he did the Lady Icade* 
That did on baming iron tread- 
To Ladies his respect is sndi* 

« Upon this, Nichols obaerres, ** I am not clear ahont 
this leftend. Was it Kt Swithln who, in 1C41, led Qneea 
Emma (wife of Ethelred, the 8axon monarch, and aRrr* 
wards of Canute) oTer bars of buminjr iron T ThisoDuld 
not UferallT be the case, for Bt. Swithln di«d in the 
middle of (he ninth century, and Emma In the middle 
of the elerenth ; but as she b tnid to have spent the 
niff ht prcrioos to the ordeal In prayers at the tomb of SI. 
Swithln, what the saint was, I suppose, beUered to do 
by invisible ayrary, the poet feiirn* hiin to haw done 
personally, leading "tbe lady that did en bnnUn« toon 
trcwt.'* 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



81 



<« He senUy first bids Irlii goe 
Unto the Antipodes below. 

But ffbee for that more sullen grew : 
"When he i»nw that, with angry looke. 
From her her rayneie ronbeiv he tooke, 
Which heere he doth present to yoa. 

'* It is fltt it should with you remaine, 
For you know better how to raine ; 

Vet if it rains still as before 
St. Swithin praies thai tou would guesse 
That Iris doth more roabes poesesse. 

And that yoa should blame him no more." 

It should not be forgotten that at the time 
of these verses this " beautie's rose** was only 
in her sixtv-ninth year. 

From the family of Stanley, Harefield 
paned to George Pitt, Esq., of Stratfield 
Say, in Hampshire, by marriage; but he 
convened, by bargain and sale, the manors of 
Harefield and Marshall to Sir Richard New- 
digate, Bart., Sergeant^at-Law, in whose de- 
scendants the estate remained vested till 
1760, when the late Sir Roger Newdigate, 
Bart., having fixed his residence in Warwick- 
shire, sold ilarefield Place (retaining the 
manor and his other estates in the parish) to 
John Truesdale, Esq., whose executors, in 
1780, sold it to William Baines, Esq., from 
whom, or his representatives, it paiwed by 

Purchase to the widow of the late Charles 
^arker, Esq., and is now the property of her 
•on, Charles Newdigate Newdegate, Esq., to 
whom the late Sir Roger Newdigate be- 
queathed his Middlesex estates, and also the 
reversion of his Warwickshire estate. 

Lysons says that Harefield Place was burnt 
down about the year 1660. The fire is tra- 
ditionally attributed to the carelessness of Sir 
Charles Sedley, much celebrated for wit in 
his day, though the writings he has left us 
show much less of that quality than of mere 
licentiousness. The story runs that this acci- 
dent originated from his reading while in 
bed. 

Harefield Lodge, the present dwelling of 
the owner of the estate, and which has super- 
seded the older mansion, stands near the 
southern extremity of the parish of Harefield, 
at a short distance from Uxbridge. It is a 
handsome modem villa of brick, chiefly built 
by Sir Roger Newdigate, and occupies an ele- 
vated site, commanmng extensive views over 
the surrounding country. The most promi- 
nent objects are Windsor CasUe and its at- 
tached forest. 

HDroUF, in the co. of Worcester, and 
near the provincial capital of that name, the 
seat of V^iscount Southwell. 

This place is variously written, Hindelep^ 
Ifmiiv, Hcndlip, and Henlip. It takes this 
appellation from the Saxon, and signifies 
** talius cervarum,** that is to say, The ilindt* 
Leap. 

In the reign of Henry IV., Hindlip was 
held by a family of the name ofSolley. After 



the death of Thomas Solley, without heirs of 
his body, it passed to his near cousin, Hum- 
phrey Coningsby, who in the fifth year of 
Elizabeth's reign, sold it to John Habington, 
or Abingdon, cofierer to the queen. His son, 
Thomas, who married Mary, sister of Lord 
Monteagle, succeeded to his father's estate, 
but not to his father's real or affected loyalty, 
for he was a stanch partizan of Mary, Queen 
of Scots, and for his assisting in the attempt to 
release her, he suffered a six years' imprison- 
ment in the Tower. Here, according to the 
old cynic, Anthony k Wood, "he profited 
more in that time in several sorts of learning 
than he had before in all his life." 

But however beneficial this long imprison- 
ment might be as regards his advance in 
learning, it by no means lessened his propen- 
sity to embarking in the dangerous designs 
against the government. Shortly after nis 
retirement to Hindlip, he became involved in 
the Gunpowder Plot, and was condemned to 
die for naving concealed Garnet and Old- 
corn. Luckily for him, his wife, anxious to 
save the life of her brother. Lord Monteagle, 
wrote the well-known letter to him that led to 
the discovery. By her intercession, joined to 
that of Lord Monteagle, he escaped the axe, 
Nash, in his county historV} has given, from a 
manuscript in the Harleian Librarv, a very 
curious and interesting account of the search 
made at Hindlip after the conspirators : — 

" A true discovery of the service performed 
at Henlip, the house of Mr. Thomas Abing- 
don, for the apprehension of Mr. Henry Gar- 
net, alias Wolley, provincial of the Jesuits, 
and other dangerous persons, there found in 
January last, 1605. 

*' After the king's royal promise of bountiful 
reward to such as would apprehend the 
traitors concerned in the powder conspiracy, 
and much expectation ot subject-like duty, 
but no return made thereof in so important a 
matter, a warrant was directed to the right 
worthy and worshipful knight. Sir Henry 
Bromlie; and the proclamation delivered 
therewith, describing the features and shapes 
of the men, for the better discovering them. 
He, not neglecting so a weighty a business, 
horsing himself with a seemly troop of his 
own attendants, and calling to his assistance 
80 many as in discretion was thought meet, 
having likewise in his company Sir Edward 
Bromley, on Monday, Jan. 20 last, by break 
of day, did engirt and round beat the house of 
Mayster Thomas Abbingdon, at Henlip, near 
Worcester. Mr. Abbingdon, not being then 
at home, but ridden abroad about some occa- 
sions best known to himself; the house being 
goodlie, and of great receipt, it required the 
more diligent labour and pains in the search- 
ing. It appeared there was no want; and 
Mr. Abbingdon himself coming home that 
night, the commission and proclamation being 



82 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



showii unto him, he denied any such men to 
be in his home, and Toluntarily to die at hit 
own gate, if any such were to be found in his 
house, or in that shire. But this liberal, or 
rather rash speech could not cause the search 
so slightly to be given over; the cause en- 
forcea more respect than words of that or any 
such like nature ; and proceeding on, according 
to the trust reposed in him, in the gallery over 
the gate there were found two cunning and verv 
artificial conveyances in the main brick-wall, 
so ingeniously n-amed, and with such art, as it 
cost much labour ere they could be found. 
Three other secret places, contrived by no 
less skill and industry, were found in and 
about the chimneys, in one whereof two of the 
traitors were close concealed. These chimney- 
conveyances being so strangely formed, having 
the entrances into them so curiously covered 
over with brick, mortared and made fast to 
planks of wood, and coloured black, like the 
other parts of the chimney, that very diligent 
inquisition might well have passed by, without 
throwing the least suspicion upon such unsus- 
picious places. And whereas divers funnels 
are usually made to chimneys according as 
they are combined tcK^ether, and serve for 
necessary use in several rooms, so here were 
some that exceeded common expectation, 
seeming outwardly fit for carrymg forth 
smoke ; but being further examined and seen 
into, their service was to no such purpose, 
but only to lend air and light downward into 
the concealments, where such as were con- 
cealed in them, at any time should be hidden. 
Eleven secret corners and conveyances were 
found in the said house, all of them having 
books, massing stuff, and popish trumperv in 
them, only two excepted, which appeared to 
have been found on former searches, and 
therefore had now the less credit given to 
them ; but Mayster Abbingdon would take 
no knowledge of anv of these places, nor that 
the books, or massing stuff, were anv of his, 
until at length the deeds of his lands being 
found in one of them, whose custody doubt- 
less he would not commit to any place of 
neglect, or where he should have no intelli- 
gence of them, whereto he could then devise 
any sufficient excuse. Three days had been 
wholly spent, and no man found there all 
this while ; but unon the fourth day, in the 
morning, from behind the wainscot in the 
galleries, came forth two men of their own 
voluntary accord, as being able no longer 
able there to conceal themselves; for they 
confessed that they had but one apple between 
them, which was all the sustenance they had 
received during the time that they were thus 
hidden. One of them was named Owen, 
who afterwards murdered himself in the 
Tower; and the other Chambers; but they 
would take no other knowledge of any other 
men*s being in the house. On the eighth 



day the before-mentioned place in the chimney 
was found, according as they had all been at 
several times, one after another, though 
before set down together, for expressing the 
just number of them. 

''Forth of this secret and most cunning 
conveyance came Henry Garnet, the Jesuit, 
sought for, and another with him, named 
Hall ; marmalade and other sweetmeats were 
found there lying by them ; but their better 
maintenance had been by a quill or reed, 
through a little hole in the chimney that 
backed another chimney into the gentle- 
woman's chamber; and bv that passage 
cawdles, broths, and warm drinks had been 
conveyed in unto them. 

'* In ow in regard the place was so dote 

did much annoy them 

that made entrance in upon them, to whom 
they confessed that thev nad not been able to 
hold out one whole dav longer, but either 
they must have squeeled, or perished in the 
place. The whole service endured the space 
of eleven nights and twelve days, and no 
more persons oeing there found, in company 
with Mayster Abbingdon himself. Garnet, llili, 
Owen, and Chambers, were brought up to 
London to understand further of his high- 
ness *s pleasure." 

Though, as we have already seen, con- 
demned to death in the first instance, Abing- 
don had the good fortune to escape with no 
worse punishment than that of confining him- 
self during life to Worcestershire, a prison 
of very tolerable limit It moreover was 
attended with this advantage — it led to his 
collecting the materials for a history of the 
county, and these have served as a ground- 
work for Nash's compilation. 

Hindlip passed from the Abingdons to Sir 
William Compton, whose family terminated 
in a daughter, Jane, who married John 
Berkeley, Esq., (younger brother to Robert 
Berkeley of Spetchley), and was mother of 
Jane, Viscountess Southwell, who died 26th 
Oct., 1853. 

The mansion-house is supposed to have 
been erected by John Abingaon, cofferer to 
Queen Elizabeth, and is in the style of archi- 
tecture peculiar to that period. Within it is a 
complete chateau of romance, with towers, 
turrets, dark closets, and winding passages. 
There is scarcely a room without some myste- 
rious mode of access, the walls being per- 
forated with staircases and secret hiding- 
places lurking behind the chimneys ; or, as 
Gray so aptly describes a building of this 

•* To rate the edUmr*! fretted hsi^bt, 
Eaeh panel in arhievrmriitB clothiaf , 
Bleb window* that exclude Ukc hirtit. 
And paMSfM U»t lead to noHhinf .** 

TKAUX CJUnC^ in the co. of Kerry, and 



BEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



83 



Droyince of Munster, about fifty-eight miles 
from Cork, the seat of Sir Edward Denny, Bart. 

The name of this place was anciently 
written Traleigh, that is to say, the itrand of 
the Leigh, a name derived from the neigh- 
bouring town, which itself was so caUed 
because of its position near the point at 
which the river Leigh empties itself mto the 
broad sandy bay of Tralee. 

At one time Tralee Castle belonged to the 
Earl of Desmond, upon whose forfeiture and 
death it was granted to Sir Edward Denny. 
At the breaking out of the war in 1641, all 
the English families in and about Tralee took 
shelter in the castle, where Sir Edward had 
assembled all his tenants, with a view to its 
defence. Other duties, however, calling him 
away, he left the garrison under the command 
of Sir Thomas Harris, who for six months 
kept the besiegers at bay. At the end of that 
time, the governor being killed, and the brave 
defenders worn out by fatigue and hunger, 
the castle was surrendered. 

The ancient family of Denny occupies a 
distinguished place in historic records. John 
Denny is noted as havine been a gallant war- 
rior, slain in the French wars of Henry V. 
Sir Anthony Denny, Bart., was Groom of the 
Stole in 151 8, and a member of the Privy Coun- 
cil to Henry VIIL, with whom he appears to 
have been an especial favourite. When the 
king was at the point of death, he was the 
only one of the courtiers who dared to inform 
him of his real condition, and received, as the 
reward of his frank loyalty, the present of a 
magnificent pair of gloves, worked in pearls. 
Others of this house have been scarcely 
less eminent in the service of the state, 
some holding civil and others military rank 
and office. 

GOHFIKLD HALL, in the co. of Essex. 

Soon after the Norman Conquest, we find 
this estate possessed by Robert de Clare, Earl 
of Gloucester, from which family it was 
alienated to the Veres, Earls of Oxford, and 
held of them by Adam de Gosfield. In the 
reigns of Edward I. and II., when the York- 
ists preponderated, it passed into the hands of 
John Bellowes, Chevalier, and for a long time 
the lordship took its name from him. At a 
yet later period it devolved to the Rolfes, and 
from them, by an heiress, to the Wentworths 
of Lodham Hall. The heiress of the last- 
named family brought it in marriage to 
Richard, second son of Lord Ryche, from 
whom it passed to the Lords Grey. At the 
commencement of the eighteenth century, it 
was sold to the Millingtons, and again in a 
short time to John Knight, Esq., who, dying 
in 1735, bequeathed the manor and lordship 
to his wife Anne, second daughter of James 
Craggs, Esq. Three years subsequently the 
widow married Robert Nugent, Esq., after- 



wards Earl Nugent, from whom, in 1788, this 
estate devolvea to his son-in-law, George, 
Marquess of Buckingham, and eventusdly 
passed into other hands. 

This structure, in its original form, was a 
large brick pile, enclosing a quadrangular 
court, into which all the windows of the 
ground-floor opened, while those of the upper 
stories were strongly barricaded. At one time 
the only internal communication was from one 
room to another. Altogether it presents an 
interesting example of the domestic architec- 
ture that prevailed in the residences of the 
nobility during the reign of Henry VII., who 
strictly enforced the ancient prerogative of 
the crown, in prohibiting his subjects firom 
erecting castles, though it had been com- 
pounded for by Stephen. The nobles thus 
m some measure evaded the law, giving to 
their houses the strength, if they dared not give 
them the form, of castles. 

The west side of the quadrangle remains 
nearly in its pristine state ; the communica- 
tion being, not by a common passage, but 
from one room to another, such as formerly 
was the case through the entire building. 
The north, east, and west fronts were buut 
at the beginning of the last century; but 
since that time various alterations were 
made by Lord Nugent, and afterwards by the 
Duke of Buckingham, who added several 
rooms and passages to the south and east sides. 

The park attached to this mansion is exten- 
sive, and contains many fine old trees of dif- 
ferent kinds. It is farther ornamented by a 
beautiful sheet of water, which was increased 
to the extent of one hundred and two acres, 
by the late Earl Nugent 

TBEFUSIB HOTTSE, in the co. of Cornwall, 
the seat of Lord Clinton. 

The family of Trefusis, who derived their 
name from this manor, was seated here at the 
time of the Norman Conquest, and their de- 
scendants have retained possession of it in 
uninterrupted succession to the present day. 

This house, although of no great antiquitv, 
is, from the general absence of the family, in 
a state of decay, their usual residence being 
at Maxtock, in Warwickshire. The apart- 
ments are numerous as well as commodious ; 
but do not present any peculiar architectural 
features. The situation of the edifice is 
remarkably grand, one, indeed, of the finest in 
this part of the kingdom. 

GLAB£NDOK PABK, Wiltehire, about three 
miles from Salisbury, the seat of Sir Frederick 
H. Hervey Bathurst, Bart. 

This is a convenient modem edifice, sur- 
rounded by extensive pleasure-grounds. The 
woods abound in fine trees, and near one 
extremity is a lake of considerable size, from 
which issues a small river. 



84 



SBAT8 OF OBEAT BBITAIll AND IBELAMD. 



The celebrated Edward Hyde derived hia 
title of Lord Clarendon from thia domain. 
About a mile from the house are the ruini of 
the ancient palace of Clarendon, which must 
have been built before the time of Henr)* II., 
and was succeKBively the abode of several 
English monarchs* Nothing now remains 
but ruined walls and heaps of rubbbh, to 
mark what was once the seat of so much 
glory. 

In connection with this spot, a strange story is 
told by Sir Thomas Elyot in his ** Bibliotheca." 
" About thirty years past, I myself beynge 
with my father, Syr Kycharde Elvot, at a 
monastery e of regular chanons, called ' Ivy 
Churche,' at the west angle of the church, 
two miles from the city of Sarybyri, behelde 
the bones of a dead man, founde depe in the 
ground where they digged stone ; which 
beynge joined to^fther wan in length 14 feet 
10 incheH ; whereof one of the teethe my father 
had, which was of the quantitie of a great 
walnut. This have I written because some 
men will believe nothing that is out of the 
Gompasse of their owne knowlege. And yet 
some of them prc^ume to have knowlege 
above any other, contemnyng all men but 
themselves and such as they favour." This 
Sir Thomas Elyot died in 1514. 

GALLTOHICOS, Scotland, in the parish of 
Lochgilphead, Argyllshire, the seat of Neill 
Malcolm, Esq., of Pol tal loch, who represented 
Boston in the Parliaments of 1825 and 1830. 

This mansion, which is built of Kenmure 
•tone, was erected by Neill Malconi, Esq., of 
Poltallocb, from the de^dgns of Mr. Bum. 
It is in the style of architecture peculiar 
to the reign of James I., and stands upon 
a succession of terraces facing the south, 
about three miles distant from the original 
seat of the Poltalloch fainilv. Within, it is 
exceedingly convenient. The view from it 
extends over the bay of Crinan, the pic- 
turesque range of the Knapdale Hills, and 
the plain through which flows the nver Add, 
or Ad, the principal stream in the pari&h. 

At a little diMance from the house is a 
•mall episcopal church, c()ni])letid in l8o4 by 
the present owner of Calltonnior. It is a 

{iretty specimen of early Tniili-ih arclii lecture, 
lit'hly ornamented, with wuiduws of st^iined 
glass. 

'lYie country around is well wooded ; and 
tlie old house of the Poltalloch family is 
justly ci'lebntted for its exteiiMve and heau- 
tiful views of Loch Craignish, with the islands 
of Scarba, Jura, Mull, &c 

CASDI7F CAfiTLB, South Wali% in the co. 
of GUniorgon, the seat of the Marqueia of 
Bute. 

'I he cattle is said by Sir Edward Mansel, 
to have been built by Kcibirt Fitzhamou, 



after he had driven the Welsh chieilatn, 
Jest3m ap Gwrgan, out of the town of Carditf. 
We are, however, told in the Truman manu- 
script, under Morgan Hen — who began hia 
reign in the early part of the tenth century—- 
that *' Morgan was the first that built the 
castle of Cardiff, and the town, where an old 
town had been built before by Didi Gawr, a 
Roman conqueror, which town had been de- 
stroyed by the Saxons." The Didi Gawr, 
above-mentioned, it conjectured by Mr. 
Edward Williams to have been Aulus Didius. 

Before the final annexation of Wales to 
England, it would seem that Carditf Castle 
was often subjected to attacks from W^elshmen. 
Leland in his ** Collectanea" tells us : ** In the 
year 1404, the fourth of the reign of King 
Henry, Owen Glendwr burnt the southern 
part of Wales, and besieged the town and 
castle of Cardiff. The inhabitants sent to 
the king to supplicate assibtance; but he 
neither came himself nor sent to their relief. 
Owen took the town, and burnt tlie whole 
except one street, in which the friars minors 
resided, which, with the convent, he spared 
on account of the love he bore them. Ho 
afterwards took the castle and destroyed it, 
carrying away a large quantity of treasurr, 
which he found deposited there. When the 
friars minors besought him to return them 
their books and chalices, which they had 
lodged in the castle, he replied, * Wherefore 
did you place your goods in the co^ntle f If you 
had kept them in your convent, they would 
have been safe.* " 

The same author has c^ven us the following 
account of Cardiff Cattle, as it appeared in 
his time: — "The castellc is on the north-west 
side of the town waulle, and is a great thing 
and a strong, but now in sume ruiiie. There 
be 2 gates to entre the cnstelle, when of the 
biggest is cauilid Sherehaul gate, the other is 
caullid the Ei^cheker gate. There is by 
Shirluiul gate a great large tour caullid while 
tour, wherein is now the kinge's armory. The 
dungeon tour is large and fair. The 
castelle toward the toun by est and K>uth is 
plain, but is diki'd by north e, and by we^^t it 
IS defended by Taphe river. There be cer- 
tain places in tlie coi^telle limited to every one 
of the 13 peres or kniuhtes that cam with 
Haymo, Erie of Gloce^ter in King William 
Conqueror's dayes and wan (ilanutrgan 
counterv : and eche of these he bound to the 
castelle garde." 

The castle, althoiiifh part of it ban ^one to 
niin, still retains much of its ori^'inal gran- 
deur. The weitem fiont, with its b<»id oc* 
tagonal tower pre<(4*nts a reniarkahly fine 
appearance from the n»ad in app'K u ! .nu the 
town on that Me, The fid uulnUtture has 
here bc»cn nrvervcil, ami cartnH l'..ik the 
fancy of tne iin.'L' n«»tive ^p^ c'ntiir to the 
feuu.il tiiiie<i. Some Wtim ago tl.i iuUriur uf 



8EAT3 OF GREAT BBTTAIN AND IRELAND. 



85 



this part was repaired and modernized with a 
▼iew to its being made the residence of Lord 
Moimstuart ; but his accidental deatli put an 
end to the improvements ere their completion. 
During these proceedings the original win- 
dows m the eastern front were destroyed, and 
large sash windows substituted m their place 
— a change much more conducive to internal 
comfort than to the external beauty of the 
edifice. 

Within the castle enclosure, upon an ele- 
vated circular mound, stand the ruins of the 
keep, commanding extensive views of the 
adjacent country. The ditch that formerly 
surrounded this building has been filled up, 
and the ground converted into a level lawn, 
in singular but not unpleasing contrast to the 
ruins. The lampart within the external wall 
of this enclosure has been planted with shrubs, 
and on the top a terrace-walk extends the 
whole length. Adjoining the gate by which 
the court is entered from the town, are the 
ruins of what is called the Black Tower, 
assigned by tradition as the prison of the un- 
fortunate Robert Curtoise, Duke of Nor- 
mandy, the son of William the Conqueror, 
who was confined by his brother, William II. 
He died here in 1133, after an imprisonment 
of thirty-six years. 

The only historical event connected with 
this place, subsequently to the union of Wales 
and £ngland in the reign of Henry VIII., is 
the siege it sustained in the time oi the Great 
Civil War. It was garrisoned for Charles, 
but was betrayed into the hands of Cromwell 
by one of the Royalists, who is said to have 
conducted his troops into the castle through a 
subterraneous passage which communicated 
with the country. This tale, however, has 
been disputed, and apparently with good 
reason. 

ABD&OSS CASTLE, Scotland, Ross-shire, the 
seat of Alexander Matheson, Esq., Member 
of Parliament for the Inverness district of 
Burghs. 

In former times this property belonged to 
the Maekenzies of Ardross, by whom it was 
■old in 1832 to the late Duchess-Countess of 
Sutherland. In 1845 it was purchased by 
Mr. Matheson of the Duke of butheriand« 

Ardross Castle stands upon the banks of 
the wild and romantic river Alness, which 
divides the parish of Rosskeen from the neigh- 
bouring parish. It was built in the years 1 848 
and 18o2 by the present proprietor, Alex- 
ander Matheson, upon the site of a yet 
older edifice, which he caused to be pulled 
down. It is in the Scotch style of architec- 
ture that prevailed during the sixteenth cen- 
tury, a style which, though hardly acknow- 
ledged by the architect, is by no means desti- 
tute of picturesque effect. In fact it is a 
mixture of the old French and castellated 



fashions, with turrets, pepper-boxes, and other 
similar adornments, the impression of the 
whole being heightened by the amphitheatre 
of lofty mountains that surround it. 

Mr. Matheson is also the proprietor of the 
estate of Lochalsh in the same shire, the 
ancient patrimony of the chiefs of Matheson, 
from whom he is descended. This edifice 
takes its name from the loch so called, a por- 
tion of an inlet, or arm of the sea, which 
divides the western end of Glensheil from the 
parish of the same appellation. 

tfOBVAL H0U8S, in the co. of Cornwall, in 
the hundred and deanery of West, about two 
miles and a half from the post town of 
Looe, and nearly five and a half from Lis- 
keard ; the seat of John Duller, Esq., a Magis- 
trate and Deputy Lieutenant for the county. 
This gentleman formerly represented W^est 
Looe in Parliament, and was High Sheiiff of 
Cornwall in 1835. 

The manor of Morval was for many genera- 
tions the property and residence of the Glynns. 
A singular tale is related in connection with this 
family, exhibiting a state of barbarism and law- 
lessness that we could hardly have supposed to 
have existence in England at the latter end 
of the fifteenth century. It is thus given in 
Gilbert's Histoiy of Cornwall : — " In the year 
1471, John Glynn, Esq., was barbarously 
murdered at Iligher-Wnngworthy, in this 
parish, by several ruffians employed by 
Thomas Clemens, whom he had superseded 
in the office of under-steward of the duchy. In 
the preceding year he had been assaulted and 
grievously wounded in the face by tlie re- 
tainers of Clemens, as he was holding the 
king's court at Liskeard ; and thrown into Lis- 
keard prison, where he signed a compulsory 
obligation not to prosecute. Some montlis 
preceding the murder, the retainers of 
Clemens went to Morval, and plundered the 
house and premises of goods and chattels to 
the value of £200 and upwards, as then esti- 
mated. All this appears from the petition of 
Jane Glynn, the widow, to Parliament, which 
sets forth that she could have no redress for 
their horrible outrages in the county of Corn- 
wall, by reason of the general dread of the 
malice of Clemens and his lawless gang ; she 
prayed, therefore, that her appeal might be 
tried in London by a Cornish jury ; and that 
in default of Clemens appearing to take his 
trial, he might be dealt with as convicted, and 
attainted. Her petition was granted." 

In the widow's petition, tlie details of the 
murder are given with frightful minuteness. 
'' The said Thomas Flete, &c., &c., then and 
there, at four of the clock in the moniyng, 
hym felonsly and horribly slewe and murdred 
and clove his head in four parties, and gave 
hym ten dede woondcs in his body ; and when 
ho was dede, they kutt of oonof hislegges, and 



86 



SEATS OP GREAT BRITAIN AKD IRELAND. 



oone of his armes, and hii hede from his body, 
to make hym sure ; and over that, then and 
there his purs and £22 of money numbered, a 
signet of golde, a grete signet of sylver in the 
same purs contevned, a double cloke of muster 
deviles, a sword and a dagger to the value of 
C marks, of the goodes and catels of the said 
John Glyn, felonsly from hym they robbed, 
take, and bare awey." 

In the reign of Henry VIII. this manor 
passed, with one of the coheiresses of Glynn, 
to the Coodes ; and with the heiress of Coode 
to a younger branch of the Bullers, a family 

farticularly distinguished in the person of Sir 
rancis Buller, one of the Justices of the King's 
Bench, and afterwards of the Common Pleas. 
The house of Morval appears from its in- 
terior to be of high antiquity, while its exterior 
is somewhat plain and massive. The staircase 
is remarkably heavy, and hung with portraits 
that, from their early date, seem in aamirable 
keeping with all around them. In the library 
and other apartments are several good portraits 
of the Buller family. 

The site of this douse has been exceedingly 
well chosen, the scenery around it being, per- 
haps, as picturesque and interesting as any to 
be found m England. It stands at the head 
of an extensive lawn, dotted with large trees, 
through which is carried a coast-roaSl, after- 
wards continued through shady glens that 
border on an estuary of the Looe ; whence 
the eye catches a pleasing glimpse across the 
water, and the beautifully-wooded srounds of 
Trenant Park. But perhaps the nnest part 
of the landscape is at Tregarland Briage; 
there the solituae of the calm stream, the ver- 
dure of the banks, the rapid ascent of the 
mountain-woods, mingled with dark and 
lowering masses of rock, altogether form a 
delightral picture to the tourist. 

SHAW HILL, Lancashire, about two miles 
from Chorley, in the parish of Leyland, the 
seat of Thomas Brient Crosse, Esq., who 
served the office of High Sheriff of Lanca^ 
shire in 1837, and is a Magistrate and Deputy 
Lieutenant of the county. 

This estate was for many yean possessed by 
the ancient family of Crosse, till Richard 
Crosse, Esq., having succeeded to it in 1802, 
settled his paternal lands in Lancashire upon 
Anne Mary, the youngest of his daughters, in 
remainder, after the death of his second son, 
Richard Townley CnMse. In 1828, this lady 
married Thomas Bright Ikin, Esq., who in 
consequence assumed, under the royal sign 
manual, the surname and arms of Crosse. 

The house is a large and handsome mansion 
that was existing in the seventeenth century. 
Several improvements, however, were made 
in the year 1807; and since that time it has 
again undergone many important alterations, 
which have converted an iminteretling pile, 



with little or no ornament, into a handsome 
specimen of Roman architecture, with 
cornices, architraves, trusses, and other like 
embellishments. The colonnade, which is of 
the Doric order, extends to sixty feet in length, 
running along the whole line of the front, and 
projecting in the centre at the grand entrance. 
The pile is surmounted by a bold and massive 
cornice with blocking. The chief entrance u in 
the north front, the west and south-west 
opening upon lawns and shrubberies. On the 
west front is a terrace between three and four 
hundred feet in length, commanding an ex- 
tensive view across the park. Upon the east 
side are the offices. 

Columns, entablatures, comicea, &c., orna- 
ment the entrance-hall, which is used as a 
billiard-room. Both the library and drawing- 
room are handsome, as well as spacious, the 
latter being rendered light and cheerful by 
the addition of a bow-window that occupies 
the whole of one end. On each of the four 
sides of the staircase, upon the upper land- 
ing, are open arches nchly decorated, and 
round it runs a Corinthian entablature, copied 
from the temple, at Rome, of Jupiter Stator. 
The light is supplied to it by a skylight. By 
the turnpike-road that leads from Cnorley to 
Preston, stands the lodge, a handsome speci- 
men of Greek architecture applied to the 
domestic purposes of modem lite. It con- 
sists of a portico, and two rusticated wings, 
with double pilasters at the angles-— the whole 
being a reduced copy of the Ionic temple on 
the oanks of the Xissus. The site of this 
building is about two miles from Preston. 

The grounds were laid out under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Gilpin, and are well worthy of his 
reputation in such matters. A well-wooded 
extent of country bounds them, whOe still 
farther on are seen the Irish Sea and the 
estuary of the river Ribble. On a fine day, 
and more particularly on a fine sunset^ toe 
landscape is one of surpassing beauty. 

OmnnSSflBUKY HOVBB, in the CO. of Mid- 
dlesex, and parish of Ealing, the seat of 
Baron Rothscnild. 

In the olden records this place it called 
Gonyldesbury or Gunyldsbiuy, the name 
having in aiu probability been derived from 
Gunyld or Gunnilda, niece of King Canute, 
who, it is supposed, resided here till she was 
banished from England in the year 1044. At 
one time the manor belonged to the well- 
known Alice Pierce, or Perrers, who also 
became an exile, when it was seised by the 
crown* 

Gunnersbury was originally built in the 
year 1663 by Seijeant Maynard, from the 
plans and under the superintendence of 
Webbe, a pupil of Inigo Jones. He died 
here in 1690. 

In 1761 Gunnersbury waa purchased for 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



87 



the Princess Amelia, who expended large 
sums upon it, and made it her occasional resi- 
dence till the time of her death, when it was 
sold in compliance with her will. After 
having passed through several hands, it was 
bought by a tradesman as a matter of specu- 
lation. He took down the house and disposed 
of the materials, an event, in this case, per- 
hi^s not much to be regretted. 

A large portion of the estate was subse- 
quently purchased by Alexander Copland, 
Esq., who built a handsome viUa, partly 
on the site of the ancient mansion. It is 
DOW the property of Baron Rothschild ; the 
grounds, which are very fine, comprising 
about ninety acres, surrounded by a brick 
wall, and ornamented with two handsome 
sheets of water. The wood here is not abun- 
dant, but there are a few cedars of Lebanon 
supposed to have been planted by Kent, who 
laid out the gardens shortly after the year 
1740. lliese cedars are in a flourishing 
condition and extremely beautiful. 

KVOWLTOK COUBT, in the co. of Kent, 
about five miles from Sandwich, the seat of 
Admiral D'Aeth. 

This estate belonged at one time to the 
Peytons, descended from the Peytons of Peyton 
Hall in Sufiblk, and before them to the Lang- 
leys, with which family they were connected 
by marriase at an early period. Sir John 
Karborou^ nurchased the property in 1684, 
of the four daughters and coheiresses of Sir 
Thomas Peyton, Bart. The former was an 
admiral, and one of the navy commissioners, 
under Charles II. and James II. His eldest 
son, who succeeded him in the possession of 
Knowlton Court, was created a baronet by 
James II., but both he and his only brother 
James were unfortunately lost with their 
father-in-law, Sir Cloudesfey Shovel, upon the 
rocks of Scilly, in the October of 1797. The 
whole estate then devolved upon their only 
sister and sole heiress, Elizabeth, wife of 
Thomas D'Aeth, Esq., Member of Parliament 
for Sandwich in 1714, who was created a 
baronet by George I. in 1716. Upon the 
decease of Sir Narborough D'Aeth, third 
baronet of that name, the estate came into the 
possession of Captain G. W. Hughes, R.N., 
who took the name and arms of D'Aeth, and 
married Harriet, daughter of Sir Edward 
Knatchbull, Kent. 

The mansion was erected in the reign of 
James I. by Sir Thomas Peyton, who made it 
his principal place of residence. It is built of 
brick, with stone cornices to the windows, 
which, in the remaining parts of the original 
edifice, are divided into separate lights by their 
ancient mullions. There are also some fine 
brick mouldings, and curious clustered chim- 
neys, that have an interesting effect when seen, 
upon approaching the mansion, through the 



trees. Above the entrance, in the centre of 
the front is a cartouche shield, bearing the 
arms of Sir Thomas D'Aeth, Bart., surmounted 
by the coat of Narborough. In the old wing 
is a spacious room, now used as a billiard 
room; the spandrils of the arch in the 
chimney-piece are charged with the arms of 
Peyton, the founder of the house ; and the 
windows still retain some remnant of the 
beautiful stained glass with which they must 
have been formerly filled. 

One wing of the old pile remains in its 
original state ; but the centre and opposite 
wing were idtered and partly rebuilt by Sir 
Thomas D^Aeth in the reign of Queen Anne. 
The park, which includes about two hundred 
acres, is ornamented by many fine trees, par- 
ticularly about the house, though their original 
continuity has been broken. 

TEEGBEEAV HOUSE, in the co. of Corn- 
wall and parish of St. Blazey, the seat of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Carlyon, a Ma^trate for 
the counties of Devon and Cornwall. 

Tregrehan House is a convenient mansion, 
built of brick, and presenting nothing peculiar 
in its style of architecture. It stands at the 
head of a very delightfiil avenue, which opens 
at a handsome lodge, adjoining the road that 
leads firom St. AusteU to Lostwithiel. 



HT7BT8 HAZX, Saxmundham, Suffolk, the 
seat of William Long; Esq. 

Hurts Hall takes its name from the manor 
of Hurts, attached to this property. It haa 
been for many years the residence of the 
family now possessing it, and appears to have 
been a tolerably old mansion, improved and 
modernized by the late Charles Long, Esq., 
who also laid out the groimds. The style of 
architecture is that which is generally, though 
somewhat vaguely, denominated modem ; but 
it is an excellent dwelling) the rooms being 
convenient as well as spacious, and the stair- 
case both liffht and eleeant. It is, moreover, 
pleasantly situated, and has a cheerful aspect. 
Within, are some good family pictures, by Van 
Horst and others, and of the school of Sir 
Peter Lely, so eminent in his own day. 

The grounds have been much improved by 
the present owner, who has also augmented 
the estate. There is some fine timber 
about the park, and the grounds, with 
their gentle undulations, form a pretty object 
as seen from the main road^ which passes 
through them. 

THE DOOK, Ireland, King's County, the 
seat of Francis E. Moony, Esq. 

The name of this place is derived from the 
Danish — Doon, a cave, of which there are 
some remains in the demesne, supposed to 
be of Danish origin. 



88 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIM AND IRELAND. 



It U now imposBible to say at what time 
the Moonys first settled here ; but by letters 
patent of Charles I., dated December 22nd, 
1630, the lands of Doon were ref^ranted to 
Owen O 'Moony, a direct ancestor of the 
present proprietor. The family of Moony — 
in Irish, O'Moonaigh — is said by Keatinp^ and 
others to be descended from Cathaior More, 
brother of Dathy, King of Ireland. 

James Enraght, Esq., of Bnllyclare — who 
was born in 1684, and died in 1752 — married 
Matilda, daughter of Owen Moony, Esq., of 
Doon, by his wife, one of the daughters of 
Coghlan, of Kilcolgan Castle. Their eldest 
son, Francis, assumed the name and arms 
of jVIoony on succeeding to the Doon estates, 
all the sons of the last-named Owen having 
died without issue. This Francis was grand- 
father to the gentleman now in possession of 
the estate. 

The family of Enraghts are also of ancient 
Irish extraction. They possessed considerable 
lands in the counties of Carlow and Kerry, 
and were connected with several of the 
principal families in both counties. 

The more ancient part of the Doon was 
erected in the commencement of the reign of 
Charles II., by a member of the Moony 
family ; the remainder of the edifice was built 
by the father of the present owner. It is in 
the modem style of architecture, and without 
presenting any peculiar features, is sufficiently 
spacious and convenient. 

The demesne consists of between five and 
six hundred acres. It is agreeably varied by 
gentle undidations, and well-wooded, partly 
with ancient timber-trees, and partly witn 
plantations made by the last and present pro- 
prietor. In front of the modem residence 
stands the ruined Castle of Esker, the seat of 
the family in former times, covered with luxu- 
riant ii'y. Upon a rock at CorocoUin are the 
remains of an old mansion, which also was a 
residence of the Moonys ; and in the neigh- 
bourhood are to be traced the foundations of 
a house, inhabited by Major Moony, an 
officer distinguished in the Civil War of 1689. 

A tradition still lingers in connection with 
this family ,highly illustrative of the courage and 
fidelity of retainers in the olden time. About 
two centuries ago there was a determined feud 
between the O' Moonys and the M'Coghlans. 
A servant of the former returning one day 
from Esker Castle — ^then the family abode 
— found himself BO closely pursued by a party 
of the M'Coghlans, that when he reached 
the postem gate, he found it impossible for 
him to enter without the enemy entering with 
him. As brave as he was faithful, he gave 
the alarm, but at the same time cried out to 
the garrison to keep the gates fast, for " it 
was better to lose one than all." The castle 
was thus saved ; but the gallant retainer fell 
into the bands of the enemy, who, in the 



ferocious spirit of those days, put him to a 
cruel death. His last lineal descendant, an 
aged female, left this estate for America only 
a few months since. 

HABDWICK HOUSE, in the co. of Suffolk, 
the seat of the Rev. Sir Thomas Gery Culluni, 
Bart. 

This estate appears to have been given by 
King Stephen to the monks of Biuy, and 
with them it remained till the dissolution of 
monasteries. According to tradition it waa 
the abbot's dairy, while the principal mansion 
upon the grounds was his occasional residence. 
Under letters patent, dated 20th August, in 
the thirty-eightn year of Henry VllL, Hard- 
wick, by the description of all the woods, 
underwoods, lands, and hereditaments, called 
J/erdtryke'U'oodf was granted by the crown to 
Sir Thomas Darcy, afterwards Lord Darcy of 
Chick, in fee for the service of the twentieth 
part of a knight's fee. It next became the 
propertv of Sir Robert Southwell, Master of 
the Rolls, younger brother of Sir Richard 
Southwell, of Wood Rysing, in Norfolk, who 
died, seized of it, 26th of October, in the first 
year of Queen Elizabeth. His grandson. 
Sir Robert Southwell, sold Hard wick in the 
twenty-seventh year of Queen Elizabeth, to 
Thomas Goodrich, of Clifibrd's Inn, London, 
Gentleman. Upon the 15th Febmary, in the 
thirty-first year of Queen Elisabeth, Good- 
rich, probably in consequence of some defect 
in the original patent, surrendered this pro- 
perty to her Majesty, who, on the 4th April 
following, granted it to Richard Branthwaite 
of London, and Roger Bromley of Bagworth 
Park, in the county of Leicester, Escjrs., by 
whom, on the following day, it was recon- 
veyed to Goodrich. 

Thomas Goodrich left this estate by will to 
his wife Margaret, ^* with full power to st'II 
the same at her discretion, to the intent to 
maintain herself, and bring up her children, 
and give them reasonable portions at their 
several ages of one and twenty years, or at 
their days of marriage ; and also that she 
should, at her good will and pleasure, main- 
tain her father and mother, and her brother 
Edward, in all things necessary and con- 
venient during their lives, and that his 
daughter Frances should remain with her 
said father and mother." 

The widow, being vested with these full 
powers, and also appointed sole executrix, 
joined with her trustees in the sale of Uard- 
wick to Thomas Stanton of Burv St. Edmund's, 
mercer. This was in the forty-third year of 
Queen Elizobeth, at which time she hod 
become the wife of John Bull, of Uardwick, 
Gentleman. 

In the year IGIO, Thomas Stanton di^poaed 
of Hard wick to Sir Robert Drury of Hawstead, 
who ** being minded to buUd an almhooae, 



8EATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



89 



for the perpetual habitation and dwelling of 
Hix poor women unmarried,*' he shortly after- 
wards, "enfeoffed Sir Nicholas Bacon and 
other trustees with his propeity, to the intent 
to demise the same for ever to such person as 
should be lord, for the time being, of his 
manor of Hawsted, for a term of years deter- 
minable on such person ceasing, by death or 
otherwise, to be lord of the same manor, re- 
serving a perpetual rent of fifty-two pounds 
to be applied for the benefit of the persons 
dwelling in the said almshouses, and for other 
charitable puiposes." 

Under Su* Robert Drury's feoffinent, Hard- 
wick virtually became a leasehold estate per- 
petually annexed to the manor of Hawsted, 
and the Rev. Sir Thomas Grey Cullimi, Bart, 
as lord of the said manor, — ^which his an- 
cestor, Sir Thomas Cullimi, acquired from the 
representatives of the Drury femilv in 1666, 
— ^is now in possession of Hardwick under a 
lease from tne actual trustees, and has his 
chief mansion here. 

The Sir Thomas Cullum just mentioned, 
the purchaser of Hardwick and Hawsted, was 
a younger son of his family, and belonged to 
the Drapers' Company, From 1643 to 1651 
inclusive, he farmed a portion of the Excise 
duties, and, having accumulated a large foi^ 
tune, became sheriff of the city of London 
in 1646. He was a zealous partisan of the 
Stuarts, and from his being concerned in some 
■leasuree taken by the city in behalf of King 
Charles, the Parliament committed him to the 
Tower, with the Lord Mayor and others, upon 
a charge of high treason. 

At the Restoration he was created a baronet 
by patent, bearing date the 18th Jirne, 1660. 
His services, however, did not exempt him 
from being called to account when commis- 
sioners were appointed for settling the arrears 
of the Excise ; and though a pardon had been 
issued under the Great Seal, he was obliged 
to compound with the commissioners, and 
apparendy to bribe Colonel Birch, for in his 
private accounts for 1663 we find, *' Pd. into 
the Exchequer to buy my peace and Birch, 
^62,200 00s. OOd." 

Hardwick House has undergone consider- 
able alterations and improvements since it 
has been occupied by the presait possessor ; 
yet, in seneral, it retains the same character 
that it first received in 1687. Over the porch 
stand the Drury cognizances, the mullet and 
greyhound, brought from Hawsted Place, 
together with the shield of Sir Dudle}r Cullum, 
bearing the arms of Cullum and Crisp quar- 
terly, impaling Berkeley of Stratton. One of 
the rooms is Imed with wainscot, carved with 
the Stafford knot in gold. Here also maj be 
seen thepainted emblems drawn and described 
by Sir John Cullum in his Hittory of Haw- 
$Ud, and formerly at Hawsted Place. No 
part, however, of the present building is of 



an^ considerable antiquity, except a spacious 
chimney undergroimd. 

A curious custom used to prevail here, 
which is thus related by Sir John Cullum, in 
the appendix to his History and Antiquities 
of Hawsted: — 

** There is no place properer than this, 
where I may mention a custom which I have 
twice seen practised in this garden within a 
few years, namely, that of drawing a child 
through a cleft tree. For this purpose a 
.young ash was each time selected, and split 
longitudinally about five feet ; the fissure was 
kept wide open by my gardener, while the 
friend of the child, having first stripped him 
naked, passed him thrice through it, always 
head foremost. As soon as the operation was 
performed, the wounded tree was bound up 
with packthread, and as the bark healed the 
child was to recover. The first of tiie young 
patients was to be cured of the rickets; the 
second of a rupture. About tiie former I had 
no opportunity of making an inquiry ; but I 
frequendy saw the father of the latter, who 
assured me that his child, without any other 
assistance, gradually mended, and at length 
grew perfectly well. 

Sir Johnmentions some other superstitions, 
which, in his day, stiU lingered about these 
parts. "The appearance," he says, "of de- 
parted spirits is not yet quite discredited. I 
was asked very seriously some years ago by a 
farmer's wife, if I had not seen tJie ghost of a 
lady who died in the apartment which 1 
then inhabited. There are those who would 
not willingly kill a bacon hog in the decrease 
of the moon ; and it is generally reckoned 
lucky to set a hen upon an odd number of 

This last superstition, however, is as old 
as the days of the Roman Varro, who says, 
" In supponendo ova, observant ut smt 
numero imparia.*' The same maxim is laid 
down by PaJladius, when speaking of hens, — 
*' Supponenda sunt his semper ova numero 
impan.*' 

ZHOBFE, or THOBP MUniBVILLB, in the 
CO. of Northampton, the seat of William 
Peareth, Esq. 

In DoomMay book, the village from which 
it takes its name is simply denominated 
Toi7>,that word in Anglo-Saxon being the 
generic term for a village. The additional 
appellation of Mandeville was derived from 
Richard de Amundeville, who, as we shall 
presentiy see, was one of the early possessors 
of this estate. In the cartulary of Daventry 
Priory, it is called Suthnrp, that is to say, 
South Thorpy to distinguish it ftom Thorp, 
near Daventry, where, as weU as here, that 
religious house had possessions. 

Priorto the Norman Conquest, Thorpe was 
the freehold of Osmond the Dane. At the 

N 



90 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



time of Domesdav survey, it was held by 
Ingleram, under (jhilo, brother of Ansculf, 
ancestor of the Pinkeneys. In 1248, temp. 
Henry III., it was in the hands of Henry de 
Pinkeney ; and in the thirty-seventh year of 
the same reign it had passed to Richard de 
Amundeville, whence the estate obtained, by 
a corruption of the original name, the addi- 
tional designation of Mandeville. In the 
eighteenth year of Edward I., Richard de 
Amundeville sold it to Richard de Whitacre, 
having previously bought of Thomas de Capes 
the lands in Tliorpe Mandeville, which he 
inherited from Hugh Russell. Richard de 
Whitacre appears to have demised this manor 
for life to Walter de Langton, Bishop of 
Coventry and Lichfield, upon whose decease 
the estate again returned to the WTiitacres. 
' In the second year of Henry VI. (1423), 
Elizabeth, successively the wife of William 
Frebody and Gerard Waldeyene, died pos- 
sessed of Thorpe Mandeville, which she left 
to her grandson, W^illiam Frebody, Esq. In 
his family it remained till 1531, when it 
passedinto the hands of William Kirton,E8q., 
Alderman of London, by his marriage with 
Anne, daughter of Hugh Frebody, Esq., and 
co-heiress with her sister Alice, married to 
William Gifford, Esq. Mr. Kirton piu^chased 
the reversion of Thorpe Mandeville, after the 
death of Mrs. Alice GifFord, and it continued 
in the Kirton family until 1685, when Edmimd 
Kirton. Esq., sold it to Thomas Gostelowe 
of Wardington, Oxfordshire. His grandson 
disposed of tlie manor and estate in February, 
1723-4, to the trustees under the will of Lucy 
Knightlev, Esq., of Fawsley. In March, 
1742-3, Valentine Knightley, Esq., sold it to 
Richard Jennens, Esq., of Weston by Wedon. 
He died without issue, in 1773, and on the 
partition of his estates, Thorpe Mandeville 
was assigned to his youngest sister and co- 
heiress Anne, wife of William Peareth of 
Wentworth, in Durham, Esq., whose grand- 
son, William Peareth, Esq., is the present 
proprietor. 

The manor-house, supposed to have been 
built in the time of James I., was garrisoned 
by Oliver Cromwell, who was first cousin to 
Mrs. Kirton. Brydges says : " The mounds 
which were thrown up on this occasion are 
still visible behind the manor-house." The 
mounds continue traceable; but the house 
here alluded to, which stood west of the 
church, has been since taken down, and the 
present one is situated east of the church. 

STUDLET PABX, in the West Riding of 
Yorkshire, two miles from Ripon, eight from 
Boroughbridge, and the same distance from 
Ripley, the seat of Earl de Grey. 

This estate at one time belonged to the 
Tempests, who were succeeded by the family 
of Mallory. It next pa.ssed to the Right 



Honourable John Aislabie, Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, by his marriage with Mary, 
daughter of Sir John Mallory, Knight, who 
was distinguished for his loyalty to King 
Charles I. The male line of Aislabie becom- 
ing extinct upon the death of William Ais- 
labie, in 1781, the estate devolved to his 
daughter, Mrs. Allanson, from whom it de- 
scended to her niece, Miss Lawrence. 

The house at Studley is externally encum- 
bered with very litde ornament, and can hardly 
be said to appertain to any particular style of 
architecture. Within, the rooms are both 
spacious and convenient. But the principal 
charm of Studley is to be found in the plea- 
sure-grounds, which have been equally fa- 
voured by art and nature. They are situated 
at a distance of three-quarters of a mile from 
the house, in a valley, through which a small 
brook, called the Skell, flows from Foimtain 
Abbey, at one time gliding quietiyalong, and 
at another falling in cascades. The hills on 
either side are covered with fine woods. Tlie 
park is said to contain about seven hundred 
acres, whDe the pleasure-grounds extend to 
about three hundred, the whole being inter- 
spersed with buildings, statues, &c. In the 
middle of the park, which lies between the house 
and the pleasiu^-grounds, is an obelisk, with 
an opening view of the town and coUegiate 
chiu-ch at Ripon. On the south side, the hills 
are clothed with wood down to the water side; 
on the north, the hiUs are less precipitous, and 
are laid down in lawns, interspersed with fo- 
rest trees. At the western extremity ar6 the 
magnificent ruins of Fountain Abbey. 

QBEAT BRXCXHUL, Buckinghamshire, the 
seat of Philip Dimcombe Paimceford Dun- 
combe, Esq. 

At an early period this manor was in the 
Warwick family ; but it did not remain long 
with them, for, in 1265, Sir John de Grey is 
recorded to be the Lord of Great Brickhill. 
In 1514 it was sold to Sir Charles Somerset, a 
natural son of Henry, Duke of Somerset, who 
was created by Henry VIII. Earl of Wor- 
cester, who died in 1525, having bequeathed 
Great Brickhill to Sir George Somerset, his 
younger son bv a second marriage. In 1527 
Sir George sold his inheritance to William 
Duncombe, Esq., of Ivinghoe-Ayton, with 
whose descendants it has ever since remained. 

In the time of the ffreat Civil War, the Earl 
of Essex, as General of the Parliamentary 
army, was stationed here; and when here the 
military leaders addressed that letter to their 
temporary sovereigns, which, by spurring 
them on to fresh exertions, changed the 
whole face of things. " The effects of this 
letter," says the historian Lipscombe, " were 
so momentous, that even the place in which 
it was written acquired by it a local im 
portance." 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



91 



B08W0BTE ?ABX, Leicestershire, near the 
town of that name, and about twelve miles 
firom Leicester, the seat of Sir Alexander 
Di&ie, Bart 

In 1507, this estate belonged to Henry, 
Earl of Huntingdon, who sold it to Sir Wol- 
Stan Dixie, knight, a citizen and Lord Mayor 
of London. Sir Wolstan appears to have 
been a man of unbounded liberality, one of 
those rare benefactors of the human race 
whose quiet fame is more tnily valuable than 
that of kings and conquerors. Nichols, in 
lus Leicestershire, says of him, " He was a 
friend to his country and mankind, who de- 
serves to be remembered for his exemplary 
character as a magistrate, and his extensive 
charities; and his descendants have more 
reason to boast of having such an ancestor in 
their family, than of the tradition that the 
founder of it was allied to King Egbert ** 

Bosworth Hall is a fine old mansion, 
standing in a park near the entrance into 
Boswor^ from Leicester. The rooms are 
large and lofty. In the hall is a small col- 
lection of armoiuy, pistols, swords, guns, &c., 
arranged in various devices, audit seems more 
than probable that they were not always meant 
for show. Nichols suggests that they were 
*- once employed by the distin^shed ancestors 
of this family in the service of their king in the 
grand rebemon in the seventeenth century." 

In this mansion are also to be seen some 
old portraits, particulai'ly one of the Sir Wol- 
stan above mentioned,with others in regular de- 
scent down to the fourth baronet of that name, 
of whom there is a very fine whole-length. 

BOTOHTOH EOirSB, in the oo. of North- 
ampton, about three miles from Kettering, 
the seat of the 'Duke of Buccleuch. 

Boughton has been occiipied through along 
series of years by the noble family of Mon- 
tagu, descended from the ancient Earls of 
Salisbury. Prior to their time it belonged to 
the Burdens, of whom it was bought in 1528 
by Sir Edward Montagu, Lord Chief Justice 
of the King's Bench, in the reign of Henry 
VIII., and one of the executors to Uie will of 
that monarch. Fuller says of him, "He gave 
for his motto, Equita$ Justitia Norma ; and 
though equity seemeth rather to resent of the 
Chancery than the King's Bench, yet the best 
justice will be wormwood without a mixture 
thereof. In his times, though the golden 
showers of abbey lands rained amongst great 
men, it was long before he would open his lap 
(scrupling the acception of such gifts) ; and 
at last received but little in proportion to 
others of that age. 

'* In the thirty-seventh of King Henry 
VII I. he was made Chief Justice of the Com- 
mon Pleas, a descent in honour, but an as- 
cent in profit ; it being given to old age rar 
ther to be tlirifty than ambitious. 



*' In drawing up the will of King Edward 
VI. and settling the crown on the Lady Jane, 
for a time he swam against the tide and tor- 
rent of Duke Dudley, tUl at last he was car- 
ried away with the stream. Outed of his 
judge's office in the time of Queen Mary, he 
retiuned into Northamptonshire, and what 
contentment he could not find in Westminster 
Hall, his Hospital HaU at Boughton af- 
forded unto him." 

From the Montagus this estate passed to 
Henry Scot, duke of Buccleuch, by his mar- 
riage with Elizabeth, only daughter and 
heiress of the old possessor. 

The present Boughton House, or at least 
so much of it as is still retained, was built by 
Ralph, Duke of Montagu, in imitation of Ver- 
sailles, then recently erected by Louis XIV. 
The greater part, however, was rebuilt by 
John, second Duke of Montagu, with whom, 
in 1749, the title expired. In front of the 
mansion runs a canal, Qearly a mile in length, 
and a noble terrace yet remains to witness for 
the ancient grandeur of this seat. The gardens 
are said to have contained one hundred acres 
and one hundred and thirty perches of land, but 
they appear to have been latterly neglected. 

The house possesses many paintings, and 
some of very superior merit, particularly two 
cartoons by Raphael, one representing Eze- 
kiel's Vision, and the other a Holy Family, 
consisting of eight figures and an angel. 
Here also are a half-length portrait of Ed- 
ward VI. in armour, and one of Thomas 
Wentworth, Earl of Straiford, who was be- 
headed in 1641. 

U8W0BTH EOirSE, in the co. of Durham, 
and parish of Washington, between five and 
six miles south-east of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
the seat of Willam Peareth, Esq. 

The family of Hilton retained this manor 
for many jr^ars, till, in 1750, upon the gene- 
ral dispersion of the property, tne whole was 
disposed of by public auction in eight farms 
or lots. Of these, two farms were purchased 
by William Peareth, of Newcastle, Esq. 

The present mansion was erected shortly 
prior to 1770, by William Peareth, Esq., 
grandfather to the gentleman now possessing 
the estate. It is a large handsome edifice, 
built of polished stone, of regular architecture, 
and in a commanding situation, with an ex- 
tensive pros|)ect to the south and east. A fine 
grove shelters the mansion upon the north 
and west, and the grounds are scattered over 
with lofty flourishing evergreens — ^yew, cy- 
press, and Lusitanian laurel. Here also are 
some remarkably fine beech trees — an avenue 
of them leading to the entrance of the house, 
which is to the north. 

CASTLB OSOVEy Ireland, near Letterkenny. 
the seat of James Grove Wood, Esq. 



92 



BEATS OF GRKAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



This estate has remained in the Grove 
family for more than two hundred years. 
The late proprietor, Thomas Grove, took the 
name of Brooke upon succeeding to the es- 
tates of his maternal uncle, Henry Vaughan 
Brooke, Esq^ for many years member of par- 
liament for Donegal. The present owner in- 
herits this property through his maternal 
grandfather, the late Rev. Charles Grove, 
younger brother of Thomas Grove Brooke, 
which latter died without issue. 

The ancient residence of the Groves was at 
Castle Shannahan; but of this the vaults 
alone now remain. Castle Grove, the pre- 
sent abode of the family, was built about the 
year 1720, by William Grove, the grandson 
of a retired officer of the Indian army. He 
was among the first, with a body of Lough 
Swilly men, in 1689, to march to the relief of 
Deny, then besieged by King James : — 

" First to the town young Forward cune, 
Hit banilfl ft-om Burt proeeedins ; 
And Stewart and Grove, to the field of fame^ 
Lough SwiUy'a heroes leading." 

William Grove dying soon after the siege, 
his widow married the Governor and Com- 
mander-in-chief, Colonel John Mitchelbum, 
grandson of Sir Richard Mitchelbium, of 
Broadheart, in the coimty of Sussex. 

The mansion here, which is a plain build- 
ing, was repaired and modernized, about thirty 
years ago, by the late proprietor. It is beau- 
tifully situated on the northern bank of 
Lough Swilly, about midway between the 
towns of Letterkenny and Kathmelton eir 
Eamelton. 

The grounds, which contain about five 
hundred acres, are tastefully planted and 
highly cultivated. 

GOQEBTEAK, or, as it is often written, 
Gogerddan, South Wales, in the co. of Car- 
digan, and near Aberystwith, the seat of 
Pryse Loveden, Esq. 

This estate belonged at one time to the ce- 
lebrated Welsh bard, Rhydderch ab Jevan 
Llwyd, who lived in the next age after 
Dafyeld ab Gwilym, and was bom here. He 
was brought up at Oxford, with no less credit 
to himself than to the university which fos- 
tered him. Amongst other works, he has left 
a curious ode in EngHsh, from which we may 
gather the pronunciation of oiu* language in 
those days. 

It does not appear how this estate came 
into the family of the Pryses, but they evi- 
dently possessed it from an early period. 
From John Pugh Pryse, who was memoer for 
Cardiganshire, it descended to I>ewis Pryse of 
Woodstock, in Oxfordshire, whose son suc- 
ceeded to it for a short time, after his fathers 
decease. He died unmarried in 1776, when 
the property devolved to his sister, Mai^garet 
Pryse, who married Edward Loveden, Esq., 



of Buscot Park, Berkshire, in which family it 
still remains. 

The mansion of Gogerthan stands in a fo- 
rest of firs, upon elevated ground, and pre- 
sents a very picturesque appearance. In the 
year 1690 some valuable mmes were discovered 
upon this estate, at the very time that those in 
the neighbourhood had begun to fail. Mey- 
rick has left us a very fim and interesting 
account of them, which cannot be better given 
than in his own words: — ^"'The ore was so 
near the surface of the earth that the moss 
and grass did but barely cover it. These 
mines in their time were not exceeded by any 
in the kingdom for riches, and obtained the 
appellation of the Welsh Potosi. 

'' By virtue of the act of parliament passed 
in the first of William and Mary, Sir Carbery, 
in the year 1690, took in several partners, and 
divided his waste into foiv thousand shares, 
and got Mr. Waller, a miner from the north, 
to be his agent, at a salary of two himdi-ed 
poimds per annimo, and began to work mines 
m his own lands. The society of miners 
royal, finding them rich, laid claim to them 
by their patents, the act not being sufiSciently 
clear Lpon this a law-suit ensued in the 
year 1692, between Sir Carbery and Mr. 
Shepherd, on behalf of the company. Sir 
Carbery and his partners, amongst whom 
there were several noblemen, viz., the Duke 
of Leeds, the Marquess of Caermarthen, &c., 
taking advantage of the times, procured in 
the year 1693 [5 William and Mary] a most 
glorious act, which empowered all the sub- 
jects of the crown in Ed gland to enjoy and 
work their own mines in England and Wales, 
notwithstanding they contained gold or silver, 
provided the king, and those that claimed 
under him, may have the ore, paying the pro- 
prietors for it upon the bank witiiin thirty days 
after it is raised, and before it is removed ior 
lead ; lead, nine pounds per ton ; copper, ten 
pounds, &c. On his success. Sir Carbery is 
said to have ridden on horseback fhaving relays 
of horses on the road] from London to Escan^ 
hir within forty-eight hours, so that in so 
short a time tne happy news was spread 
among the inhabitants of that part of Cardi- 
ganshire. 

" The mines were worked by the proprietor 
of the Gogerthan estate dunng his lifetime ; 
but he died without issue, and the mines came 
into the hands of Sir Humphrey Mackworth, 
who purchased Mr. Edwaixl Pryse's interest 
and snare for fifteen thousand pounds, though 
the Gogerthan property still continued in 
possession of a branch of the Pryses.** 

XABW8, South Wales, in the co. of Car- 
digan, the scat of Captain J. A. Lloyd 
Philips. 

This property was for a long series of years 
held by the Lloydes, whose heiress, Anna 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



93 



Marian Uoyde, married, in 1750, James 
IJovd of Foes y Blaiddied, in the parish of 
Lledrod, county of Cardigan. 

The house was erected in the year 1600, by 
Richard Lloyde, Esq., of Ystraateilo, in the 
parish of Lianchysteil, at which time the 
famOy removed from Ystradteilo, where they 
had resided for centuries. It is an English 
manor-house, built of blue stone, and standing 
upon high ground, of large size, and exceed- 
ingly commodious. Up the centre of the 
biulding runs a spacious staircase lined with 
handsome carved oak, the growth of the 
country, and most of the rooms are floored 
with the same material. It looks out on large 
park-like meadows, and is surrounded by 
luxuriant woods. Through the grouncfs 
flows an excellent trout stream of consider- 
able size. About a quarter of a mile up is 
a small but beautiful cascade, that adds not 
a little to the picturesque character of the 
landscape. 

VOSIHLAVD0, in the co. of Gavan, the 
seat of the Very Reverend Samuel Adamsam. 

This mansion was built in the year 1B22, by 
the present proprietor, the estate itself having 
been in the family for the last one hundred 
and fifty years. The house, which is of 
moderate size, is in the plain English style of 
building. In front of the hall-door is a porch 
of cut-stone, such as may still be seen in 
many parts of this country. Above forty 
acres of underwood were planted here in 
1817. 

SCABVAOH, in the co. of Down, the seat 
of John Tem})le Reilly, Esq., a Magistrate 
and Deputy-Lieutenant for Downshire. 

This estate has been for five generations 
possessed by the Reillys. It was first brought 
into the family by Myles O'Reilly of Lurgan, 
who imrchased it of Alderman Hawkins of 
London. 

Tlie house, which was built about the year 
1717, forms three sides of a square, and was 
originally intended for offices, the first design 
being to erect a mansion in front of them, 
but this mtention was never attempted to 
be carried into efiect. As it now appears, 
it is in the old English farm-house style of 
building, exceedingly comfortable and con- 
venient within, although externally with few 
pretensions to architectiutd refinement. The 
whole has been much improved by the pre- 
sent proprietor. 

The groimds are well covered with fine 
old timber of various kinds, and frt)m the 
house is a magnificent view of a lake, backed 
by the woods of Drumbanagher, while the 
Sliebb-Gullion looms out beautifrilly in the 
distance. 

In these groimds the right wing of King 
William's army was at one time encamped. 



and an old oak is still shown as the one under 
which he pitched Ms tent. 

HAMPTOm, in the co. of Kent, and hun- 
dred of Littlefield, the seat of Maximilian 
Dudley Digges Dalison, Esq., a Major in the 
West Kent Slilitia, and a Magistrate as well 
as Deputy lieutenant of the county. 

In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, this place 
was possessed by John Stanley, gent., but 
in after times was conveyed to Maximilian 
Dahmn, Esq., of Hailing, in Kent, by his 
marriage witti Frances, daughter and heiress 
of the previous owner. "This family of 
Dalyson," says Hasted, " is of good account 
for its antiquity in this kingdom. William 
D'Alanzon, the first ancestor recorded of it, 
is said to have landed in this kingdom with 
William the Conqueror, whose direct descen- 
dant in the eighth generation was of Lough- 
ton, in the county of Lincoln, and first wrote 
himself Dalyson." 

The house of Hamptons stands at the ex- 
treme end of the parish, and is accounted to 
be within the hundred and manor of Great 
Hoo, near Rochester. There is nothing par- 
ticularly worthy of note in its architectiu^, 
but the country around is cultivated yet pic- 
turesque. 

XSLTOH 00V8TABLE, in the co. of Nor- 
folk, in the hundred of Holt, about five miles 
and a-half from the town of that name, the 
seat of Ijord Hastings. 

This estate has been possessed by the 
Astieys, in imbroken succession, for some 
centtuies, it havinj? first come into the family 
by the marriage of Thomas, I-K)rd Astiey, with 
Editha, sister and co-heir of Sir Robert Con- 
stable of Melton Constable, Knight. Lord 
Thomas was killed at the battie or Evesham, 
in the reign of Henry III. 

The present mansion was erected by Sir 
Jacob Astiey, in or about the year 1680. It 
is a noble square pile, with four frt)nts, much 
altered horn the original design, particularly 
in the west, or principal front. Many of the 
rooms and ceilings are highly decorated, the 
whole being no less spacious than elegant. 
The site, too, has been exceedingly well 
chosen, for the house stands upon an emi- 
nence, the country rising gradually for some 
miles around, and from die flat leaden roof is 
an extensive prospect to the east, south, and 
west, while on the north the view is bounded 
by the open sea. In the library are many 
valuable books, in addition to a very fine col- 
lection of prints. 

The parK, which is four miles in circum- 
ference, comprises seven hundred acres, 
much improved of late years by plantations 
and other artificial embeUishments, and more 
particularly by a fine expanse of water. In 
the grounds is an aviary, containing many 



104 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



the tops of the latter were circular, hut the 
gahles on the roof of the former were more 
varied The court was protected hy massy 
iron gates, through which you i)assed on a 
flag pavement to a portico on the groimd 
floor. This led to a nail and a large stair- 
case, painted and himg with many excellent 
paintings. The rooms were most of them 
magnificent, with painted ceilings, rich ta- 
pestiT, and nohle pictiu^s. 

" iJeyond, at right angles with the east wing, 
was an admirahle chajiel of a much later date. 
Tlie architecture was Grecian, very light and 
handsome. Within was a rich lining of cedar, 
the altar-piece remarkably fine, and there 
was also an organ in the gallery. At the 
east end of this chapel stood a very large and 
venerable cedar, wJiich is still remaining. 
The gardens, which were fidl of buildings, 
fountains, and leaden images in the shape of 
wild beasts. &c., and all the various api)en- 
dages of old-fashioned grandeur, were formed 
after the plan of the famous Versailles. 

" The park, though not very extensive, was 
formed by natiu« with much variety to please ; 
a deep glen divided the eastern side, down 
which winds a chain of fishpools ; the swells 
on every side were clothed with line timber, 
till the American war caused them to be 
felled. In the other parts, long avenues of 
elms and chesnut trees fill the scene to the 
north-east; Jiepton Skruhn, that glorious 
wood, which still retains its greatness, seemed 
a continuance of the same park, and highly 
ennobled the scenery. A little west of the 
north rises that clianning feature, called 
Brethy Mount, which is an object seen from 
most parts of the coimtry. Such is the mu- 
tilating power of a few years, tliat where one 
before wandered amidst the finest shades, 
trees are now but thinly scattered; and 
where we might then behold a magnificent 
edifice adorned with noble paintings and all 
the richest ornaments of Uie times, now 
scarce a relic is discovered, the materials 
being all sold, and only a small house erected 
for the steward. Tliis imperfect sketch we 
will finish with adding, that this was the 
celebrated scene of the Count de Gnunmont s 
visits to the beautiiid Countess of Chester- 
field, in the time of Charles 11.** 

It is said that the demolition of the house 
above recorded took place in consequence of 
the machinationB of an artful steward, who 
contrived to persuade the late Earl of Chestei^ 
field, then a very young man, that the build- • 
ing was in a dangerous state of decay. The 
deception was afterwards found out, and the 
owner, who was much attached to the spot, 
erected the present noble mansion in its place, 
residing in the steward's house while the work 
was going on. It is a modem castellated 
mansion, in the Gothic style of an*hitecture, 
embattled, mirrounding a large quadrangular 



coiut, and had been for several years in pro- 
gress before the death of the late Earl in I Hi. '^. 
Since that time the building has not iMvn 
continued. It stands on an elevation in tlie 
midst of a beautifid deer-park, eml>ellish(il 
with plantations of chesnut, beech, and other 
ornamental timber, together with a variety of 
pictures<jue scenery imequalled for its extent. 
A small trout-stream rLses in the Pistem hilK. 
and winds its way through a deep glen, sup- 
plying several fish-ponds in its course, llie 
portion of tlie house which is finished, com- 
prises the principal suite of rooms, elegantly 
ntted up in the most approved modem st) hv 
The saloon is circular, and lighted by thre*» 
windows, while the ceiling is divided into 
richly-ornamented compartments. The IkhI- 
rooms are sui)erior to most other hotLses in 
the country, with staircases and passages of 
corresponmng size and magnificence. 

The gardens, situated on the north side of 
the mansion, are extensive and well arrangeil. 
A remarkably fine cedar, probably tlie ohlt^t 
of the kind in the kingdom, grows upon the 
east side of the house. It was ])lanted in 
February, 1676-7, the cedar, according to 
Evelyn, not having been introduced into 
this coimtry in 1664. and it measures thirteen 
feet nine inches in ciroiunference. 

MIBDLBTOH TAXK, the seat of Geor^^e Au- 
gustus Boyd, Esq., D.I^., is situated within 
five miles of Kilbeggan, in the co. of Wfst- 
meath, in the parish of Castletown, distinc- 
tively styled Castletown-Geooheoan. from 
its having been from high antiquity the 
stronghold and seat of the once princely s<'pt 
of Mac Geoghegan, and, as the ]o(>ality is 
throughout all its annals identified with that 
truly native family, their history is its most 
interesting chronicle. 

They claim descent from Fiai^ha, one of tbt> 
sons of Niall of the Nine Hostages, monarch 
of Ireland in the fifth century. O'Dugan. in 
his poem of *' Tojwgraiihical Geneaiogy,** 
gives precedence to Uiis n^ble tril>e. and sa>-M 
their territory extended over KineUFtncht, 
comprising the whole barony of Moycai»h«'l 
(in which lies Castletown), with parts of thoM* 
of Moya.shel, liathconrath, and Fertullagh. in 
Westmeath. Within tliis extensive district 
they possessed and long maintained various 
castles, the chief of which gave name to this 
pari.s)i, and its ruins are noted upon the 
present Ordnance Suney. 

In 1*)2H, William Mac Geoghegan, chief r»f 
Kinel Fiacha, roused into action by encronch- 
ments sought to be made upon hiscoimtry l>y 
the settlers of the Pale, advanced to Mullingnr 
to rei)el tliis aggression, lliere he encount«*r> \\ 
Tliomas le Hotelier (ancestor of the I^mls 
Dimboyne), the English army, with such 
success that 8,500 of his enemy, includint; 
their leader and some of the D'Altona, fell 



fiEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



95 



from that circumstance. There is, however, 
uo sufficient authority for such a helief, though 
it is likely enough to have heen so called from 
some possessor of that name, for Alfred ap- 
pears to have been a favourite appellation 
amongst the Saxons. 

In early days the manor was possessed by a 
family which was called after it DeAlfreton. 
We next find it occupied by the Chaworths, 
with whom it continued till the time of King 
Henry VII. It was then conveyed by the 
marriage of an heir general to John Ormond, 
Ks<|., and from his name and family it passed 
in hke manner to the Babingtons of Dethicke, 
who sold it to the Zouches of Codnor Castle. 
It was subsequently bought by the More- 
woods, with whom the estate continued frt)m 
the early part of the seventeenth century to 
the death of the last of that family ; by him it 
was bequeathed to his widow, who having 
married the Rev. Mr. Case, that gentleman 
assumed the name of Morewood. It passed 
to Mr. Palmer in lB25,and he in like manner 
took the patronymic of the earlier possessors. 

Alfreton Hail stands upon high ground, and 
is a pleasant as well as commodious mansion, 
though possessingno remarkable architectural 
features. 

OTTEBBZH FIACE, in the co. of Kent, 
about three miles and a-half from Charing, 
tlie seat of the Reverend Charles Wheler. 

This pla€e at one time belonged to the 
Hastings family, from whom it passed about 
the beginning of the last century to the 
Whelers, by marriage with the daughter and 
heiress of the previous possessors. 

Otterden Place is a large mansion of the 
Elizabethan order of architectiure, and stands 
upon a commanding eminence. The house 
being too large for the requirements of a 
small family, a part of it was pulled down 
about fifty years ago, and it now forms a com- 
fortable, though not very extensive residence. 



BLAVGEVnXB, Ireland, in the co. of Kil- 
kenny, near the post-town of Gowran, the 
seat of James Charles Kearney, Esq., son and 
heir of the late Lieutenant-General Sir James 
Kearney, K.C.H. 

The house is a modem building, having 
been erected in 1830 by General Kearney. The 
demesne consists of about one hund]>Bd and 
eighty English acres. The grounds are exceed- 
ingly well planted, and laid out with much 
taste. 

Blanchville is about six miles from Kil- 
kenny. 

WABHHAX OOUBT, in the co. of Sussex, 
about three miles frt)m Horsham, the seat of 
Edward Tredcroft, Esq. 

W A RN HAM Court stands on a rising ground, 
and at that side of the pnrish of Woraham 



which adjoins to Horsham. It is a spacious 
dwelling, built of brick, but faced with stone 
dug upon the estate, and contains fifty apart- 
ments. The stabling and other offices are 
finished in a style correspondent to that of the 
house, which belongs to the Elizabethan era 
of architecture. Aroimd it are beautiful and 
extensive pleasiu^-grounds, while it not only 
forms an interesting feature in the general 
landscape, but from its elevated site com- 
mands a great variety of pleasing landscapes. 

BEATTUEU, Ireland, in the co. of Louth, 
about two miles from Drogheda, the seat of the 
Rev. Alexander Johnston-Montgomery. 

In the year 1641, a fortress stood here, in 
which Sir rhelim O'Neil had his head-quarters, 
with twenty thousand men, to prevent succours 
irom being thrown into Drogheda, then be- 
sieged by the insurgents. The place at one 
time is said to have belonged to a family of 
the name of O'Farrell, but for this there are 
no sufficient vouchers. In 1 64 1 , upon the for 
feiture of the estate by the Plunkett family, it 
was purchased by Sir Henry Tichbome, the 
defender of Drogheda, whose son. Sir William 
Tichbome, M.P., was father of Henry, Lord 
Ferrardof Beaulied. His lordship's daughter 
and eventual heir married Wm. Acton, Esq., 
and was mother of one daughter, who married 
Thos. Tipping, Esq., and had three daughters 
co-heirs, of whom me second, Sophia Mabella, 
married the Rev. Robert Montgomery, Rector 
of Moiui«han, and had with other issue a son. 
the present possessor, who took the name of 
Johnston, in addition to Montgomery, by royal 
licence. 

The house of Beaulieu (pronoimced Bewley) 
is well situated, near the church, upon a well- 
wooded bank, north of the Boyne, and about 
midway between Drogheda and the sea. It is a 
substantial building of stone, with brick orna- 
ments, the style of architectiuv being that 
which is usually called Dutch. The roof is 
heavy and projecting, and the whole has a 
quaint, but by no means unpicturesnue ap- 
pearance, giving the idea of much comiort and 
snugness within. 

WITLKY, or WHITLBY, Worcestershire, the 
seat of Lord Ward. 

This manor was anciently written Whittley, 
Veceloge, and Whitlege. At one period the 
seat belonged to the ancient family of the 
Cookseys, and from them passed by a female 
to the Russells of Strensham. From them 
again it was purchased by Thomas Foley, 
Esq., upon whom the historian Nash obseryes, 
that " this family is a striking instance what 
great riches may be acquired in a trading 
country by integrity, industry, firugality, and 
an extensive trade, and this within four genera- 
tions. Bishop Fleetwood says, the law hath 
laid th? foundation of two-thirds of all the 



96 



8EAT8 OF GRRAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



honours and great estates in all England; 
more than this proportion may be reckoned in 
Worcestershire. In all England there is no 
noble family, and very few opulent ones, that 
sprang from the Church, except Lord Sandys. 
All our late war, glorious and successful as 
it was, hath not yet ennobled one soldier 
(February, 1776). Fhysick hardly ever raised 
its professors above knighthood or baronetage. 
Our county, besides a Foley , can show a Knight, 
a Taylor, and others, who have gained a more 
than ministerial fortune by the iron trade, and 
attention to their own domestic affairs; while, 
on the other hand, a Wild, a Tracy, a Lane, and 
many others, have spent large estates in elec- 
tions and himting for court favours.*' 

From the Foleys the estate passed by sale 
to Lord Ward, its present owner. 

Thomas, the first of the Foleys, by whom 
the prosperity of his race was founded, con- 
tented himseli'with the old house, making only 
the necessary repairs and additions. Since his 
time the work of improvement has been con- 
stantly going on, and it is now an immense 
white edifice, consisting of a centre and two 
projecting wings. The south front is the princi- 
pal one, having a superb elevation in the chast- 
est style of architecture, and containing the 
apartments of most importance. This part 
is new and elegant, the rooms being profusely 
gilded, though somewhat objectionable on the 
score of lowness, a fault inseparable from the 
old building, and which could be remedied 
only by pulling down the whole of it 

The back front has an elegant colonnade, 
of a light and airy character. 

Of the church which adjoins the house, 
Sulivan tells us, in the second volume of his 
Tour through England, dc,, "The church, 
which is annexed to the house, is really an 
elegant building ; the whole of it is beautified 
at a great expense ; the sides white and gold, 
the ceiling divided into handsome compart- 
ments, with good Scripture pieces, ana the 
glass windows exquisitely painted by an artist 
of the name of Irice, who executed them in 
the year 1719. Uncommonly handsome as 
this edifice is, it still carries a disadvantage 
which those who are not uncommonly ortlio- 
dox would dislike. It, unfortimately, is the 
parish church, so that the graves and tomb- 
stones are absolutely in the area of the house. 
This I mentioned to the old lady who con- 
ducted us through the apartments ; but she, 
shaking her bead, and staring at me with sur- 
prise, very calmly replied, that, * if peo))le 
are shocked at the sight of mortality, it is very 
easy for them to shut the windows.*** 

APTHOBFB, or APBIHOBPl, in the co. of 
Northampton, al)Out six miles from Oundle, 
tlie w»at of tlie Earl of W(«stmoreland. 

In the reign of Elizabeth, tliis property 
belonged to Sir Walter Mildmay, one of tlie 



Queen*s privy council, who, having acqmri?d 
an ample fortune, bought Apthorpe and 
several large estates in other parts of tlie 
kingdom. **This knight,** says Fuller. 
*' sensible of God's blessing on his estate, 
and knowing that omne henefirium requirit 
ofiidum, cast about to make his return to God. 
He began with his benefaction to Christ's 
College, in Cambridge, only to put his hand 
into practice ; then his bounty embraced tlie 
generous resolution (which the painful piety 
of St Paul propounds to himself, viz.) not to 
build on another man's foundation ; but on his 
own account he erected a new college in Cam- 
bridge, by the name of Emanuel. A right godly 
gentleman he was, Uiough some of his baric- 
friends suggested to the Queen that be was a 
better patriot than subject, and that be wa.H 
over popular in parUaments, insomuch that 
his hfe did set sub nubecula^ under a cloud of 
the royal displeasure. Yet was not the cloud 
so great, but that the beams of his innocence, 
meeting those of the Queen's candour, had 
easily dispelled it, had he survived longer, as 
appeared by the great grief the Queen pro- 
fessed for the loss of so grave a oouncellour." 

Neale gives an anecdote upon this subject, 
which he quotes as from Fuller, but which 
certainly is not to be found in the quaint anti- 
quary. It is to tliis efiect: *' Upon the founder 
coming to court, the Queen told him, * Sir 
Walter, I hear you have erected a Puritan 
foundation ! ' * Nx>, madam,* saith he ; * far be it 
from me to countenance anything contrary to 
your establislied laws; but I have set an acorn 
which, when it becomes an oak, God alone 
knows what will be the finiit thereof.* " He 
had, however, so much of the Puritan aliout 
him as to deviate from the prescribed ciLHtom, 
and make the college-chapel stand north and 
south instead of east and west, a main point 
with those rigid opponents of anything and 
everything tliat in the least reflembled the 
observances of the Roman CathoUc Chuivh. 

This estate was eventually conveyed tn 
Francis Vane, Earl of Westmoreland and 
Lord Burghersh, by his marriage with Mary. 
onlv daughter ana heiress of Sir Anthouv 
Mifdmay. With this familv it continued till 
the death of John, seventh £arl of Westmore- 
land, in 1762, without male issue, when the 
titles devolved upon Thomas, the next heir 
male, descendant of Sir Francis Vane, se- 
cond surviving son of Francis, first Eari of 
Westmoreland, by Mary, sole daughter and 
heiress of Sir Anthony Mildmay, of Apethorpe 

Tlie principal front of this mansion was 
erected oy Sir Walter Mildmay in the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth. The whole building U 
of freestone, consisting of a quadrangle, 
formed bv a body and two wings, while the 
eastern side is fitiished by an open cloister. 
i >n the south side is a statue of King James I , 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



97 



to commemorate his visit here when on his 
joiimey from Scotland, in 1608. It is said 
that the monarch contrihuted the timber to 
complete the building, and that it was at 
Apthorpe he first noticed Villiers, afterwards 
created Duke of Buckingham. The royal 
visit is thus described by Stowe : — " The 27 th 
of April, the king removed from Biu-leigh 
towards Hinchinbrooke to Sir Oliver Crom- 
weU's ; and on the way he dined at Sir An- 
thonv Mildmay's, where nothing wanted in 
a subject's dutie to his soveraigne. Dinner 
and banquet being past, and his Majestie at 
point to depart, Sir Anthony presented him 
with a gallant Barbary horse, a rich saddle, 
and fundtiure suteable, which his Uighnesse 
thankfully accepted." 

The various apartments are ornamented 
with portraits and other paintings, some of 
them possessing considerable interest. 

BSilin>S8XBT, in the co. of Stafford, about 
five miles north of Lichfield, and nearly a 
mile south-west of Longdon Church, the seat 
of the Marquess of Anglesey. 

Beaudesert at one time belonged to the 
Bishops of Lichfield ; but was granted by 
^ing Edward VI. to Sir William Paget, who 
may be caUed the foimder of this illustrious 
family. In lieu of the estate thus siurendered 
by Richard Sampson, the then occupant of 
the see, he received certain impropriations to 
tlie value of one hundred and eighty pounds 
per annum. 

The mansion of Beaudesert is a very hand- 
some old edifice, which stands on the side of a 
lofty eminence, sheltered above and on either 
side by beautiful rising n'oimds, and em- 
bosomed in rich foUage. It is composed of 
stone and brick, having in front the form of a 
half H. The greater part of the original pile 
was taken down and rebuilt by Thomas, Lord 
Paget, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, since 
which time, however, it has undergone various 
alterations and additions. It is now totally 
disengaged from the ponderous gateway-walls 
and other obstructions that encumbered it in 
the days of Plot. The entrance in frt)nt is 
under a neat and light old portico, through 
folding-doors, into a Gothic hall, eighty feet 
long and twenty-one feet wide, with a lofty 
arched ceiling, and a large music gallery at the 
east end. In the magnificent Gothic window 
at the west end are the arms of the first Sir 
William Paget, with the garter round them, 
and another ooat, of Preston, whose daughter 
he married. 

lliere is also a noble gallery, ninety-seven 
feet long and seventeen feet m widtli. The 
dining-room is spacious, with a handsome 
vaulted ceiling, and otherwise displaying 
much magnificence, simpUcity, and elegance. 
The drawing-room, forty-two feet long by 
twenty-seven in widths contains a fine original 



portrait^ by Holbein, of tlie fii-st Lord Paget, 
who was ennobled by King Edward VI., and 
of whom it is related by Fiiller, as the saying 
of a foreign potentate, that *' he was not only 
fit to represent kings, but to be a king him- 
self." So, at least, it is stated by Neale, 
though no such passage occurs in the quaint 
pages of the antiquary. Fuller's accoimt runs 
thus : — "William Paget, knight, was bom in 
the city (London), ofhonest parents, who gave 
him pious and learned education, whereby he 
was enabled to work out his own advance- 
ment. Privy CounceUor to four successive 
princes, which, though of difierent persuasions, 
agreed all in this — to make much of an able 
and trusty Minister of State. 1. King Henry 
VIII. made him his secretary, and employed 
him ambassador to Charles the Emperor, and 
Francis King of France. 2. King Edward 
VI. made him chancellor of the duchy, comp- 
troller of his household, and created liim 
Baron of Beaudesert. 3. Queen Mary made 
him keeper of her Privy Seal. 4. Queen 
Elizabeth dispensed with his attendance at 
court in favour to his great age, and highly 
respected him. 

*' Indeed, Duke Dudley, in the days of King 
Edward, ignominiously took from him the 
garter of the order ; quarrelling that by his 
extraction he was not qualified for the same. 
But, if all be true which is reported of this 
Duke's parentage, he, of all men, was most 
unfit to be active in such an employment. 
But no wonder if his pride wrongfully 
snatched a garter from a subject, whose 
ambition endeavoured to deprive two princes 
of a crown. This was rostored imto him by 
Queen Mary, and that with ceremony and 
all solemn accents of honour, as to a person 
* who by his prudence had merited much of 
the nation.' He died very old, anno 1569; 
and his corps (as I remember) are buryed in 
Lichfield, and not in the vault under tlie 
Church of Drayton in Middlesex, where the 
rest of that family, I cannot say, lye (as 
whose coffins are erected), but are very com- 
pleaUy reposed in a peculiar posture, which I 
meet not with elsewhere ; the horrour of a 
vault being much abated with the lightnesse 
and sweetnesse thereof." 

The portrait of this illustrious character 
above alluded to, as being in the drawing- 
room at Beaudesert, is a three-quarters length, 
and he is represented in a bonnet, black gown 
furred, with a great forked beard, the George, 
a stick, and da^^ger. It is a remarkably fine 
painting, by Hans Holbein, and all the more 
valuable from the destruction made of many 
of that artist's works by the fire at Cowdray, 
in Sussex. 

The library is also worthy of notice. It is 
a handsome room, contaming a valuable 
collection of books with some manuscripts, ^ 
amongst which are a curious register of Bur- 

o 



98 



8EAT8 OF ORKAT BRITAIN AMD IRELAND. 



ton Abbej, and innumerable records relating 
to the fiunily estates. 

At a conyenient distance from the mansion 
are the noble stables and coach-houses, built 
of white stone, in the form of a crescent, and 
secluded from view by their site in one of 
those deep romantic valle vs, of which nature 
has here been so peculiarly lavish. Beyond 
these, at a considerable distance, are very spa- 
cious and excellent gardens, with hothouses, 
green-houses, &c. They are so placed as to 
receive the genial warmth of the south and 
west, while they are guarded from the more 
inclement aspects. 

The park, which aboimds in deer, exhibits 
a continued series of hills, " alternately tossed 
about in wild and beautiful disorder." llie 
walks and pleasure-grounds on every side of 
the house fully justify the name of Beaude- 
sert, and do much credit to the taste that has 
arranged them. The hint of them is said to 
have been taken from the bold and beautiful 
scenery of Needwood forest. 

. Dr. Plot, in his " Natural History of Staf- 
fordshire,*' gives some curious details con- 
nected with this seat S])eaking of tautological 
jHilyphonous echoes — that is, such as return 
a word or more, often repeated from divers 
objects, by simple reflection — ^he tells us, 
** There are as good here, or perhaps better, 
than any in Oxfordshire ; there being one at 
Beaudesert, in a little park, about the middle 
of the path that leads from the pale to the 
house, tnat fit)m a treble object answers dis- 
tinctly three times.*' In another place he 
says, ** I cannot forget a piece of art that I 
found in the hall of the Right Hon. William 
liord Paget at Beaudesert, made for punish- 
ment of the disorders that sometimes attend 
feasting in Christmas time, Ac, called the 
finger-stocks, into wliich the Lord of Misrule 
used formerly to put the fingers of all such 
persons as committed misdemeanours, or broke 
such rules as by consent were agreed on for 
the time of ke^'ping Christmas amongst the 
servants and others of promiscuous quality ; 
these being divided in like manner as the 
stocks for Uie leggs, and having several holes 
of different sizes, fit for the scantlings of all 
fingers.** 

On the top of the hill, beyond the house, on 
the borders of Cank forest, are the traces of a 
large encampment, called the Castle Hill. It 
is surrounded with a large rampart and two 
ditches, which are almost round, except upon 
the south-east side, which runs tolerably 
straight, to that it encloses the figure of a 
theatre of about two hundred and seventy 
paces diameter. The two entrances are op- 
posite to each other, and before the eastern 
are several advanced works. It " is elevated 
so high above all the country near that it 
commands the horizon almost all round, 
whanoe, it is said, may be teen the nine several 



counties of Stafford, Derby, Leiceeier, War- 
wick, Worcester, Salop, Chester, Montgomery, 
and Kent" The site, therefore, which is 
about half-a-mile distant from the house of 
Beaudesert, must have been well calculated 
for defence, or at least for a temporary re- 
treat, since it was hardly possible to take its 
guardians by surprise when thejr could aee 
the approach of any enemy for nulee around. 

Dr. Plot imagined that the camp, from its 
vicinity to Cank, or Cannock, wood — quan 
Canutt sylva — ^was the work of the Danish 
King Canute, when he made his incursions 
into this country ; or else it might have been 
cast up by the Mercians in their own defence. 
Pennant is of a different opinion. He sup- 
poses it to have been of yet earlier origin, and 
to have formed an ancient British post such 
entrenchments being common to most parts 
of Britain. 

Coal of various kinds abounds on this 
estate and in the vicinity, some of the mines 
having been worked since Edward VI. s time, 
if not from a remoter period. Of these, the 
most famous is the soH^alled cannel coal, for 
which we must again refer to the amusing 
passages of Dr. Plot " ITie cannel ooale," 
says our doctor, " is the hardest and of sp 
close a texture that it will take a passable 
polish, as may be seen in the choir of the 
Cathedral Church of Lichfield, which in great 
part is paved lozeng, black and white (as 
other churches with marble), with cannel 
coale for the black and alabaster for the 
white, both plentifully found in this coimtry ; 
which, when kept clean, so well represent 
black and white marble, that to an incurious, 
heedless eye they seem to be the same. It 
turns like ivory into many pretty knacks, such 
as ink-boxes, candlesticks, &c. They cut it 
also into salts, standishes, and carve coats of 
armes in it ; witness that of the Bight Hon. 
W^illiam Lord Paget in the gallery of his 
stately seat at Beaudesert This coal is ditg 
in the park adjoining, also belonging to his 
lordship, about twenty, thirty, or sometimea 
forty fathoms deep, lyeing between other beds 
of a softer kind, and is the best in Stafford- 
shire, or anywhere elne that we know of ex- 
cept that in Lancashire, which (thej^ say) 
has no grain, and therefore no cleaving, as 
this will doe, upon which account esteemed 
somewhat better for making such utensils as 
were mentioned above ; and yet this at Beau- 
de!«ert will work so very well that the King^s 
Majestie's head is said to have been cut in 
it by a carver at IJchfield, resembling him 
well ; in the working whereof, especial! j 
turning it they used no edg'd tooles. it prs- 
sently rebating them : but at first they use 
ras]>s, then finer files, and last seaf-4»kiQ 
brushes, these giving the ultimat glons, which 
is sometimes ho high that it has been thought 
to be the Utfna obsuUamus of the ancients ; boi 



SKATS OF OBEAT BRITAIN AND ULELAND. 



99 



the non-perfonnaiioeof the office of the hasoni- 
tis in touching gold and silyer, as Caesalpinus 
asserts the olwidian stone will doe, gives fiill 
Batirfaotion it cannot be so, much rather 
could I afford it to be a species of the gagates 
lapis, which all agree to be nothing else to be 
indurated naphtha, or petroleum, and to take 
fire like this, only this has not that electricity 
of drawing straws and chaff, which Rulandus 
and others say that jeat has, so that they must 
not be allowed to be the same, thougn they 
agree in their original principles, coloiu* and 
curious poUture. Notwithstanding which, the 
chiefest use they make of this coale is for 
fireing, wherein they much observe the grain 
of the coale ; for if they would have it bum 
slow (as the poorer and thriftier sort of people 
are heet pleased it should), they lay it flat- 
ways upon the fire, as it lay before in the bed 
or measure ; but if they would have it bum 
quick and flame clear (as the gentiy com- 
monly will), they nirfr^d it, — t^., set it lee- 
ways, the cleaving way next the fire, by which 
means it so easily admits it that it presently 
^ame» as bright as a candle, whence perhaps 
not unlikely it may receive its name, cantcyU 
in the British tongue signifying a candlk, 
from conn, camdidus, and gtcyU, TENEBBiE ; eo 
quod eUbere, h. e. luoerefaciat tenebras, says the 
learned Dr. Daviesin his British Dictionaiy?" 

It may, perhaps, be not considered out of 
place if we here subjoin the origin of this 
cannel coal, and the rather as it forms so im- 
portant a feature in the Beaudesert estate. 

** In some coal-works, where the heat was 
not very intense, and the incumbent stratum 
not permeable to vapour, the fossil oil has only 
risen to the upper part of the coal-bed, and 
has rendered that much more inflammable 
than the lower parts of it, as in the collieries 
near Beaudesert, the seat of the Earl of Ux- 
bridge, where the upper stratum is a perfect 
caniiel, or candle eocu, and the lower one of 
an inferior quality.** 

vuuFUJiD HAIX, in the oo. of Suffolk, four 
mDes and a half from the town of Burv St. £d- 
mond's, the seat of the Rev. Ed. Rd. Benyon. 

At one time Cidford formed a part of the 
▼Bfit estate belonging to the abbey of Bury. 
At the dissolution of monasteries, it was 
mnted by Henry VIII. to Sir Nicholas 
Bacon, who, in the reign of Elizabeth, was 
made keeper of the Great Seal, and held the 
post for twen^ ^ears, though his greatest 
claim to celebrity is in having been the father 
of the author of the " Novum Organiun.'* 

Sir Nathaniel, the seventh son of Sir 
Nicholas Bacon, received this estate in gift 
from his father, with other landed property to 
the amount of one thousand pounds per 
annum. He married Jane, daughter of H. 
Meautys, Esq., and widow of Sir William 
Comwallis, knight, whose second son, Fre- 



derick, by her first husband, was made a 
baronet in 1627. In his youth he had been 
introduced to the service of Prince Henry by 
his uncle. Sir Charles Comwallis, and in 1623 
attended Prince Charies on his journey to 
Madrid. During the whole of the great 
Civil War he foUowed the fortunes of the ill- 
starred monarch, and was concerned in many 
actions of importance. In reward of his zeal , 
King Charies, upon the Restoration, created 
him Baron Comwallis, of Eye, in Suffolk. 
But the most illustrious wearer of this title 
was Charles, first Marquess Comwallis, who, 
by his skill and courage as a soldier, enlarged 
the British empire in India, fought not less 
gallantly though less successfully in America, 
and rescued Ireland firom the horrors of 
rebellion. 

The ancient Hall at Culford was erected by 
Sir Nicholas Bacon in 1 59 1 , but was rebuilt by 
the Marquess Comwallis in a plain substan- 
tial style of the white Woolpit brick. It is tole- 
rably spacious, and stands at no great distance 
from the banks of the river Larke, which, 
rising in the south-west of the county, forms a 
junction with the Great Ouse, near Milden- 
hall. The centre of the house projects in a 
semicircular form, is crowned with a dome, 
and ornamented with a handsome colonnade. 
Within, there are few works of art that re- 
quire any notice; but the grounds about the 
house are pleasing and extensive, having been 
considerably augmented by the late owner. 

It may be mentioned as a curious fact, that 
among the yeomen and small residents of this 
parish may be found the great historical 
names of Mortimer and Devereux. 

ALDEBWASLST. co. Derby. This romantic 
domain lies on the west bank of the river Der- 
went, about four miles east of Wirksworth. 
By the recent demise of Francis Hurt, E8<}., 
long one of the respected representatives m 
Parliament for the county, it has devolved 
on his only son, Francis Hint Jim., Esq., who 
married Cecilia, daughter of £ady Elizabeth 
Norman, and niece of the present Duke of 
Rutland. The mansion is a handsome and 
commodious stone edifice, situated in a finely 
timbered deer-park, and in the midst of scen- 
ery that gives it a just claim to the epithet 
we have prefixed to the domain. Crich Cliffs 
on the east, and extensive hanging woods on 
the west, surround and shelter it, and give it 
much of the appearance and climate of an 
Italian viUa : — 



-domuB Albauia naonantia, 



Et prsoepB Anio et Tlboral luoua, et a<U 
MobUibns pomaria ziTiB." 

This beautifrd estate, originally perhaps a 
portion of the ancient park of Belper, or 
Beau-repaire, in Duffield Forest, belonging to 
Ferrars, Earl of Derby (temp. Hen. III.), 
passed from the Ferrars family to Edmund, 



100 



SEATS OF GREAT BBITAIK AND lAELAND. 



Earl of Lancaster, and was granted by Henry 
Vlll., as a portion of the duchy, to Anthony 
Lowe, Esq., standard-bearer, and gentleman 
of the bedchamber to that monarch, as well 
as to Edward VI. and Queen Mary. Eliza- 
beth liOwe, the great-great-grand-daughter of 
this Anthony, and heiress general, married 
Nicholas Hurt, of Casteme, co. Stafford, Esq., 
the direct ancestor of the present possessor of 
Alderwasley. 

But a portion of this fine estate, namely, 
the park of Shyning Cliff, was in the posses- 
sion of the family of Fowne, ancestors of the 
Ix)wes and Hurts, at a much earlier i)eriod, 
Fidward I. granted this park to William 
Fowne, in the following rhyming charter : — 

**i anH npne 
0ine ttef ant> tfisne 
/Btlner'ft mart aiiD ^^sntng Cliff 
Wi^iU grass to green antt tets^ ruffe." 

On the site of tlie present mansion stood 
what was, in Edward I.'s time, a hunting- 
lodge, called the Earl's chamber, which was 
granted to William Fo^Tie, to be held by the 
yearly rent of 12 pence, and the seiTice of 
sustaining the poles between Lowdbrook and 
MQlbrook, by the view of the Earl of Derby's 
foresters. A private chapel, situate near tlie 
Hall, was erected by Thomas I^owe, Esq., in 
the reign of Henry VIU. The whole estate 
consists of 4,500 acres, and to show the quan- 
tity and size of its timber, it may be men- 
tioned that oaks to the value of £2,000 are 
annually cut down upon it witliout making 
any veiy sensible diminution of its woodland 
beauties. In one of the woods a great number 
of shallow, circular pits have long fonned a 
subject of inquiry to the antiquary. It has 
been conjectiu'ed they were places of ancient 
interment, probably of the times of tlie 
Roman occupation of the district A pig of 
lead, with a Latin inscription, was discovered 
on the neighbouring moor of Cromford, in 
the latter part of the last century. 

On the whole Alderwasley is one of the 
most beautiful and interesting seats in Derby- 
shire, though, from its secluded situation, it 
is rarely seen by the tourist. It should be 
added that the name is almost invariably 
pronounced, even by educated persons, 
Arrowsley, or ratlier, perliaps, ArrasUa^ 
though an H is not frequently prefixed, even 
in a county where the aspirate is rarely impro- 
perly applied or omitted, even by the lower or- 
ders, and then it,ofcoim$e, becomes Harroslee. 
It would be an omission to close this 
brief sketch without mentioning the gratify- 
ing token of respect just paid to the memory 
of the late honoured possessor. At a recent 
meeting of the county gentry at Derby, it was 
resolved to raise some public memorial of a 
gentleman who, as member and magistrate, 
had so long and zealously served his native 
county. 



BALLYNATRAT HOUSE, in the co. Water- 
ford, the seat of Richard Smyth, Escj., a 
Deputy Lieutenant of the county. 

The mansion is finely situated on a sloping 
lawn, beneath which flows the Blackwaler, a 
splendid river, not inaptly termed " the Irish 
Rhine." The house is modem, having been 
completely remodelled in the early part of 
this century by the father of the pre- 
sent proprietor. In the dining-room are 
some valuable paintings, chiefest among 
which in interest is a fuB-length portrait of 
the unfortimate Sir Walter Raleigh, whose 
grants of land in Ireland were in this neigh- 
bourhood. This portrait is known to have 
been once in the possession of the great Earl 
of Cork, Raleigh's contenuwrary, and the 
purchaser from him of his Irish estates ; and 
trom Lord Cork it passed, by gift, to Sir 
Richard Smytli, knight, who had married the 
Earl's sister, Mary. Besides Raleigh's por- 
trait, there are several choice specimens of 
Zucchero, Holbein, Rubens, and other 
mastei*s. 

The demesne is well planted and tastefully 
disposed. It comprises about 1,500 acres, 
with large gardens and a well-stocked deer- 

Sark. In an angle on the shores of the 
llackwater are tlie ivy-clad remains of the 
abbey of Molana, an Augustinian foundation 
of the sixth century The site was originally 
an island in the bed of the river; but, in 
1B06, it was united by a causeway with the 
mainland. It was anciently called Dair Inis, 
or the Isle of Oak Ti-ees, a name afterwards 
changed into Molana, from St Molanfide, the 
foimder of the monastery. Molana Abbey, 
Sir James Ware informs us, was the reputed 
burial place of Raymond leGros,Strongoow'8 
companion in the Anglo-Norman invasion of 
Ireland, and the Achilles of liis forces. In one 
of the side chapels, over a spot traditionally 
consecrated as the hero's grave, a funeral 
urn, with a suitable inscription, was erected, 
in 18*20, by the late Mrs. Mary Broderick 
Smyth. This lady, at the same time, placed 
on a pedestal, in the midst of the quadran- 
gular court of the abbey, a fine statue of the 
founder, representing him, the size of life, in 
the flowing robes of the Augustinians. 

The scenery around Ballynatray is of sin- 
gular beauty. Mountain, woodland, lawn, and 
river combine their scenic attractions, and in- 
duce in the tourist's mind reflective compari- 
sons with much of the boasted scenery of the 
continent A wooded defile, called Glendyne. 
i.e.y tlie Deep Glen, stretches from the old 
abbey inland, and affords a romantic drive of 
three miles by the side of a brawling rivulet. 
In olden days, in the period just before tlie 
introduction of Christianity into the island, 
this glen is reputed to have been a chief seat 
of the Irish Druids ; and even now it is occa- 
sionally resorted to by the more superstitious 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



101 



among the peasantry for purposes of divina- 
tion. Mr. O'Flanagan (Guide to the Blavk- 
uater, p. 35) tells us this so well, that we shall 
employ his words in preference to our own : 

'* In the valley of Glendyne, a rocky basin, 
not so perfect now as it was some years ago, 
is kept constantly full by a stream falling 
from a cliff above, the superfluous water 
dripping over the sides of the basin. Tra- 
dition says that there were sorcerers who 
could raise the shadows of futurity on tlie 
surface of this fluid mirror; and it required 
but little exertion of the credulous imagina- 
tion to give form and pressure to the varying 
shades which indistinctly appear on its dark 
waters. Similar legends are found attached 
to these natural rock basins in all parts of Eu- 
rope, confirming Warburton's assertion that 
hydromancy is one of the most widely spread 
forms of divination. He thinks, from the 
name of the place where the witch resides who 
invoked Samuel — 'En-dor,* — i.e., 'perpetual 
fountain' — that she had intended to consult 
the shadows on one ofthose natural mirrors; 
and that this wUl explain her astonishment 
when a spirit appeared instead of a shade. 
An old man in Glendyne had some faint 
recollection of a tradition which described a 
fair lady going to discover in the rocky basin 
the fate of her lover, who had enlisted in the 
Irish brigade ; she beheld him falling in 
battle, and soon after died of a broken heart 
On the day of her funeral, intelligence arrived 
of her lover having fallen in some skirmish, 
nearly at the time when she beheld the fatal 
vision." 

But to return from our digression. The 
present owner of BaUynatray is Eichard 
Smyth, Esq. His ancestor, Sir Hichard 
Smyth, Knight, settled in Ireland in the 
reign of EUzabeth, and married, as we have 
before seen, Mary, sister of the Earl of 
Cork. 

DI88IHOT0V (North) , in the co. of Northum- 
berland, about ten miles from Newcastle- 
uj[)on-Tyne, the seat of Edward Collingwood, 
Esq. 

&)on after the Norman Conquest, North 
Dissington was a manor and seat of the 
Delavfds. Admiral Delaval, who was bom 
here, sold the property to the Collingwoods ; 
and from them it descended by bequest to 
Edward Collingwood, Esq., second surviving 
son of Spencer Stanhope, E8<}., of Cannon 
H all, Yorkshire. Upon inheritmg this estate 
he assmned, by letters patent, in compliance 
with the testamentary injunction of his great 
uncle, Edward Collingwood, Esq., the sur- 
name and arms of Collingwood only. 

AVGBUX HOUSE, Scotland, in the co. of 
Roxburgh, the seat of Sir William Scott, 
Bart. 



At one time this estate belonged, as church- 
land, to the Bishop of Glasgow, who often 
resided here. For a short period it was in the 
family of the Kers, Marquesses of Lothian, 
but came into the possession of the Scotts of 
Balwearie in the beginning of the sixteenth 
centmy. 

Ancrum House is an ancient battlemented 
fortress. The date of its erection is not 
known, but it is generally supposed to have 
been built at a very early period. On the 
hill behind it are the remains of a British 
fort, consisting of three circular divisions, or 
rows, of large whinstone boulders; and in the 
neighbourhood is an interesting rehque of the 
olden times, called Maiden LUliards Tomb. 
According to the titulition still extant, this 
heroine fought most gallantly against the 
EngUsh. Sir Walter Scott tefls us that the 
spot on which the battle of Ancrum was so 
hotly disputed, "is called Lilyard*8 Edge, 
from an Amazonian Scottish woman of that 
name, who is reported in tradition to have 
distinguished herself in the same manner as 
Squire Witherington. The old people point 
out her moniunent, now broken and defaced. 
The inscription is said to have been legible 
within this century, and to have nm thus : 

" ' Fair maiden Lylllard lies under this stone, 
Little was her stature, but great was her fame ; 
Upon the Euglish louns she laid many thumps, 
And when her legs were cutted off, she fought 
upon her stumps.' " 

Since the time when Sir Walter wrote of 
this female W^iddrington, a new monument 
has been erected in her commemoration, tlie 
old one having well-nigh gone to ruin. Upon 
this the lines above quoted have been duly 
inscribed upon the authority of the tradition, 
for it does not appear that a single letter of 
them has been legible on the ruined tomb for 
many a long day. 

In the days of Border warfare Ancrum was 
often attacked, and sometimes sufiered not a 
little from the assailants. It was partly burnt 
down upon more than one occasion. 

The groimds attached to the house are 
imdulating and well stocked with timber, 
particularly beech, lime, walnut, willow, and 
weeping ash, many of which have reached to 
an enormous size. Some of the limes are 
described as measiuing no less than twenty- 
seven feet in circumference, the measurement 
being taken at several feet from the root. 
The river Ale runs through the nark at the 
foot of a rock, which is remarkable for a 
number of excavations, supposed by some to 
have been the abodes of the ancient Caledo- 
nians: 

" Quum fHgida panras 
Priebaret spelunca domos ; ignemque, laremque, 
Et pecus, et (fomlnos oommiuii clauderet umbra; 
S^lvestrem monl«na torum quum stemeret uxor 
I* rondibus oi culmo, vicinarumoue ferarum, 
PeUibufr— " 



113 



8CAT8 OP GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



In 1018, his Bon, John Zouch. Esq., disposed 
of the manor-house, park, and estate belong- 
ing to it, to Robert Sutton, Esq., of Aram, 
in Nottinghamshire ; and he again sold the 
property in 1620 to Anthony Morewood of 
Herosworth, in the county of Derby. In 
that family it continued till the death of the 
last heir male, (ieorge Morewood. Esq., in 
17U2.when his widow conveyed it in marriage 
to Uie Rev. Henry Case, who u]ion this event, 
in 1708, took the name of Morewood, by the 
king's sign manual. The latter dying without 
isKue in 1H25, the estate devolved to Mrs. 
Morewood 8 nephew, William Palmer, of 
Ladbrook, county of Warwick, Eso., whose 
ancestorB had been established there for a long 

gpriod. and one of whom served as High- 
heriff of Warwickshire, in the sixteenth year 
of Charles I. 

Alfreton Hall, which occupies a pleasant 
and elevated site, was erected about a century 
ago by Rowland Morewood, Esq., and stan^ 
a little to the west of the old mansion. It is 
built of excellent freestone, but has been 
improved and considerably enlarged bv the 
present owner. Within is a considerable col- 
lection of paintings, some c«f them by the 
biMt masters, besides a valuable library of 
ancient and modem authors. Near the house 
are ancient gardens, well stored with choice 
fruits and veffetables, and the grounds are 
covered with fine oaks; the passion of Row- 
land Morewood for planting trees having 
fortunately been inherited by his son. 

Below tne Hall is a piece of woodland, the 
upper part of which is intersected by two 
avenues; one is terminated by a temple of 
Diana and a fine bust; the other, by an 
obelisk above, and below by a sheet of water, 
the boundaries of which not being seen from 
the furthest point of view, the imagination is 
left to form to itself the idea of unlimited 
expansion, so that a little fish-pond is trans- 
formed to an extensive lake. Lower down are 
several rural moss huts, and a grotto bitilt of 
the different fossils and minerals of all that 
diversity of form and colour exhibited by the 
mineral productions of the Peak. This last is 
ofanoctagond form, and within are painted 
representations of several scenes described by 
C/Otton, the pupil of old Isaac Walton in the 
quiet art of angling. 

The views from the north and west fronts of 
the house are pleasing and extensive. The 
soil is exceedingly rich in coal of a good 
quality, much to the advantage of the pro- 

{>rietor. whose fortune has swelled into opu- 
ence by the rich possessions. 



Grecian style of architecture, erected towards 
the close of the last century by Tliomas 
Samuel Joliffe, Esq., after a demgn of Mr. 
James W^yatt The site of the building was 
chosen from its commanding a view of certain 
prominent objects in a varied and extensive 
prospect ; though in other respects the pcmi- 
tion would seem less happily selected, as being 
one of the wildest and most intractable spou 
in this division of the county. In the removal 
of the difficulties which an attempt to reclairn 
so rugged a surface presented, industry, 
activity, and a peculiar tact, were indispensa- 
ble; but tlie perseverance of the proprietor 
enabled him to overcome every obstacle. 

The interior of this dwelling is lar more 
striking than its external appearance. The 
principal staircase is unioue m its fonn and 
structure. A circular dome, embracing a 
considerable part of the central roof, b sup- 
ported by a series of Ionic columns, from 
whose bases the chambers in the highest 8ton*y 
branch off in various directions, the ontran<x* 
to each diverging frt>m a lofty gallery. I n tlie 
elliptic space opened from the base to the 
summit of the building, a fli^^t of steps has 
been introduced, passages from which com- 
municate with the successive apartments. 

In this mansion is a valuable collection of 
pictures, botli by ancient and modem masters. 
Amongst the former we find tlte names of 
Teniers, Holbein, Vandyck, Van Ix>o. 
Comehus Jansen, &c. ; amongst the latter, 
the most distinguished artists are Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, Sir Thomas I^wrence, Zoffany. 
Gainsl>orough, Ac. Here are to be seen al^ 
some elegant and highly-finished pieces of 
sculpture. 

Ttie park, in which the house stands, is four 
miles in circumference, surrounded by a wall 
eight feet in height, and bounded on aU sides* 
by the highway. It is in the eastern extremity 
or Uie parish, and the soil within the limits of 
the enclosure contains almost every variety 
except that of chalk. Some of the side land's 
are of stubborn clay ; the lower grounds are 
a deep rich loam ; and the uplands, presenting 
a level surface of nearly two hunored arre^. 
are of a light sandy nature. From the western 
edge of these, forming an extensive natural 
terrace, a wild and bold prospect is unfolded, 
that embraces the range of the Mendip Hill<. 
and is terminated in Uie extreme distance by 
the approaches of the Welch mountain^ 
Walks and drives are cut in various directions 
through the hanging plantations ; and in an 
open plain, 



FABKt in the oo. of Somer- 
set, and parish of Kilmersdon, about ten 
miles from Bath, the seat of the late T. S. 
Joliffe. Esq.. M.P. 

This mansion is a modem structure in the 



' Unminmim tn nmpum . qn^m eoUiboi o&dlqot 
Aecixigunl ^1t«. HMNlioqu* in v»tt« itwlrt" 



A Stadium has been erected, where the youths 
of the hundred assembled at stated periods, to 
oontand in amicable rivalry for priiea in 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



103 



which there is ahont a Roman mile lon^ 
(mille passum) on the emhattled wails, and 
which has a Tery pictaresque appearance, 
pardcularly in winter. 

The demesne contains ahout 618 acres, 
with a long avenue lined with old oak and 
heeoh trees, whose hranches meet overhead, 
and in summer form a complete leafy tun- 
nel. There are large fruit-gardens and plea- 
sure-grounds, with a deer-park, inside of 
which are ahout sixty-foiur acres of wood. A 
small river, well supplied with fish, runs 
through the park and lawns. 

Opposite tne hall-door, near a clump of 
old trees, is an ivy-covered arch and piece of 
broken wall, the sole remains of the ancient 
edifice of the O'Dempseys; close to which 
Mr. Alloway is erecting a model of one of 
the old Pagan round towers, fifty feet high, 
which will have a way of ascent inside to 
the top, whence there will be an extensive 
panoramic view, including the Slievebloom, 
Gappard, Dysert, and Wioklow mountains, 
with Moimt Leinster and Lugnaguillia in 
the distance. 



FABK, in the co. of Derby, about 
two miles south from Repton, the seat of the 
Earl of Chesterfield. 

Before the Norman Conquest the manor 
belonged to Algar, Earl of Mercia. At an 
early period it became the property of the 
Earls of Chester, and passed with apart of the 
manor of Repton to the familv of Segrave. 
Afterwards we find it possessed by Thomas 
de Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk, and second 
son to Edward I., from whom it descended 
to the Mowbrays, Lords Mowbray and Dukes 
of Norfolk. At a yet later period it came by 
inheritance into the family of Berkeley. In 
the reign of Heniy VII., the second Duke of 
Noifolk divided with Maurice, surviving 
brother of William, Marquess of Berkeley, 
who died without issue, the lands which fell 
to them by right of their descent from the 
oo-heirs of Mowbj^y, Duke of Norfolk. The 
manor of Bretby was part of the moiety which 
was allotted to the Marquess. In 1569, 
Henry Lord Berkeley demised the manor and 
castle for forty-one years to Thomas Duport, 
and Lysons conjectures that the heiress of the 
latter married Mr. John Mee, who was the 
lessee in 1585, when the Berkeley family sold 
their interest in the manor and castle, and 
conveyed them to Edward Scarling and Law- 
rence Wright in trust for Sir Thomas Stan- 
hope, for uie sum of two thousand five hun- 
dred potmds. In 1815, on the death of Philip, 
the late Earl, the manor and estate descended 
to (}eorge Augustus Frederick, the present 
Earl. 

In the " Topognmher," dated 1700, is the 
following notice of Bretby : — 

" As we approach the side of Bretby Park, 



we lose much of the woody shades that till 
lately hung around. Lord Stanhope, in his 
father's lifetime, here cut down a fine wood 
upon his estate, called Newhall Springs; and 
the Earl of Chesterfield has since robbed 
his beautiful park of most of its venerable 
ornaments. 

" A large avenue from the park gate leads 
from this road about half a mile to the site of 
the house, which, when standing, was magni- 
ficent. But before we enter into a description, 
let us premise what imperfect history we are 
able to collect. 

" Bretby is a small hamlet situate at the 
southern extremi^^ of the county of Derby, 
in the hundred of Kepington, about two miles 
south of Repton, whose chapel is a chapel of 
ease to that place. A few scattered houses 
are now only left to lament its former su- 
periority ; for, as can evidently be traced, a 
more splendid village, or a town, did originally 
exist here, from the vestiges of walls, founda- 
tions, wells, &c., besides a castle which was 
situated near the present chapel. Very small 
indeed are the data we have to work upon 
towards giving a histonr of this deserted 
place. Yet before the destruction of that 
noble seat of the Earl of Chesterfield in this 
beautiful park, many deeds and papers were 
deposited here, which would have afforded 
much curious matter, but they are taken we 
know not where. 

" However, from the authority of a person 
weU conversant with this place, we learn that 
the castle belonged to a family of the name 
of Mee,* who were lords of the manor here, 
and that the Earls of Chesterfield paid a 
certain fee to the castle for their place, till 
they became purchasers of that also, and by 
that means lords of the manor. Report says 
that this magnificent seat was built by toe 
famous Inigo Jones, and probably it was by 
that master, from the style of architecture, 
which we remember to nave seen, when it 
existed, not ten years ago, as well as from 
examining it as still preserved in a bird's-eye 
view, drawn by L. Knyff, and engraved oy 
J. Kip, in a large collection called, ' Nouveau 
Theatre de la Grande Bretagne, ou description 
exacte des Palais de la Heine, et des maisons 
des plus considerables des Seigneurs et des 
Oentilshommes de la Grande Bretagne* It was 
probably built by the family after their house 
at Sheliord, in Nottinghamshire, was ruined 
by the parliamentary army.t Shelford still 
continues the family burying-place. 

** This house consisted of a long but narrow 
body, with wings about the same dimensions ; 

• It belonged to ThomM de Brotherton, Earl of Nor- 
folk, seoond son of Edward I., and eo descended to the 
Mowbrays. The chapel and great tithea afUrwards be- 
longed to Repton Priory. 

f Yet a masque written by Sir Aston Cockayne was 
presented here on Twelfth Night, 1CS9. See Wood's 
^Athens.'* iLooL 167. 



104 



SEATS OP GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



the tops of the latter were circular, hut the 
gahles on the roof of the former were more 
varied. The coiut was protected hy massy 
iron gates, through whicn you passed on a 
flag pavement to a portico on the ground 
floor. This led to a hall and a large stair- 
case, painted and hung with many excellent 
paintings. The rooms were most of them 
magnificent, with painted ceilings, rich ta- 
pestry, and nohle pictures. 

" myond, at right angles with the east wing, 
was an admirable chapel of a much later date. 
The architecture was Grecian, very light and 
handsome. Within was a rich lining of cedar, 
the altar-piece remarkably fine, and there 
was also an organ in the gallery. At the 
east end of this chapel stood a very large and 
venerable cedar, which is still remaining. 
The gardens, which were full of buildings, 
fountains, and leaden images in the shape of 
wild beasts, &c., and all the various appen- 
dages of old-fashioned grandeiu*, were formed 
after the plan of the famous Versailles. 

" The park, though not very extensive, was 
formed by nature with much variety to please ; 
a deep glen divided the eastern side, down 
which winds a chain of fishpools ; the swells 
on every side were clothed with fine timber, 
till the American war caused them to be 
felled. In the other parts, long avenues of 
elms and chesnut trees fill the scene to the 
north-east; Repton Shrubs, that glorious 
wood, which still retains its greatness, seemed 
a continuance of the same park, and highly 
ennobled the scenery. A fittle west of the 
north rises that charming feature, called 
Brethy Mount , which is an object seen from 
most parts of the country. Such is the mu- 
tilating power of a few years, that where one 
before wandered amidst the finest shades, 
trees are now but thinly scattered; and 
where we might then behold a magnificent 
edifice adorned with noble paintings and all 
the richest ornaments of the times, now 
scarce a relic is discovered, the materials 
beinff all sold, and only a small house erected 
for tne steward. This imperfect sketch we 
will finish with adding, that this was the 
celebrated scene of the Count de Grammont's 
visits to the beautiM Countess of Chester- 
field, in the time of Charles II." 

It is said that the demolition of the house 
above recorded took place in consequence of 
the machinations of an artful steward, who 
contrived to T>ersuade the late Earl of Chester- 
field, then a very young man, that the build- • 
ing was in a dangerous state of decay. The 
deception was afterwards found out, and the 
owner, who was much attached to tlie spot, 
erected the present noble mansion in its place, 
residing in the steward's house while the work 
was going on. It is a modem castellated 
mansion, in the Gothic style of architecture, 
embattled, surrounding a large quadrangular 



court, and had been for several years in pro- 
gress before the death of the late Earl in 1815. 
Since that time the building has not been 
continued. It stands on an elevation in the 
midst of a beautiful deer-park, embellished 
with plantations of chesnut, beech, and other 
ornamental timber, together with a variety of 
picturesque scenery unequalled for its extent 
A small trout-stream rises in the Pistem hills, 
and winds its way through a deep glen, sup- 
plying several fish-ponds in its course. The 
portion of the house which is finished, com- 
prises the principal suite of rooms, elegantly 
fitted up in the most approved modem style. 
The saloon is circular, and lighted by three 
windows, while the ceiling is divided into 
richly-oraamented compartments. The bed- 
rooms are superior to most other houses in 
the country, with staircases and passages of 
corresponding siy.e and magnificence. 

The gardens, situated on the north side of 
the mansion, are extensive and well arranged. 
A remarkably fine cedar, probably the oldest 
of the kind in the kingdom, grows upon the 
east side of the house. It was planted in 
February, 1676-7, the cedar, according to 
Evelyn, not having been introduced into 
this country in 1664, and it measures thirteen 
feet nine inches in circumference. 

MIDDLBTOir PASX, the seat of George Au- 
gustus Boyd, Esq., D.L., is situated within 
five miles of Kilbeggan, in the co. of West- 
meath, in the parish of Castletown, distinc- 
tively styled Castletown-Gkoohegan, from 
its having been from high antiqui^ the 
stronghold and seat of the once princely sept 
of Mac Geoghegan, and, as the locality is 
throughout all its annals identified with that 
truly native family, their history is its most 
interesting chronicle. 

They claim descent from Fiacha, one of the 
sons of Niall of the Nine Hostages, monarch 
of Ireland in the fifth century. O'Dugan, in 
his poem of *' Topographical Genealogy," 
gives precedence to this ng;l)le tribe, and says 
tiieir territory extended over KinelrFiachny 
comprising the whole barony of Moycashel 
(in which lies Castletown), with parts of those 
of Moyashel, Rathconrath, and Fertullagh, in 
Westmeath.- Within this extensive district 
they possessed and long maintained various 
castles, the chief of which gave name to this 
parish, and its ruins are noted upon the 
present Ordnance Survey. 

In 1328, William Mac Geoghegan, cliief of 
Kinel Fiacha, roused into action by encroach- 
ments sought to be made upon his country by 
the settlers of the Pale, advanced to Mullingar 
to repel this aggression. There he encountered 
Thomas le Hotelier (ancestor of the Lords 
Dunboyne), the English army, with such 
success that 8,500 of his enemy, including 
their leader and some of the D'Altons, feu 



SEATS OF GREAT BBITAIN AND IRELAND. 



105 



<m the field. Le Boteller was interred with 
great honours at the Dominican monastery in 
Dublin. MacGeoghegan himself died in 1332; 
and the native annalists record with singular 
fideUty the achievements of his successors in 
the captaincy. In 1335 Milo de Verdon had 
'lioerate from the Treasury for his 



a 



sendees against the MacGeoghegans, as had 
Thomas de £ verdon in 1343, for taking a cer- 
tain number of them prisoners in Western 
Meath. In three years after, the chief saved 
himself for a time oy a rojdl licence of pro- 
tection. In 1385, however, his adherents taking 
part with their neighbours, the O'Connors of 
Ofialey, reasted another English invasion, 
meeting their opponents near the Hill of 
Grog^an (in the Kind's County), where "Nu- 
gent of Meath, Chambers and his son, with 
many others of the English nobility, and an 
immense number of me common soldiers, 
were dain." In 1414, the same allied septs 
again defeated the English at Killuoan, where 
"the Baron of Screen and a great many 
officers and soldiers were slain ; and the son 
of the Baron of Slane was taken prisoner. 
For him was obtained a ransom of fourteen 
hundred marks, and for Dardis the outlaw, 
and the other prisoners who were taken, was 
reoeived a ransom of twelve hundred marks." 
— Annals of the Four Ma$ter». 

The achievements of the chivalrous — ^per- 
haps some will say, of the wild and hopeless — 
resistance of this family in 1450 to the efforts 
for their subjugation, are narrated by the Four 
Masters with a graphic ndiveU that sadly illus- 
trates " Life in the Pale," as it lowered on 
Ireland for centuries. " Great depredations 
were in this year committed by me son of 
MacGeoghegan upon the English, during 
whiclk he plundered and burnt Rathwen, 
Killucan, Kilbixy, &c., in Westmeath ; slew 
some chiefs of tne O'Ferrals in the great 
town ci Lough Swilly (Bally-more), and in 
short spoiled an immense deal during tiiat 
war. The English of Meath, and the Duke 
of York, with the king^s standard, marched to 
Mullingar, and the son of MacGeoghegan, 
with a great force of cavalry in armour, 
marched on the same day to Beel-a-tha-glass 
to meet them ; when the duke came to the 
resolution of making peace with him, and 
they forgave him aU he had committed on 
thnn on oonditiane of obtaining peace.** This 
Duke of York, Richard Flantagenet, father of 
Edward IV., sensible of the power and hos- 
tility of the MacGeoghegans, wrote from Dub- 
lin to the English authorities while he was 
Viceroy of L^land, requiring supplies of 
money and "men of war** in defence and 
safeguard of this land, or (he says) " my 
power cannot stretch to keep it in the king's 
obeisance, and very necessity will compel me 
to come to Enaland, to live there upon my 
poor ' livelode ; for I had ' lever^ be dedd 



than any inconvenience shall fall thereto in 
my default; for it shall never be chronicled 
nor remain in scripture, by the grace of God, 
that Ireland was lost by my negligence ; " 
with such fearful jealousy did he look to 
Castletown^ and regard the power of Mac 
Geoghegan. An incident in 1488 connected 
with this family, affords the earliest mention 
of artillery in Ireland : " The Earl of KUdare 
marched with a predatory force into Kenel- 
Fiacha, where he demolished the castle of 
Bilerath (a shortdistance south of Castletown) 
on the sons of Murtough MacGeoghegan, 
after having conveyed some ordnance mither." 
Some remains of tbiis castle are also standing. 
In 1356, Robert Cowley, a busy subordinate 
of his day, recommendea to government that 
the Baron of Delvin and his sons should be 
" occupied" against MacGeoghegan, O'Mul- 
loy, &c. ; in pursuance of which advice it 
would appear, the Deputy, Lord Leonard 
Grey, in the foUowing year, undertook an ex- 
pedition against those septs of Westmeath, 
under ** the conduct and guidance of the lord 
of Delvin," and compelled them to give hos- 
tages; immediately after which, in accord- 
ance with the heartless policy of the day, 
their co-operation was engaged for the subju- 
gation of the O'CarroUs. Early in 1540 " a 
*peas' was concluded between the Ix)rd 
Deputy and Ross MacGeogheghan, then 
chief captain of his nation, and of the county 
of Kinaleigh (as Kinel-Fiacha was abbre- 
viated) ; by which the latter bound himself 
to do military service, with foiu* horsemen and 
twenty-four footmen, for a day and night, on 
notice, at any time, and as often as the king's 
deputy should please, and also to serve in 
every great hosting or journey (especially 
against Bryan O'Coimor of Offaley), witn 
four horsemen and twelve footmen during said 
journey, and at his own proper costs and 
charges.** In the June, however, of the same 
year, information was forwarded to the Privy 
CouncD of England, "that O'Neill and 
O'Donnell, with all the power of the north 
parts of Ireland; O'Connor, O'Mulloy, Mao 
Geoghegan, all the Kellies,with the most part 
of the power of Connaught ; O'Brien, with 
all his company, are all combined, and have 
appointed to meet at the king's manor of 
Fera, the 6th of July, next coming ; they also 
bringing with them five weeks' victuals. It 
is supposed and thought that of truth their 
meaning is for no purpose, but only to ^ure 
the Lord Justice and Council, with the best 
part of the English Pale, to the said place, by 
the Irishmen appointed, thinking by their 
great power to take their advantage of the 
king's subjects, and so to overrun all tbe 
English Pale at their own pleasure." On the 
appearance, however, of Sir William Brereton, 
with the forces of Government, the Irish con- 
federates scattered; "Whereupon," wrote 



114 



8BATI OP GUBAT BRITAI1I AHD XBICLAND. 



fn^eenhooM. In the sroDndB, that are taste- 
fuUj laid out and well planted, is a small 
lake, stocked with fish or most kinds natural 
to fresh water, and in the centre is an islet 
approached hy a rustic bridge. Upon the 
whole, Delf^T may be ranked amongst the 
most beautiful seats of Aberdeenshire. 

LAVmae hail in the CO. of Cumber- 
land, and parish of Bromfield, six miles from 
Wigton, the seat of Mrs. Frances Barwis. 

Ine manor of Langrigg was giren by 
Waldiere, Lord of Allerdale, to Dolphin, in 
whose posterity it remained for some descents. 
It was afterwards in a family who, according 
to a rerj common custom of early times, 
took theur appellation from the township, 
which itself was so called — Lang rigg, t.#., 
lan^ Ridge— from the circumstances of the 
locahtT. 

In tne reign of Queen Elizabeth the Porten 
held the manor, while the demesne was 
possesaed by by the Osmunderleys, or Osmoth- 
erleys. William Osmunderley of Langrigg 
was She' iff of Cumberiand in the time of 
Henry IV., and in the preceding reign the 
same person, or a person of the like name, 
was one of the knights of the shire. At a 
subsequent period tbey bought the manor of 
the Porters. The last of this family, the Kct. 
Salkeld Osmunderley* sold the manor and 
demesne, in 1785, to Thomas Barwis, Esq., of 
New Cooper, in the Abbey Holme, who was 
bom December 24, 1083, and married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Cuthbert Osmotherty, of 
Langrigg Hall, who was bom June 24, 1600. 

AII4ULVABK, in the oo. of Clackmannan, 
the seat of the Earl of Mar and Kelly. 

Alloa Parit is a flat, well-built, wooded, 
and fertile p rope rty , dose to the small town 
of AUoa. The pan is entered by iron gates 
tnm the promenade of the town. 

A short ^mroaoh through magnificent trees 
leads to the nouse, which is a square stone 
building, erected by the present earl. It is a 
eomfortable and gentlemanly residence, but 
without any pretensions to grandeur. The 
rooms are good and well-proportioned, and 
the bed-rooms on the second door are all of 
one size, and all fiimiahed exactly alike. 

The eari has a fine libraiTt and some 
noticeable pictures, partioulariy one of the 
regent earl, and one tnTVandYKe, of Oeoige 
Vuliers, the murdered Dukeoi Buckingham. 

The interesting old tower of Alloa, in 
which James VI. was nursed by the wife of 
the regent eari, stands about a stone's throw 
from the house, in the midst of a Tery fine 
wood. The fronfl^ mansion attached to this 
tower was brnnt in 1H02, but the strong 
waUed and lofty keep, which is all that re- 
mains, bears ample testimony to its ancient 
grandeur. In thW huUding tne Baron's Hall 



and the great state chamber are noble rooms, 
and the cradle of King James still stands in thi* 
latter. The riew from the roof of the tower 
resembles some of those in the ricinity of 
Naples, extending towards the north and west, 
along the range of the boldly-formed Ochils 
beyond the town and castle of Stiriing to the 
Campsie Hills, and the magnificent Gram- 
pians ; whilst towards Uie south and east, it 
embraces the windings of the Forth as far as 
Edinburgh, including the tower of Clackman- 
nan (said once to have been the residence of 
Robert the Bruce), Uie towns of Kincardine 
and Falkirk, the park of Dunmore, and the 
picturesque outline of the Pentlands. 

The subsoil of the valley is full of coal and 
iron ; and one of die Eari of Mar*s pits enters 
from the surface like a limestone earem, 
and presents a very singular and interesting 
walk of severs] hundred yards into the depUis 
of the earth. This mine is full of large coal 
fossils, and in many places the trees and 
feras of the pre-adamite world look as if they 
were still growing. 

The chiureh, lately pulled down, was of the 
eleventh century, and dedicated to St Mungo, 
one of the earliest Christian missionaries, and 
probably the saint who first christianized this 
part of Scotland. His real name was Kenti- 

Sim; he founded the Mother Church of 
lasgow, and he met Saint Columba there, 
A.n. 567, to airange with him a united sys- 
tem of doctrine and discipline, soon after that 
great man had settled in lona. ** Mungo** 
was the Gaelic characteristic applied to the 
name of Kentiffem, signifying ** the amiable." 
The Earls of Mar were the hereditary 
guardians of the infant sovereign or the heir- 
apparent to the orown of Scotland. 



Hum IT. OOSeiiin the 00. of Somei^ 
set. about three mOes f^m Crewkeme, the 
seat of Earl Poulett, whose family had 
their name— anciently written Paulet— -from 
the village of Paulet, near Bridgewater. It 
was fint assumed by Hercules, Lord of 
Toumon, in Picardy, who came into En^and 
with Jeffrey Plantagenet, Eari of Ai^ou. 

This estate was possessed in very eariy 
times bv the Powtrells. In the reign of 
Henrr iH., George PowtreU devised it to an 
only daughter and heir, married to John Oif- 
fori, who some time resided here, but died 
without male issue ; and the land descended 
by Alice, his daughter and heir, to Sir Phil^» 
Deneband, of Pesoayth, in Monmouthshire, 
knight After many snoeeesions of this fomily 
of Deneband, the manor of Hinton eame, bj 
the marriage of Elizabeth, dauriiter and heir 
of John Deneband, with Sir Wflliam Paulett, 
knight, into that ancient family, who were 
afterwards ennobled with the buony. 

The mansion of Hinton St Oeoige stands 



SEATS OF GKEAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



107 



educated in Spain, was appointed Provincial 
of the Dominicans in Ireland. In a few years 
after he founded one of the Colleges at Lou- 
▼aine for that order, and in 1 640 was advanced 
by the Pope to the see of Kildare. He died 
on the eve of the great civil war that pro- 
strated his country, and was buried in 1641, 
in the tomb of his ancestors, at the ancient 
abbey of Multefamham. In the confiscations 
whicD followed that war, three of the Mao- 
Geoghegan sept were forfeiting proprietors in 
the county Kildare, and one in Meath, while 
in Westmeath the aforesaid Arthur then lost 
all of his inheritance that yet remained, little 
more than 1 ,500 acres, including Castletown. 
His wife, who was one of the MacCoghlans, 
having secretly protected some of Cromwell's 
soldiery, she received for that service a trans- 
plantation debenture, entitling her to a part 
of the O'Flahertie's estates in the county Gal- 
way, and through Edward Geoghegan, her 
second son, the name was lineally continued 
in Connaught, until abandoned, by the last 
entitled, for that of O'Neill. A large portion 
of the Westmeath estate was granted to Sir 
William Petty, the organiser of the Down 
Survey, ancestor of the Marquess of Lans- 
downe. Five of the name sat in the supreme 
council of the Confederate Catholics at Kil- 
kenny (1647) ; and in King James's Parlia- 
ment of 1689, Bryan Geoghegan of Denore, 
and Charles Geoghegan of Syman (both de- 
nominations being within the ancient bounds 
of Kinalei^h), were the representatives of the 
borough of Kilbeggan, in this vicinity, while, 
in the Army List of that unfortunate mo- 
narch, five of this name appear commissioned. 
In the confiscations of 1688, were involved 
eleven extensive proprietors of the name in 
the county Meath, as were ten in that of 
Westmeath, including Hugo and Edward of 
the elder line of Castletown. The latter ob- 
tained, on petition, a reversal of his attain- 
der, and the family continued to be repre- 
sented there. In 1727, Arthur Geoghegan 
married Susanna, daughter of William Staf- 
ford of Blatherwick, and widow of Henry 
O'Brien, of the Inchiquin line, whereupon 
he took up the name of Stafford. In 1772, 
Owen Geoghegan, styled of Rosemount (by 
a change or similar bad taste in the name of 
place), married Miss MacAulay, of the an- 
cient sept of Frankfort, King's Coimty. Their 
heiress became the wife of Sir Richard Na- 
gle, late of Jamestown, by whom she left issue 
The manor of Castletown was sold some 
years since to Lord Sunderlin, from whom 
It passed, through the family of Berry, to 
the present proprietor. 

PAK8EAK0EB, Hertfordshire, about three 
miles from the city of Hertford, the seat of 
Earl Cowper. 

The ancient residence of the fam^y was at 



Coin Green, erected by the Lord Chancellor 
Cowper, in the commencement of the eigh- 
teenth century. This, however, was pulled 
down in 1801 by the fifth Earl Cowper, tlie 
father of the nobleman now possessing the 
estate, when the present mansion was built 
in its place, and at a short distance from Coin 
Green. It is a handsome house, in the Go- 
thic style of architecture, standing on the 
north-east bank of the river Mimeram, and 
in the midst of an extensive park. 

The grounds are laid out with much taste, 
but the great curiosity seems to be a magni- 
ficent oak, which has attracted the attention 
of local historians and tourists. Arthur 
Young, in his Survey of the County of Herts, 
says, " On the grounds of Panshanger is a 
most superb oak, which measures upwards of 
seventeen feet in circumference at five feet 
from the ground. It was called the 0-reat 
Oak in 1709: it is very healthy, yet grows 
in a gravel surface, apparently as sterUe as 
any soil whatever ; but if undoubtedly ex- 
tends its top root into a soil of a very difier- 
ent quality. It is one of the finest oaks which 
I have seen, though twelve feet to the first 
bough." 

Noble as this oak may be, the character of 
Lord Chancellor Cowper is yet a nobler sub- 
ject for consideration. He was the first En- 
glish lawyer who had presided in a Court of 
Equity, that refused those perquisites called 
" New Year's Gifts," which before his time 
had been received from the barristers and 
other retainers of the court 



ti 



MONUMENTUM JEBE PEREMMIUS. 



WI8T0W EALL, Leicestershire, about seven 
miles from the county town, the seat of Sir 
Henry Halford, Bart., M.P. 

In the old records, the village from which 
this seat takes its name was variously written 
Wistanesto, Wystanstow, and Winstanton, 
from Wistan, " a reputed saint, or holy per- 
son, to whom the church is dedicated." 

This estate has long been in the family, one 
of whom, to his infinite loss, as it turned out, 
was a zealous and active adherent, during the 
great civil war, of Charles I., who raised him 
to the baronetage. In this house the unfor- 
timate monarch slept on the 4th June, a few 
days before the fatal battle of Naseby. It 
would have been well for the worldly interests 
of Sir Richard had this been the sum of his 
offences towards the republicans ; but he sup- 
plied the king with large sums of money, and 
sent his eldest son, Andrew, with a number of 
men, to attend and protect Charles in Leices- 
tershire and the neighbouring counties. Un- 
fortunately for him, his retainers took a party 
of the enemy prisonei-s. among whom was the 
High Constable of Gurthlaston Hundred, and 
they, being conveyed to the king's camp, were 



108 



SEATS OF OBEAT BRITAIN AND IBELAND. 



hanged with very little ceremony. Oliver 
Cromwell was not tlie man to forget, or easily 
to forgive, an ill turn of this kind, and when 
he afterwards got Sir Richard into his hands, 
he determined to canr out the Mosaic law of 
" an eye for an eye, and ordered that he 
should die in expiation of this murder. His 
life, however, was purchased, according to 
the statement of Sir William Halford, ** for 
no less a sum than thirty tliousand pounds." 

Wistow Hall is a hrick house, encased with 
stucco, and has in the principal £ix)nt Qve guhle 
nediments. The chief room is a large lofty 
nail, which extends nearly the whole length of 
the house. The mansion contains a spacious 
dining-room, library, drawing-rooms, billiard- 
rooms, and many hed-rooms. In the former 
apartments are several good pictures, hy 
Yandyck, Ludovico Garacci, Luco Giordano, 
Buhens, CanaJatti, and other masters, of 
more or less celehrity. Here also are certain 
reliques preserved in the family with much 
care ; namely, a sword and saddle, with its 
handsome enamelled stirrups, that belonged 
to Charles I., and were left at Wistow when 
he proceeded to Naseby field. 

At a short distance from the house is the 
church ; and, approached by a gravel walk, 
through an avenue, at the end of a large sheet 
of water, it forms one of the most picturesque 
views in the coimty. 

STOKE COLUSGE, in the co. of Suffolk, near 
the market town of Clare, and about eighteen 
miles from Bury St. Edmonds, the seat of 
John Elwes, Esq. 

This place is usually called Stoke juxta 
Clare, to distinguish it trom Stoke juxta Ney- 
land, in the adjoining hundred. It is remark- 
able for the monastery of the Benedictine 
order, translated hither from the castle of 
Clare by Bichard de Tonebruge, who, at the 
same time, endowed it with the manor and a 
little wood called Stoke Ho. About the year 
1415, Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, 
obtained the royal permission to change this 
institution into a collegiate church, consisting 
of a dean and secular canons, an exchange 
duly ratified by Pope John XXIII. and 
Martin V. At the dissolution of the monas- 
teries, it was granted to Sir John Cheke and 
Walter Mildmay, from whom it passed to 
the family of Trigg. It next became the 
property of Sir Gervase Elwes, who was 
created a baronet in 1660, and died in 1705. 

The name of Elwes has acquired so much 
notoriety, if not celebrity, in the world, by 
the saving propensities of one of the family, 
that some account of its principal members 
will hardly seem out of place, though we may 
not go qmte so far as the enthusiastic bio- 
grapher, who says, "If I have any know- 
ledge of History, or hunutn nature, it will 
form an epoch in the biography of the eigh- 



teenth century, that such characters lived as 
Sir Harvey and Mr. Elwes, his nephew.** 

The family name of Mr. Elwes was Meg- 
got, and his Christian name being John, the 
conjunction of the two — Jack Meggot — ^led 
many strangers to fancy that it was merely a 
borrowed appeUation, given or assumed in 
jest. His father was a brewer of great emi- 
nence, whose dwelling-house and offices were 
situated in Southwark, upon the ground that 
is now occupied by Clowes, the printer, and 
so prosperous was his business that he left 
his widow a fortune of one hundred thousand 
pounds. The good dame, however, starved 
herself to death, if we may believe the record, 
though probably it ought not to be received 
without some modification. 

From Westminster, Mr. Elwes was re- 
moved, for the prosecution of his studies, to 
Geneva, but his attachment to the riding 
school absorbed all other feelings, and he 
soon became one of the best, as well as the 
most reckless, riders in Europe. Even a visit 
to Voltaire, whom he is said to have greatly 
resembled in face, failed to inspire him with 
a love for literature or the muses. 

On his retiun to England, after an absence 
of two or three years, he was to be introduced 
to his uncle, Sir Harvey Elwes, who was 
then living at Stoke, and who, in the art of 
saving, set him an example, which he never 
excelled, if indeed he ever reached it As he 
had reasonable hopes of becoming eventually 
Sir Harvey's heir, it was necessary to acquire 
and maintain his favour by a show of sym- 
pathising with his peculiar habits. As a 
matter of prudence, therefore, the nephew, 
who was a man of the world, and dressed 
like other people, used to prepare for his 
visits at Stoke like an actor preparing for 
the stage. He stopped at a little inn at 
Chelmsford, where he dressed in character — 
iron buckles, worsted stockings darned, a 
worn-out old coat, and a tattered vest 
" There," says the biographer, *' they would 
sit — ^loving pair ! — wiik a single stick upon 
the fire, and with one glass of wine occasion- 
ally between them , talking of the extravagance 
of the times ; and when evening shut in, they 
would retire to rest, as going to bed saved 
candle-light But the nephew had then, what 
he always had, a very extraordinary appetite, 
and this would have been a monstrous offence 
in the eyes of the uncle ; so Mr. Elwes was 
obliged to pick up a dinner, first with some 
neighbour m the country, and then return to 
Sir Harvey with a little diminutive appetite 
that was quite engaging. A partridge, a 
smaU pudmng, and a potato, did the busi- 
ness, and the fire was suffered to go out while 
Sir Harvey was at dinner, as eating was quite 
exercise enough.** 

All this, no doubt, sounds ridiculous enough, 
and yet if the story of Sir Harvey is read only 



SEATS OF GREAT BBITAIN AlO) IBELAND. 



109 



•s a theme for laughter, it is read to Tery 
little profit He came to an involyed estate, 
he resolved by economy to clear it, and he not 
only achieTed his purpose, but realized a 
hundred thousand pounds in addition. The 
constant indulgence, however, of any passion, 
even if it be a virtue, is sure to degenerate 
into vice. His economy became avarice, his 
prudence became folly; yet, in fairness, it 
must be remembered that the miser still re- 
tained some touch of good and kindly feeling, 
that he was not the moral monster which 
novelists are so fond of portraying — a man 
without a single redeemmg quality. As a 
proof of this, the f(dlowing anecdote nas been 
recorded of him, and will prohahly excite some 
interest: — 

"As he had but little connection with Lon- 
don, he always had three or four thousand 
pounds at a time in his house. A set of fel- 
lows, who were.afterwards known by the ap- 
pellation of the Thaekstead Oang, and who 
were all hanged, formed a plan to rob him. 
They were totaUy unsuspected at the time, as 
each had some apparent occupation during 
the day, and went out only at night, and when 
they had got intelligence of any great booty. 

'* It was the custom of Sir Harvey to go up 
into his bedchamber at eight o'clock, where, 
ailer taking a basin of water-gruel by the 
light of a small fire, he went to bed, to save 
the unnecessary expense of candle. 

" The gang, who Knew the hour when his 
servant went to the stable, leaving their 
horses in a small grove on the Essex side of 
the river, walked across and hid themselves 
in the church-porch till they saw the man come 
up with his horses. They then immediately 
fell upon him, and, after some little struggle, 
hound and gagged him; they then ran up 
towards the house, tied the two maids together, 
and going up to Sir Harvey presented their 
pistols and demanded his money. 

" At no part of his life did Sir Harvey ever 
hehave so well as in this transaction. When 
they asked for his money he would give them 
no answer till they had assured him that his 
servant, who was a great favourite, was safe; 
he then delivered them the key of a drawer in 
which was fifty guineas. But they knew too 
well he had much more in the house, and 
again threatened his life without he discovered 
where it was deposited. At length he showed 
them the place, and they turned out a large 
drawer where were seven-and-twenty hundred 
Guineas. This they packed up in two large 
baskets, and actually carried off— a robbery 
which, for quantity of spNecie, was perhaps 
never equalled. On quitting him, they told 
him they should leave a man behind, who 
would murder him if he moved for assistance. 
On which he very coolly, and with some sim- 
plicity, took out his watch, which they had 
not asked for, and said, * Gentlemen, I do not 



want to take an^ of you; therefore, upon my 
honour, I will give you twenty minutes for 
your escape; after that time nothing shall 
prevent me from seeing how my servant does.* 
He was as good as his word. When the time 
expired, he went and untied the man ; but, 
though some search was made by the village, 
the robbers were not discovered. When they 
were taken up some years afterwards, for 
other offences, and were known to be the men 
who robbed Sir Harvey, he would not appear 
against them." 

Many singular stories are told of the 
miserly habits of his successor, and that he was 
a miser there can be no question; but he 
could also be generous, of which we have 
many instances upon record, while, instead of 
leading the hermit-like life of his uncle, he 
for a long time sat in parHament, and, from 
the politeness of Ids manners, was everywhere 
an acceptable companion. Perhaps, luter all, 
he rather belongs to the class of eccentrics 
than of genuine misers; at least, it seems 
difficult to come to any other conclusion, 
when we see the numerous gleams of light that 
shot across the darker parts of his character, 
and when his biographer tells us, " in all the 
various sums which he lent in the course of a 
long life, not one usurious contract, or im- 
proper advantage taken, lives in the remem- 
brance of anybody." 

BBEKCKBUBir FBIOBT, in the co. of Nor- 
thumberland, distant ten miles, north-north- 
west, from Morpeth, the seat of Miyor Hodg- 
son Gadogan. 

The river Gocuet forms a peninsula at 
Brenckbum, across the neck of land that 
encloses a space of about nine acres : there 
are three artificia] mounds, erected evidently 
for its defence. The hanks of the river are 
steep and rocky, and the only approach to 
the small table-land above them is through 
the intervals of these mounds. The Romans 
had no station here, and these moimds refer 
to an earlier period. Gould they have been 
thrown up by the Britons? and this small 
space which they guarded, could it have been 
used for their religious rites? K any ves- 
tiges of such superstition had remained 
at the period of the foundation of the mon- 
astery, it is certain that the monks would 
have carefully removed all traces of them ; 
their absence, therefore, is accounted for, 
and the question still remains for antiquaries 
to discuss as to the purpose for which this 
spot was fortified. 

This priory was founded by Bertram, Baron 
of Mitford; it was composed of sixteen 
canons of the order of St Auffustine from the 
MonasteiT of the Holy Island, and was dedi- 
cated to St. Peter and St Paul of Brenck- 
bum. The seal of the priory represented St. 
Peter with the key, and St Paul with the 



110 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAKD. 



sword, standing side by side, and beneath 
them a smaller figure kneeling, represented 
the prior, the whole being encircled with this 
motto : " Ap lor. Petri et Pauli de Brenke- 
bume." 

Although this was only one of the lesser 
monasteries, its possessions were very con- 
siderable, as is shown by the Register in the 
library of the Earl of Ashbumham ; but of 
its private history little is known. 

Seated in a deep gorge, between two rocky 
cliffs, by the banks of a winding river, sm*- 
roundea by large woods, and far from any 
town, these monks enjoyed a tranquil and 
peaceful retirement, with nothing to disturb 
their religious meditations, save the occasional 
visits of the moss-troopers irom the border. 
These attacks rendered it necessary for them 
to have a residence strong enough for their 
defence, and the same reason induced them 
to respect the shelter of the stately oaks of 
the forest, that screened them from the obser- 
vation of their enemies. 

It is said that dining the commonwealth, 
when so many Roman Catholic chiu'ches were 
destroyed by the Puritans, a large body of their 
troops actually peissed within a short distance 
of this secluded spot unconscious of its vici- 
nity. On the following morning, when the 
priests had ascertained that the soldiers had 

Proceeded on their march, they conceived all 
anger past, and tolled their bell as usual for 
prayers. This bell was heard by some strag- 
glers who had been left behind. They com- 
municated this intelligence to the main body 
of their comrades, who immediately retumedf. 
The informants pointed to the direction in the 
forest whence the sounds had proceeded, and, 
cutting their way through the thick wood, 
came suddenly, and much to their siuprise, 
upon this romantic solitude. The church and 
tlie adjoining buildings were instantly set on 
fire, and the infuriated zealots sang praises to 
the glory of God while this work of plunder 
and devastation was being performed by 
them. 

The church has remained in ruins ever 
since. Solid in its structure, and perfect as a 
piece of masonry, it has well resisted the 
effects of time. The stones were not required 
for other buildings, which has so frequently 
caused the demolition of similar edifices, con- 
sequently this ruin presents one of the most 
perfect specimens of the arcliitecture of the 
twelfth century now remaining. The chiurch 
has lost only the roof, and one of the spires. 
The rest of the building is entire, and with its 
romantic situation, affords to the eye of the 
spectator a landscape of imrivaJled beauty. 

The monastery that adjoined the church, 
has been restored at different times, and used 
as a residence. A long vault runs the whole 
length of the building, in which the monks 
wore obliged to seciu'e their property in times 



of 'dan^r, and which place of security is to be 
found m all old edifices of this period situate 
near the Scottish border. 

At the dissolution of the monasteries Breuck- 
bum was granted to the Earl of Northum- 
berland, but upon his attainder it again fell 
to the crown, when it was given to the Earl 
of Warwick. From this family it passed to 
the great Northiunbriau house oiFenwick, by 
whom it was held for several generations 
without interruption. At length it was 
purchased from them by the family of the 
present owner, Migor Hodgson Cadogan, 
who married the daughter and heiress of 
the late Ward Cadogan, Esq., of Brenckbum 
Priory. 

The present mansion may be called a par- 
tial restoration of the monastic pile, being 
erected on the walls of the old priory, and 
near the south-west angle of tiie church. 
Nothing, as we have already mentioned, can 
be more beautiful than its site, between two 
rocky banks richly wooded, and surrounded 
on all sides, except the nortb, by the river 
Coquet, which is overhung by rocks and 
woods. 

BBukkwhAKPLACB, in the co. of Kent, 
not quite two miles from Bromley, and ten 
frx)m London, the seat of John Cator, Esq. 

This manor has undergone many changes 
of owners, as will generally be fouind the case 
with lands situate near the metropolis, 
families not seeming to root so deeply in 
them as in the more distant coimties. in the 
year 1080| at the time of the Domesday Sur- 
vey, it formed part of the immense possessions 
of Bishop Ode, the Conqueror's brother. In 
the reiffn of King Edward I., it was held 
by Richard de Rokele, at whose death it 
passed to his only daughter and heir, and by 
hex it was conveyed in marriage to Sir Wil- 
liam Bruyn. In this family it remained till 
the time of King Edward IV., when Eliza- 
beth, daughter and co-heir of Sir Henry 
Bruyn, married — ^her second husband — Wil- 
liam Brandon, standard-bearer to the Earl of 
Richmond at Bosworth Field, where he per- 
ished. The widow then married a third time, 
taking for her husband Thomas Tynel, Esq., 
of Heme, in Essex. By the Tyrrels it was 
conveyed to the Dalstons of Cumberland, 
who dienated it to Sir William Curwen of 
Workington about the middle of the reign of 
Charles 1. By him it was again disposed of, 
and to Sir OUver St. John of Battersea, at 
the latter end of the same reign. Eventually 
the manor descended to Frederick Viscoimt 
Bolingbroke, who, having obtained an act of 
parliament for that purpose, sold it in 1773 to 
J ohn Cator, Esq. Upon his decease in 1806. 
this gentleman bequeathed this manor with 
other estates to his nephew. 

The mansion here was erected by John 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



Ill 



Cator above mentioned, and stands in the 
parish of Beckenham, while the offices be- 
longing to it are in the parish of Lewisham. 
It is situated in the midst of a park, about 
three miles and a-half in circumference, 
watered bj a branch of the little river, Ravens- 
bourn, which has been considerably widened 
within the grounds. In front of the house is 
a lawn, belted in by a line of forest trees. 

The park is nearly a square ia shape, with 
the advantage of a fine undulating surface, 
particularly on the north-west, which lies 
higher than the rest On this side is an emi- 
nence called Stumps Hill, at the foot of which 
the plantations wind towards the house, pro- 
ducing a very picturesque eflfect. The whole 
has been laid out with much taste, and with 
due attention to the natural advantages of 
the locality. 

HAmXAHD ABBE7. Devonshire, near the 
small town of Hartland, or Herdand, at the 
north-west comer of the county, the seat of 
Lieutenant-Colonel George Stucley Buck. 

Hartland Abbey is said by Camden and 
other writers of good authority, to have been 
founded by Githa, vrife of Earl Godwin, in 
honoiir of bt. Nectan, by whose mediation she 
«»upposed her husband had escaped shipwreck. 
Upon the Norman conquest the Dynans, who 
took their name from Dvnan (in Brittanv), of 
which they were the lords, obtained the lands 
at Hartland, which probably had belonged to 
Harold, son of Earl Godwin. In the time of 
Henry II., as appears from the charters in 
Dugdale, Geofi&ey Dvnan conveyed the 
church of St. Nectan, of which he was patron, 
to Richard of Poitiers, the archdeacon, in 
order that he might estabhsh an abbey there 
for regular canons of the order of St. Augus- 
tine. And here it may be as well to observe 
that there was a marked distinction implied in 
the phrases regular and secular canons. The 
regular canons had a house, in which they 
li^ed together, subjected to certain monastic 
rules ; Uie secular canons, Uke modern pre- 
bendaries, though bound to serve particular 
churches, and possessed of prebends, had 
seldom any conventual house, or observed 
any settled rules. Thus, till the canons of 
Stoke were made regular canons, it does not 
appear that they haa any conventual home, 
Oeoffirey Dynan being the first who gave 
them lands for that especial purpose. The 
change is said to have been made under the 
authority of Bartholomew, Bishop of Exeter, 
who held that see from 1151 to 1 184. 

The last abbot, Thomas Pope, surrendered 
the conventual property, of wnich he was the 
head for the time being, on the twenty-first 
of Febniarv, 1 530, and was rewarded for this 
prompt yielding with a small pension, The 
King afterwards bestowed the spoil upon his 
sergeant of the cellar, John Abbot, by whom 



it was given to his nephew. The latter dying 
without issue, the estates were divided among 
his three sisters, who married into the families 
of Luttrell, Risdon, and Gower. The abbey 
came in this division to the former of these 
parties, but devolved to the Orchards by the 
marriage of the heiress of the Luttrells with 
one of that family ; and by the marriage of 
Anne Orchard with George Pawley Buck, 
Esq., Lieut.-Col. Devon Militia, to the pre- 
sent possessor. 

Hartland Abbey is situated in a narrow 
vale, the sloping sides of which are covered 
with hanging woods. The present mansion 
was built by the late Mr. Orchard, upon the 
site of the old monastic edifice, and even in- 
cludes some portion of its walls. The cloisters, 
indeed, were quite perfect, and are introduced 
as the basement storey of the eastern and 
western fronts of the new stiiicture. Upon a 
flat part of the mouldings over tlie cloistered 
arches was an inscription in veiy antiquated 
characters, which is still preserved in the 
eastern front, its import being that the cloistera 
were built of different coloured marbles, at 
the expense of the then abbot, John of Exeter. 
Several fragments of richly ornamented 
mouldings, and a monument of a cross-legged 
knight, were dug up here in the time of Mr. 
Orchard, while making the necessary altera- 
tions. 

The neighboxu-hood of this mansion 
abounds in delightful scenery, witli that alter- 
nation of hill and dale, wood and water, fertile 
and sublimely barren, which is so character- 
istic of the whole county — " A goodly pro- 
vince," as Fuller says, " the second in England 
for greatnesse, clear in view without measuring, 
as bearing a square of fifty miles. Some part, 
therefore, as the South Hams, is so fruitnil it 
needs no art ; some so barren, as Daitmore, it 
will hardly be bettered bjr art ; but generally 
— though not running of itself — ^it ansteers to 
the spur of industry. No shira shows more 
industrious, or so many husbandmen." 

The chiu-ch at Hartland is one of the finest 
in Devonshire. 

ALFBETOV HAIL, Derbyshire, near the 
market-town of Alfreton, the seat of William 
Palmer Morewood, Esq., whose original 
patronymic is Palmer, but who assumed the 
surname of Morewood upon succeeding to 
the estates of the Morewoods in 1825. 

At a very early period Alfreton was pos- 
sessed by the Chaworths, in which family it 
continued for several generations In the 
reign of Henry VII., Joan, the only daughter 
and heiress of this house, conveyed the estate 
by marriage to John Ormond, Esq., whose 
heir general conveyed it in like manner to 
Thomas, son of Anthony Babington of 
Dethicke, knight. In 1565, Henry Babington 
sold it to Sir John Zouch, of Codnor Castle. 



112 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



In 1618, his son, John Zouch, Esq., disposed 
of the manor-house, park, and estate belong- 
ing to it, to Robert Sutton, Esq., of Aram, 
in Nottinghamshire ; and he again sold the 
property in 1629 to Anthony Morewood of 
Hemsworth, in the county of Derby. In 
that family it continued till the death of the 
last heir male, George Morewood, Esq., in 
1792, when his widow conveyed it in marriage 
to tlie Rev. Henry Case, who upon this event, 
in 1793, took the name of Morewood, by the 
king's sign manual. The latter dying without 
issue in 1825, the estate devolved to Mrs. 
Morewood's nephew, William Palmer, of 
Ladbrook, coimty of Warwick, Esq., whose 
ancestors had been established there for a long 

geriod, and one of whom served as High- 
heriffof Warwickshire, in the sixteenth year 
of Charles I. 

Alfreton Hall, which occupies a pleasant 
and elevated site, was erected about a century 
ago by Rowland Morewood, Esq., and stancb 
a little to the west of the old mansion. It is 
built of exoeUent freestone, but has been 
improved and considerably enlarged bv the 
present owner. Within is a considerable col- 
lection of paintincs, some of them by the 
best masters, besides a valuable library of 
ancient and modem authors. Near the house 
are ancient gardens, weU stored with choice 
fruits and vegetables, and the grounds are 
covered with nne oaks ; the passion of Row- 
land Morewood for planting trees having 
fortunately been inhented by his son. 

Below the Hall is a piece of woodland, the 
upper part of which is intersected by two 
avenues; one is terminated by a temple of 
Diana and a fine bust; the other, by an 
obelisk above, and below by a sheet of water, 
the boundaries of which not being seen from 
the furthest point of view, the imagination is 
left to form to itself the idea of unlimited 
expansion, so that a little fish-pond is trans- 
formed to an extensive lake. Lower down are 
several rural moss huts, and a grotto built of 
the different fossils and minerals of all that 
diversi^ of form and colour exhibited by the 
minerid productions of the Peak. This last is 
of an octagonal form, and within are painted 
representations of several scenes described by 
Cotton, the pupil of old Isaac Walton in the 
quiet art of angling. 

The views from the north and west fronts of 
the house are pleasing and extensive. The 
soil is exceedingly rich in coal of a good 
quality, much to the advantage of the pro- 
prietor, whose fortune has swelled into opu- 
lence by ti^e rich possessions. 

AVJUSBOOWV PAIKK, in the oo. of Somer- 
set, and parish of Kilmersdon, about ten 
miles from Bath, the seat of the late T. S. 
Joliffe, Esq.. M.P. 

This mansion is a modem stmcture in the 



Grecian style of architecture, erected towards 
the close of the last century b^ Thomas 
Samuel Jolifie, Esq., after a design of Mr. 
James Wyatt The site of the building was 
chosen frt)m its commanding a view of certain 
prominent objects in a varied and extensive 
prospect ; though in other respects the posi- 
tion would seem less happDy selected, as being 
one of the wildest and most intractable spots 
in this division of the county. In the removal 
of the difficulties which an attempt to reclaim 
so mgged a surface presented, industry, 
activity, and a peculiar tact, were indispensa- 
ble; but the perseverance of the proprietor 
enabled him to overcome every obstacle. 

The interior of this dwelling is far more 
striking than its external appearance. The 
principal staircase is unique m its form and 
structure. A circular dome, embracing a 
considerable part of the central roof, is sup- 
ported by a series of Ionic columns, from 
whose bases the chambers in the highest storey 
branch ofi* in various directions, the entrance 
to each diverging from a lofty gallery. In the 
elliptic space opened from Ube base to the 
summit of the building, a flight of steps has 
been introduced, passages from which com- 
municate with the successive apartments. 

In this mansion is a valuable collection of 
pictures, botii W ancient and modem masters. 
Amongst the former we find tlie names of 
Teniers, Holbein, Vandyck, Van Loo, 
Cornelius Jansen, &c. ; amongst the latter, 
the most distinguished artists are Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, Sir Thomas Lawrence, Zoffany, 
Gainsborough, &c. Here are to be seen also 
some elegant and highly-finished pieces of 
sculpture. 

The park, in which the house stands, is four 
miles in circumference, surrounded by a wall 
eight feet in height, and bounded on all sides 
bv the highway. It is in the eastern extremity 
of the parish, and the soil within the limits of 
the enclosure contains almost every variety 
except that of chalk. Some of the side lands 
are of stubborn clay ; the lower grounds are 
a deep rich loam ; and the uplands, presenting 
a level surface of nearly two hundred acres, 
are of a light sandy nature. From the western 
edge of these, forming an extensive natural 
terrace, a wild and bold prospect is unfolded, 
that embraces the range of the Mendip Hills, 
and is terminated in tiie extreme distance by 
the approaches of the Welch moimtains. 
Walks and drives are cut in various directions 
through the hanging plantations ; and in an 
open plain, 

** (iramin«um in oampum, quern eollibus uidlqiM eanrb 
iLoelngunt ^Iva, medioque in valle thaatil'* 

A stadium has been erected, where the youths 
of the hundred assembled at stated periods, to 
contend in amicable rivalry for piizea in 



SEATS OF aREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



113 



nmiiing, leaping, throwing the quoit, and 
other popular gymnastic amusements. There 
is also a spacious hath ahout half a mile from 
the house, emhosomed in a ^ove of forest 
trees, and constantly overflowmg with living 
waters. 

The hundreds of Kilmersdon and Wellow, 
the lordship of which is vested in the proprie- 
tor of Ammerdown.have, or rather had, many 
singular rites and customs attached to them 
from the olden time. Amongst other privi- 
leges and emoluments which have fallen into 
disuse, a fine was formerly exacted from the 
principal estates — ^proofs of which are extant 
in the Hundred Eecords — as an annual 
tribute to the lord. 

A ceremony of high importance to widows 
is mentioned with fiaivete in Leland s Itinerary 
as peculiar to the manor of Kilmersdon. The 
same custom is made the subject of an article 
in the " Spectator," No. 623 — but the essayist 
places its locality in Berkshire. It is also 
mentioned by Bloimt in his Fragmenta 
Antiquitatu — " At Kilmersdon in Somersetr 
shire, by the custom of the manner, the wife 
has widow's estates,, which she loseth if bhe 
marrys, or is found incontinent ; but to re- 
deem this last, if she come into the next court, 
riding astride upon a ram, and in open court 
do say to the lord, if he be present, or to his 
Btewaord, these words — * * * she is by 
the custom to be restored to it without further 
fine, dining this penance.*' The words alluded 
to, and marked by asterisks, are too coarse for 
repetition, and ii ever uttered by any widow 
do no little credit to her assurance. But 
there is nothing new under the sun ; a cus- 
tom not very dissimilar is noticed by Plutarch 
as having existed at Gums, a city of Cam- 
pania, near Puteoli. 

OFFOEUBOH BVBT, in the co. of Warwick, 
about five miles from the county-capitol of 
that name, the seat of Lord Guernsey. 

This place is supposed to have received a 
part of the lordship called Berryey signifying 
^urgiu or Curia, for, according to titidition, 
Offa, King of Mercia, had a palace here in 
the days of the Saxon heptarcny ; '* as also," 
says Dugdale, '* that by reason of his (some- 
time) residence here, the church first, and 
consequently the villages had this name." 
The church here alluded to, and which gives 
one half of its appellation to the village, was 
dedicated to Saint Gregory, and appropriated, 
in after times, to GoventiT,by Molent, Bishop 
of Coventry and Lichfield, m 1260. 

Upon the dissolution of monasteries, Heniy 
VIII. granted Uie ** Gapitall messuase here, 
with all the demesn lands belonging tnereto," 
by letters patent, to Edmund Knightley , Esq. , 
and dame Ursula his wife, and to the heirs 
male of his body ; in default of such issue, 
the estate was to aevolve to Valentine Knight- 



ley, ins brother, and in the event of his 
dying without heirs male, it was to remain 
in the riffht heirs of Sir Richard Knightley, 
knight, rather of the said Sir Edmund. 

It appears that Edmund died without 
issue, when, according to the terms of the 
][>atent, this estate devolved to his brother, 
who then obtained another jfrant from the 
crown, and settled this lordship on his fourth 
and voungest son, to the prejudice of his 
rightful heir. In the process of descent it 
came at last to Sir John Knightley, Bart., the 
first of the family who was a Protestant. 
Dying without issue in 1688, Sir John, by his 
last will and testament, bequeathed this 
manor, with the lands thereto oelonging, to 
his kinsman, John Wightwick, Esq., upon 
condition that he should take upon him the 
name of Knightley. From this family it 
passed to Lord Guernsey, by marriage with 
the heiress of the late J. W. Knightley, Esq., 
of Ofichurch Bury. 

Some portions of the building here have 
marks of high antiquity, and evidently belong 
to the early conventucd days. Large addi- 
tions, however, have been made to the ancient 
pile, though not without regard to its original 
style of architectiure. 

DEIOATY CASTLE, Aberdeenshire, in the 
parish of Turriff, the seat of the Earl of 
Fife. 

This mansion, which is a fine specimen of 
the old baronial style of building, stands on 
the eastern side of the parish. Its erection 
belongs to different periods, one portion 
having been built in 1579. The modem 
alterations have been made with due regard 
to the original character of the structure, so 
that while it presents within every comfort 
and convenience of our own times, its external 
features remain but litde altered. The whole 
may now be described as a square casteUated 
edifice, sixty-six feet in height, the walls of 
which are seven feet four inches thick, with 
colonnades and wings of recent construction, 
but of ancient character. The various rooms 
are large and handsome, more particularly 
the two drawing-rooms, tbe largest of which 
measures thirty-foiu- feet in length by twenty 
feet in breadth, and is conne^»d with the 
smaller one by means of folding doors. This 
last is twenty-four feet long and fourteen feet 
wide, and both are handsomely furnished. 

Here, too, are to be seen a row good paint- 
ings, the work of the ancient masters, besides 
some family portraits of a modem date. 

The castle, from its top, commands a pic- 
turesque and extensive view, the general as- 
pect of this parish being highly interesting. 

The gardens attached to me castle are 
large, and supplied with the usual varieties of 
produce, tiie choicer plants and flowers being 
reared in the more genial atmosphere of a 

Q 



114 



SEATS OF GREAT BftlTAIM AND IRELAND. 



f^'eenhousa. In the grounds, that are taste- 
hiVLj laid out and well planted, is a small 
lake, stocked with fish of most kinds natural 
to fresh water, and in the centre is an islet 
approached hy a rustic hridffe. Upon the 
whole, DelgatT may he ranked amongst the 
most heautiful seats of Aberdeenshire. 

LAVGBIOG EAIX in the co. of Cumber- 
land, and parish of Bromfield, six miles from 
Wigton, the seat of Mrs. Frances Barwis. 

"Hie manor of Langrigg was given by 
Waldieve, Lord of Allerdale, to Dolphin, in 
whose posterity it remained for some descents. 
It was afterwards in a family who, according 
to a yeiy common custom of early times, 
took their appellation frt)m the township, 
which itself was so called — ^Lang rigg, t.«., 
Long Ridge— frt>m the circumstances of the 
locality. 

In the reign of Queen Elizabeth the Porters 
held the manor, while the demesne was 
possessed by by the Osmunderleys, or Osmoth- 
erleys. mlliam Osmunderley of Langrigg 
was She I iff of Cumberland in the time of 
Henry IV., and in the preceding reign the 
same person, or a person of the like name, 
was one of ihe knights of the shire. At a 
subsequent period tney bought the manor of 
the Porters. The last of this family, the Rev. 
S^keld Osmunderleyv sold the manor and 
demesne, in 1735, to Thomas Barwis, Esq., of 
New Cooper, in the Abbey Holme, who was 
bom December 24, 1688, and married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Cuthbert Osmotherly, of 
Langrigg Hall, who was bom Jime 24, 1690. 

AU^APABK, in the 00. of Clackmannan, 
the seat of the Earl of Mar and Kelly. 

Alloa Park is a flat, weU-built, wooded, 
and fertile property, close to the small town 
of Alloa. The park is entered by iron gates 
from the promenade of the town. 

A short approach through magnificent trees 
leads to the nouse, whidh is a square stone 
building, erected by the present earl. It is a 
comfortable and gentlemanly residence, but 
without any pretensions to grandeur. The 
rooms are good and well-pronortioned, and 
the bed-rooms on the second noor are all of 
one size, and all furnished exactly alike. 

The earl has a fine library, and some 
noticeable pictures, particularly one of the 
regent earl, and one by Vanckxe, of George 
Vuliers, the murdered Duke of Buckingham. 

The interesting old tower of Alloa, in 
which James VI. was nursed by the wife of 
the regent earl, stands about a stone's throw 
from ute house, in the midst of a yeiy fine 
wood. The family mansion attached to this 
tower was burnt in 1802, but the strong 
walled and lofty keep, which is all that re- 
mains, bears amj^le testimony to its ancient 
grandeur. In this building the Baron*s Hall 



and the great state chamber are noble rooms, 
and the cradle of King James still stands in the 
latter. The yiew from the roof of the tower 
resembles some of those in the yicinity of 
Naples, extending towards the north and west, 
along the range of the boldly-formed Ochils 
beyond the town and castle of Stirling to the 
Campsie Hills, and the magnificent Gram- 
pians ; whilst towards the south and east, it 
embraces the windings of the Forth as far as 
Edinburgh, including the tower of Clackman- 
nan (said once to haye been the residence of 
Robert the Bruce), the towns of Kincardine 
and Falkirk, the park of Dunmoie, and the 
picturesque outline of the Pentlands. 

The subsoil of the valley is full of coal and 
iron ; and one of the Earl of Mar's pits enters 
from the surface like a limestone cavern, 
and presents a very singular and interesting 
walk of several hundred yards into the depths 
of the earth. This mine is full of large coal 
fossils, and in many places the trees and 
ferns of the pre-adamite world look as if they 
were still growing. 

The church, lately pulled down, was of the 
eleventh century, and dedicated to St Mungo, 
one of the earliest Christian missionaries, and 
probably the saint who first christianized this 
part of Scotland. His real name was Kenti- 
gem; he founded the Mother Church of 
Glasgow, and he met Saint Columba there, 
A.D. 567, to arrange with him a united sys- 
tem of doctrine and discipline, soon after that 
great man had settled in lona. "Mungo** 
was the Gaelic characteristic applied to the 
name of Kentiffem, signifying " the amiable." 
The Earls of Mar were the hereditary 
guardians of the infant sovereign or the heir- 
apparent to the crown of Scotland. 



HmoV ST. OEOBOS, in the eo. of Somer- 
eeti about three miles from Crewkeme, the 
seat of Earl Poulett, whose family had 
their name— anciently written Paulet — ^from 
the village of Paulet, near Bridgewater. It 
was first assumed by Hercules, Lord of 
Toumon, in Picardy, who came into England 
yrith Jefflrey Plantagenet, Earl of Anjou. 

This estate was possessed in very eariy 
times by the Powtrells. In the reign of 
Henry HI., George Powtrell devised it to an 
only daughter and heir, married to John Gif- 
fora, who some time resided here, but died 
without male issue ; and the land descended 
by Alice, his daughter and heir, to Sir Philip 
Deneband, of Pesoayth, in Monmouthshire, 
knight After many successions of this family 
of Deneband, the manor of Hinton came, by 
the marriage of Elizabeth, daughter and heir 
of John Dttieband, with Sir William Paulett, 
knight, into that ancient family, who were 
afterwards ennobled with the barony. 

The mansion of Hinton St GhBorge stands 



SEATS OF OBEAT BBITAIN AKD IBBLAKD. 



115 



on the south side of the pariah of Crewkeme. 
It IB a large and splendid edifice, in the midst 
of noble woods and extensive parks. One 
part of the plantations occupies an eminence, 
and commands delightful prospects over no 
amall portion of the country. 



^ near Clonmel, oo. Tip- 
perarjr, the seat of John Bagwell, Esq., 
a magistrate for the counties of Tipnerarj 
and Waterford, High Sheriff of the former 
in 1884. 

This mansion is in the Grecian style of 
architecture, and was built in 1780 by Colonel 
John Bagwell. It stands upon the Suir, or 
Suire, a picturesque riyer, which rises in the 
Sliebhbloom mountains, and is navigable as 
high up as Clonmel. The demesne and 
grounds surrounding the house extend to 
eleven hundred acres. 



BEB8T0V 8T. LAWSSVOB, in the co. of 

Norfolk, hundred of Tunstead, or, as it was 
at one time written, Tunstede, about foiur 
miles from Coldshall, and eight and a half 
from Norwich, the seat of Sir Jacob Henry 
Preston, Bart 

In the reign of Henry VIII., this manor 
belonged to the Hares. Thomas Hare dying 
without issue, it devolved to his sister Audrey, 
who conveyed it in marriage to Thomas 
Hobart, of Plumstede, in the same county. 
From this last-mentioned family it passed 
to the Prestons, who originally came from 
the villa^ of Preston, in Suffolk, to which, 
in all likelihood, they owed their patro- 
nymic. In 1658 Jacob Preston inherited 
this property from his mother, Thomasine. 
He was an ardent loyalist, and in such 
high favour with Charles I., that he was 
one of the four gentlemen appointed to wait 
upon him during his imprisonment by the 
victorious party of his subjects. As a last 
token of affection, Charles when on the 
scaffold presented him with an emerald ring, 
that is still preserved at Beeston Hall as a 
memorable relique. 

The first of this family who obtained dis- 
tinction above the rank of commoner, was Sir 
Isaac Preston, knighted at Whitehall by King 
WiUiam HI. in 1606. 

Beeston Hall has obtained its appellation 
from its situation in the parish of that name, 
which was so called on account of its church 
being dedicated to St Lawrence, and to dis- 
tinguish it from other Beestons in the same 
county. As a building, the house has nothing 
particularly characteristic, but it has a pic- 
turesque appearance, while the country 
around, like the greater part of Norfolk, is 
fertile and well cultivated, owing as much to 
human skill and industry as it does to nature. 



FAGOBAHOmS, Richmond, Suney, the 
seat of William Selwyn, Esq., Q.C. 

The Selwyn estate was bought in the year 
1720 by Charles Selwyn, Esq. Upon his 
decease in 1749, it passed, in accordance with 
the manorial custom, to his youngest nephew, 
William Selwyn, Esq., a distinguishea bar- 
rister-at-law, Town-Clerk of Gloucester, and 
K.C. in 1780. He died in 1817, when the 
estate devolved to his only surviving son, the 
present owner, who was Kecorder of Ports- 
mouth from 1819 to the year 1829. 

The house stands on the Eew Road, at no 
great distance from the new church, and was 
erected about thirty years ago by the father 
of the gentleman now possessing the estate. 
It is a substantial edifice, built of a light- 
coloured brick, in the midst of park-like 
pleasure-grounds, that are surrounded by a 
wall. 



BI8S, in the oo. of York, East Riding, 
near the town of Hull, the seat of Richard 
BetheU, Esq., for some time Member of 
Parliament for the same division of the 
county. 

In the reign of James I., this manor was 
in lease to the Bethells; but after the 
Restoration, Charles II. granted the lord- 
ship in fee to Sir Hugh Belhell, knight, 
from whom it has descended to the present 
owner in broken succession. At a very 
remote date it was held by the Fauconberss, 
Falconberges, or Falkenbergee— for the 
name is thus variously written in the older 
documents— one of the most ancient families 
in the seigniory, Fnmco of Fouconberg, in 
Normandy, having come over at the time of 
the conquest 

The date of the old house, no longer in 
existence, is uncertain, though it unques- 
tionably belonged to a very early period, and 
underwent many changes. " It was,** says 
the Reverend Nicolas Torre, " in the jear 
1738 that Mr. Bethell began lus alterations, 
and erected the new front of his house, the 
dimensions of which appear to be nearly six^ 
yards in length, and fitteen in height 

In 1815 this old house was almost entirely 
pulled down by the present possessor, and 
rebuilt upon a very extended scale, the whole 
not being completed till 1820. The west 
front is ornamented with a portico, piUarB, 
entablature, and pediment of the Ionic order 
The south front has two projecting wings, of 
about six feet, the centre of aplain pediment 
on the top of the cornice. Tne north front 
is similar; and the whole is built of a hand- 
some stone, the interior being fitted up with 
much taste and elegance. 

This elegant mansion stands in a park 
abounding with fine timber ; one hundrea and 
thirty acres axe occupied by deer; about one 



116 



BEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



hundred and twenty acres more are covered 
with fine old woods, consisting of the noblest 
oaks, and the largest ash and larch ; twenty 
acres more are devoted to the fish-ponds. 

The principal entrance to the park, from the 
Beverley Road, near the church, is orna- 
mented with two stone lodges, having Doric 
columns. 

HABTWXLL, in the co. of Bucks, the seat 
of John Lee, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Hartwell House is situated in the midst of a 
fine estate, and is more immediately sur- 
rounded by grounds of great beauty, consist- 
ing of about seventy acres, laid out in orna- 
mental park, kitchen garden, birch walks, 
shrubberies, and pleasure gardens. The plea- 
sure-grounds have been most judiciously 
planted and ornamented with alcoves, sta- 
tues, obelisks, and termini at appropriate 
places, while all aroimd are to be seen fine 
specimens of cedar, lime, elm, plane, oak, 
beech, and sycamore. The abele, too, flou- 
rishes in great luxuriance. The home 
domain has niunerous beauties, and has 
been so exquisitely embellished with all the 
accessaries that wealth and taste could con- 
fer, that the eye meets with varying declivities 
and meadows, and the rill that would have 
stolen away imseen, has been cherished into 
an expanse of water. 

In ancient times, Hartwell was a well- 
wooded and well-stocked emporium of game 
of all sorts, and it was afterwards cleared into 
numerous* plats and interminable avenues, 
with woody spaces between. At length, with 
the revolution, came the formal Dutch taste, 
and by the year 1605, these groimds were 
squared out around the mansion, divided by 
weU-clipped evergreen fences, with prim 
yews, cut into architectural forms, and watered 
Dy straight canals. But the Dutch taste, ere 
long, maide way for an opposite extreme. The 
fiats and canals and parterres, with tonsured 
hedges, were transformed into clumps and 
belts, the yew arcades and avenues were cut 
down, the long walks upheaved, the terraces 
levelled, and the statues were removed to 
more remoteparts of the ground. 

Hartwell House is judiciously placed on a 
dry and airy spot, around which the conti- 
guous grounds are suitably laid out and well 
wooded. The principal entrance is by a road 
from the lodge over the park hill, descending 
from which it winds along a piece of water, 
which it crosses by a neat stone three-arched 
bridge. Over the lawn there is an unimpeded 
prospect to Aylesbury. The principal front 
of the mansion is now left open, though for- 
merly it was closed in by long and venerable 
avenues. The Hartwell gardens are extremely 
tasteful, and present the best specimens of 
the kitchen and fruit garden, the ladies' pri- 
vate flower garden, the roomy and weU-aired 



aviary, together with winding walks among 
trees and beautiful shrubs. 

Hartwell House is of considerable age, and, 
notwithstanding the great alterations of suc- 
cessive generations, it retains a large portion 
of the original structure. It was erected on 
the site of a much older house in 1570 by Sir 
Thomas Lee, who, having acquired the estate 
by marriage, expended a large sum of money, 
and evinced much good taste in the under- 
taking. 

The form of the mansion is aparallelogram. 
Its length is 100 feet, with a breadth of 110 
feet at the two ends, and its height to the 
parapet is 45 feet The house has four fronts, 
those to the south and east being light, airy, 
and neat, while that to the north presents 
large windows, with appropriate mulhons and 
transoms, and other peculiarities denoting the 
Elizabethan era; and that to the west, with 
its rough ashlar work, has the appearance of 
still greater antiquity. From the dimensions 
just given, it will be seen that Hartwell 
House is extensive. It is, in truth, an excel- 
lent dwelling; being a well-designed mean 
between those vast piles raised for pompous 
magnificence and the smaller abodes, where 
convenience alone is considered. 

The east and south facades have each a 
columned portico; but the usual entrance is 
by a low porch on the north side. Here we 
enter a fine manorial hall, into which the 
whole mansion opens. The older division is 
laid out in halls and muniment room, and a 
gallery above. The modernized portion con- 
tains the general apartments — the library, 
study, and chapel below, with a range of 
capacious sleepmg-rooms over them; and the 
whole is surmounted with a storey of commo- 
dious attics. The great hall is 47 feet long, 
20 feet broad, and 18 feet high. The ceiling 
is elaborately decorated, and an enormous 
bay window gives ample light to this excellent 
specimen of transition architecture. A break- 
fast-room leads from the hall to the drawing- 
room, 27 feet by 80, and 18 feet high; the 
ceiling is richly moulded; the mantle-piece 
finely carved, of white and yellow marble. 
From the drawing-room we pass into the 
dining-room, of the same heignt, and 88 feet 
long by 25 feet wide. The chimney-piece is 
of richly-carved white marble, bearmg the 
date of 1658. These apartments contain 
many good paintingB and family portraits. 
The library is of the same height with the 
rest, and is 36 feet long by 30 feet wide. The 
great staircase is a stately oaken structure, 
of easy ascent and appropriate breadth ; the 
rails consist of small terminal figures, which 
sustain the banister, with its twenty-four 
biblical, heathen, end historical heroes and 
heroines, cut in oak, and standing on pedestals 
above the hand-rails. 

Among the paintings are some good family 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



117 



portraits of the Lees, by Sir Peter Iiely, which 
are finely finished. There are others by Sir 
Godfirey Kneller. It would be endless were 
we to specify these family pictures. We 
cannot, howeyer, omit to notice that of Lady 
Elizabeth Lee, which is an excellent specimen 
of Sir Joshua Reynolds's; and also that of the 
celebrated Sir John Suckling, grandfather to 
the first Lady Lee, by Vandyke. 

We must consider Hartwell House under 
three aspects : Ist, as the residence of an an- 
cient family of English gentiy ; 2nd, as the 
abode of the exiled royal family of France ; 
and drd, as a musemn containing an infinite 
number of costly, rare, and curious objects, 
collected by the taste and research of the 
present proprietor. 

I. In Saxon times, Hartwell was a portion 
of the wide domains of the Thane Alwyn, and 
at the conquest it fell to the lot of William 
Peverel, who seems to have possessed im- 
mense territories in the central parts of Eng- 
land. In 1055, the lands of the reverels were 
seized by King Heniy II., and soon after the 
accession of l^ing John the manor of Hartwell 
appears in the possession of afeudatory tenant, 
who derived his name from the place. In 
1276, in the reign of Edward I., the manor of 
Hartwell was neld by Alice de Laton and 
William, her son, to whom it had been con- 
veyed in 1269, at the end of the reign of 
Henry III., by William de Hartwell, and it 
has remained, without interruption, in the 
direct line of the Latons ever since. Sir 
Henry de Laton, the last male of this liamily, 
was Knight of the Shire for the coun^ of 
Bucks in 1887 and 1890. His only child, 
Eleanor, married Thomas de Stoke, and her 
only child, Agnes, wife of Sir Thomas Sin- 
gleton, had a daughter and heiress, Elizabeth, 
who brought the manor of Hartwell to her 
husband, John Hampden of Kimbell, a 
yoimger branch of the noble and ancient 
house of Hampden of Great Hampden. The 
Hampdens continued to possess Hartwell up- 
wards of 180 years. The last of them, Sur 
Alexander Hampden, having no issue, was 
succeeded by his sister and heir, Eleanor 
Hampden, wife of Sir Thomas Lee of East 
Glaydon. The Lees were descended from the 
Leighs of High Legh and Lyme in Cheshire ; 
but had been settled in Buckinghamshire for 
many generations before the marriage of Sir 
Thomas with the heiress of Hartwell. Their 
great-grandson, Thomas Lee of Hartwell, 
was created, by King Charles II., a baronet. 
He died in 1690. Sir Thomas Lee, the second 
baronet, had, among other issue, two sons ; 1, 
Thomas, his successor; 2, William, who was 
Lord-Chief-Justice of England, and from him 
the present proprietor of Hartwell isdescended. 

Sir Thomas, the third baronet, succeeded in 
1 702. He had a daughter, Anne, wife of the 



first Lord Vernon, and a son, Sir William, 
who succeeded as fourth baronet of Hartwell 
in 1749. In 1768, Sir William married Lady 
Elizabeth Harcourt, only daughter of Simon, 
Earl of Harcourt, by whom he had two sons. 
Sir William and Su- George, successively 
baronets of Hartwell. The last of these, Su: 
George Lee, originally studied medicine, and 
then, taking orders in 1792, held the living of 
Hartwell and several other preferments. On 
the death of his brother without issue, he suc- 
ceeded to the family estates. As, during his 
whole life, he was engaged wi^ the duties of 
his sacred profession, he resided chiefly at his 
livings, and only occasionally at Hartwell 
House, which was frequently let He em- 
ployed the leisme afibrded oy a bachelor 
life, the gifts of fortune, and a cultivated in- 
tellect, in the faithful discharge of his pro- 
fessionaJ duties, and in' active beneficence in 
his neighbourhood. Discerning and upright 
as a magistrate, his judgment was always re- 
vered, and he was greatly beloved and re- 
spected in the county. The character of this 
amiable gentleman cannot be better told than 
in the words of Sir William Young, Baronet, 
the historian of Athens, and M.P. for Buck- 
inghamshire, who tenanted Hartwell House 
for several years previous to 1807. From the 
island of Tobago, of which he was appointed 
governor. Sir William, in 1814, transmitted 
the following homely verses to Sir George Lee, 
which we venture to introduce here, not be- 
cause the rhymes have merit, but on account 
of the good and amiable feeling which runs 
through them, and the singularly apt and 
felicitous description which tbey give of Eng- 
lish country life, and of the manners and 
habits of the English rural aristocracy— a 
class peculiar to this happy country, and 
without a parallel on the continent, and only 
very imperfectly represented in its frill and 
cordial geniality by the corresponding class 
in the sister Kingdoms of Scotland and 
Ireland. 



' If aught could the oomforts of home e'er restore. 
Hartwell's manor and farm, "with the care of the poor. 

Opened grateful delights to my view ; 
But what moat engaged me the tenant to be, 
Was the landlord, the good and beloved Sir George 
Lee, 

Whom as Justice and Keetor I knew. 



'* Descendant of Hampden — a younger son bom— 
His heirdom to Hartwell seemed weak and forlorn; 

George Lee a physician was bred. 
Hartwell's rectory vacate, the priest he became. 
His brother then dying was heir to the same, 
And parishioners cured, taught^ and/ed. 

** Here, my children at home, a home's comfort I felt. 
The gently were social who near the place dwelt, 

And my Rector would oft psas a day. 
My yeomanry drill, and the sports of the field. 
Some mornings each week an amusement would 
yield. 

And a party to dinner would ataj. 



118 



SEATS OF QBEAT BBITAIM AMD IRELAND. 



*' The poor num, •tch mom, had his hour of plea 
For relief or redress, ftt>in Sir George m fttim me ; 

The Jostlees Bstordays met. 
Orerseeni sad waywardens to hear aod direct, 
And wood-stealers, Tsgrants, and poachers oorreot; 
Their Worships, a worthy ana pleasant old set 

** King Lonis of Frsnoe, then taking my lease, 
To Hartwell retired, till France was at peace ; 

To its poor, good and kind as oonld be ; 
And himself gained a growing esteem for our nation, 
And for this without any, the least adulation, 
'Twas enough to hare known Sir Oeorge Lee." 

As Sir William Young here intimates, his 
successor as tenant of Hartwell was King 
Louis XVIU., and thus the old hall of the 
Lees hecame for some time the asylum of 
exiled royalty. 

II. We must next consider Hartwell as the 
asylum of the exiled royalty of France. 



" Oood classic Louis I ii it, canst thou say. 
Desirable to be the 'Dteir6 '? 
Why wouldst thoa leare calm Hartwell's green 

Apician table and Horatian ode. 

To rale a people who will not be ruled. 

And loTe mnch better to be scourged than schooled ? 

Btboh. 



After seyeral years of wandering, occa- 
sioned by the political Tioissitudes which 
compelled aretreat from one continental state 
to another, King Louis XVHI., with his oueen 
and a numerous suite, took refuge in England ; 
and Hartwell House, just then yaoated by Sir 
William Young, was hired as a suitable resi- 
dence for them. They took up their abode 
there in 1808. It may he interesting to men- 
tion some of the chief French notabilities 
who were crowded into this English coimtry 
seat The King and Queen, the Count 
d*Artois, the Duke and Duchess d'Angou- 
leme, the Duke de Berri, the Archbishop of 
Bheims, the Duke de Grammont, Blacas, 
D'Ayaray ; the Duke and Duchess de 
Seauts, besides marquesses, counts, barons, 
chevaliers, abbes, physicians, and domestics— 
in number one hundred and forty : indeed they 
occasionally numbered two hundred. So 
numerous a party required such extemdye ac- 
commodation thatthehalls, gallery, and larger 
apartments were ingeniously subNoiyided into 
suites of rooms and closets. Eyery out-house 
and the ornamental buildings in the park were 
densely peopled. It was curious to see how 
these loyal emigrants stowed themselyes away 
in attics and in closets. All was well con- 
ducted and cheerful, throughout a residence 
of six or seyen years ; and in the eyeninss there 
was much mirth, music, and dancing kept up 
in the cottages around, which had for their 
temporary occupiers those who had been 
accustomed to the salons of Paris. 

Many curious anecdotes might be men- 
tioned connected with the residence of King 
Louis at Hartwell. Here he preseryed the 



character so natural to him of a dignified 
philosopher, united with tixe amenity of a 
polished gentleman, and the erudition of a 
scholar ; the whole tempered with no small 
share of savoir vwre and wit. He read his 
Horace, wrote oleyer letters, and enjoyed good 
dinners; and, thanks to the Uben^ty of the 
British Goyemment, he was enabled toliye in 
comfort and eyen splendour, as he and his 
family had a pension of ^20,000 per annum. 

At the dose of the year 1810, Louis had the 
misfortune to lose the Queen, to whom he 
seems to haye been yery sincerely attached, 
and who died peacefully at Hartwell, after a 
short illness. A short time after her death, 
he thus writes to his confidential friend, the 
Duke d'Ayaray, then absent from him: 
"Fear nothing for my health: it has not 
suffered. I am already at the point where 
I belieye that I shall remain — ^no more tears, 
no more pangs of sorrow, but a sincere regret, 
a yoidin my Hfe, which I feel a hundred tmies 
a-day. A tnought occurs to me, sad or gay, 
or indifferent ^no matter, a recoUection of 
something old, or an emotion of something 
new — ^I find myself saying mechanically, 
*I must tell h&r this;' and dien, alas! I re- 
collect my loss; the illusion yanishes, and I 
say to myself, *The day of these soft inter- 
courses is gone for eyer.' All this does not 
hinder me from taking part in conyersation, 
or eyen smiling when the occasion occurs, 
but the sad thought that she is gone for eyer, 
mixes itself with eyefything, and, like a drop 
of wormwood in food or dnnk, embitters the 
flayour without entirely destroying it" Ko 
words can more elegantly or feelingly express 
the rational grief of a well-regulated mind and 
affectionate heart. 

In the spring of 1811, Gustayus IV., the 
dethroned King of Sweden, yisited the royal 
sage of Hartwell, and the two crownless 
monarchs sympathised with each other, under 
the shelter of the roof of an English country 
clergyman I The prospects of Louis seem to 
haye "been the most clouded oyer at the time 
of the birth of the King of Bome, which gaye 
the delusiye prospect of perpetuity to the de- 
scendant of Napoleon. Howeyer, he treated the 
subject like a Christian philosopher. " So 
then we haye a babe in the Napoleon family ! 
Many people look upon this eyent as highly 
important I am not of that opinion. If God 
has condemned us to this tyranny, Bonaparte 
can neyer want a successor. If, on the other 
hand, the Diyine wrath should pass away, all 
the babes in the world will not preyent the 
oyerthrow of iniquity." 

When the star of Napoleon was on the wane, 
the prospects of the fioiu*bons reyiyed, and 
the sage of Hartwell, so lonff unnoticed, was 
now mobbed by yisitors, and pestered by ad- 
dresses. His cam prudence, howeyer, still pre- 
vailed, and he made his yarious arrangements 



BRATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND. IRELAlfD. 



119 



and preparatioiiB for the retmn to France, 
which aeexned now probahle, as coolly as if 
only about to migrate from one county to 
another. At lengdi the allies entered Paris, 
the Cossacks biTouacked in the Champs 
Elys^es, and Louis became all at once Le 

On Ladyday, 1814, the king with his famfly 
was at prayers; when suddenly two post- 
chaises ana four drove furiously up to the 
door, with white flags, and containing deputies 
frm Bordeaux to announce the enthusiastic 
reoeptioii of the duke d'Angouldme, and the 
proclamation of Louis XVlIL They had 
hardly dellTered their message when other 
carriages arriTcd with equal speed, conveying 
a party of deputies from Paris to entreat the 
philosopher to return, and take possession of 
his Uuone. The king received them in the 
libraiy, and there signed the celebrated docu- 
ment, said to have been suggested by Talley- 
rand, stating that he accepted, and would 
observe, the constitution of France. The pen 
with which this document was signed was 
picked up and preserved, and now remains 
m the museum at Hartwell, an enduring me- 
morial of the shifting scenes of that strange 
dream of real life, which was followed by 
changes even more startling, and vicissitudes 
more wonderful, during the succeeding forty 
years. Holyrood Palace, the Prison of Ham, 
and Claremont, can, all of them, bear witness 
to the extraordinary fate which has befallen 
the sacoessive rulers of France; but the 
chances and changes of this world have, in 
no instance, found a more complete prepar 
ration of presence of mind and good sense 
than in Louis XVIII. 

III. We must now say a very few words 
concerning the museum which has been 
formed at Hartwell by the presentproprietor. 

Sir GhBorge Lee died on 27th September, 
1B27, at the rectory of Beachhampton, to 
which he had been presented in 1815 by the 
Marquis of Buckingbam, and between which 
place and Hartwell he divided his time. He 
bequeathed everything that he possessed to 
his next heir, toe great grandson of his 
grand-unde, the Lord Chief Justice Lee. This 
gentleman is the present proprietor of Hart- 
well, and on his accession to the estates he 
madie no change in the establishment, but 
retained all the servants, dependants, and 
tenants of his predecessor. However, during 
his occupancy many valuable and curious 
objects have oeen collected, which enhance 
the interest of this place. We will here sub- 
join a list of the most remarkable things : — 

A bust of Paris found in the ruins of Tyre. 
Various marble slabs and tablets with sculp- 
ture; an altar; various bassi relievl; Ceres 
of Eleuvis ; a beautiful female head ; a fine 
Etruscan head. All these excepting the last 
are Greek. 



A magnificent collection of coins and me- 
dals, consisting of Greek, Syrian, Sicilian, 
and Roman coins. Of the latter there are a 
thousand of the greatest beauty. 

A very laige collection of Egyptian anti- 
quities, mto which it is impossible to enter in 
toe circumscribed limits of this description. 
We will merely state that the Hartwell assem- 
blage of ancient Egyptian curiosities is one of 
the most valuable private collections in Eng- 
land. The portion of it which is the most 
striking to the cursory observer, although by no 
means the most valuable, is a series of seven 
colossal statues of Bubastis in black basalt 

Adjoining the library, and in communi- 
cation with it, Dr. Lee has constructed an 
excellent observatoiy, consisting of three 
rooms, an anteroom, a transit room, and an 
equatorial tower. They are furnished with 
instruments of first-rate power, which have 
been procured with much trouble, and the 
selection of which evinces no small share of 
scientific skill. 

MVCaum, or inrCBTTS abbey. Killamey, 
in the oo. of Kerry, the seat of Henry Arthur 
Herbert, Esq., M.P. 

The demesne of Mucross is so extensive 
and so full of beauty, that the visitor may 
spend his whole day there, from sunrise to 
sunset, and yet leave it with lingering regret. 
Independently of its higher charms, the va- 
riety of its woods fullj realizes the picture 
given by Chaucer in his morning walk: — 

" The DapheiM elosed under ryude, 
Orene Uonr, and the holaome pjnne. 
The mynhe elao that wepeth erer of kynde, 
The oedzea hye, upzli^t aa a lyae. 
The lyiberte eke yt lowe doth enolyne 
Her bowen greae, to the erthe adonn 
Unto her knyi^t called Dernqphovn.'* 

In sailing along the northern margin of the 
peninsula, a succession of glorious prospects 
meet the eye, except where the scene is 
obtruded ^^>on by the white barracks of Ross 
Castle. The rocks of the shore are finely 
broken, and worn away by the dashing of 
the waves against them. When the lake is 
agitated by the winds, the surge beats with 
much fury upon the rocky barriers, spreading 
a sheet of'^feathery spray far and wide around. 
A lar^e bay runs in towards Mucross House, 
in which Su^ar Island occupies a great space, 
while " a pomt of the pemnsula stands out 
on the left, clothed with grassy banks, that 
bend into flowing lines, and mtersect each 
other without any anffular formality.'* Fur- 
ther on is Ash Island, with several remark- 
able white rocks, bearing so close a resem- 
blance to the form of a horse as in some 
states of the atmosphere to completely delude 
the uninitiated spectator. 

Not the least interesting feature in this 
demesne is the Abbey itself—" Go, visit it 



120 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IREIJIND. 



by the pale moonlight,** after passing through 
a succession of the most enchanting scenery, 
the like of which is nowhere else to be found 
in tiie United Kingdom. The original name 
of this fine old pile was Irdough^ or " the 
building on the lake," a name it has received 
from the lough, or lake, which is about a fur- 
long off. The building stands upon an emi- 
nence, but it appears that a church of a yet 
earlier date once stood upon the same ground, 
and was biunt down in 1102. According to 
Archdall, the abbey was built for Franciscan 
monks in 1440 ; the annals, however, of the 
Foiur Masters place its date about a century 
earlier, though both agree in ascribing its 
foundation to one of the MacGarthys, princes 
of Desmond. It was several times repaired, 
and once subsequently to the Reformation. 
The building consists of two principal parts, 
the convent and the church; the latter is 
about one hundred feet in length, and twenty- 
four in breadth; the steeple, which stands 
between the nave and the chancel, rests on 
four high and slender pointed arches. The 

SrincipBl entrance is by a handsome pointed 
oor-way, overgrown with ivy, through which 
the great eastern window is visible. Dr. 
Smith tells us that the old bell, which 
originally hung in this tower, was, a few 
years before he wrote, found in Uie lake ; and 
Urose, who alludes to the same circumstance, 
says: "From its inscription, it appears to 
have belonged to the abbey.** Tne firstr 
named of these writers has left a very graphic 
description of the place, that grows more 
curious in proportion as time works here, as 
elsewhere, its usual changes, in spite of the 
efforts of man to arrest its progress. 

A strange story is yet remembered amount 
the neighbouring peasants in connection with 
Mucross Abbey. It relates to a certain John 
Drake, whose t>ed is still pointed out in a 
recess of the ruins, and who took up his abode 
here about a century ago. At that time he 
had the small delicate hands of one unused 
to labour; he appeared to be about forty 
years of age, and his accents were not of the 
south. According to the popular belief, he 
had committed some crime that demanded a 
severe atonement, and hence, with the view to 
dree his penance, he had betaken himself to 
the holy yet haunted walls of this abbey. K 
such were his object, he had every opportu- 
nity of punishing at least two of his senses, 
for the place was fiill of boiies, skulls, broken 
coffins, and bodies in every stage oi decay, 
though this reproach upon the place has 
since been done away with. 

For eleven years the penitent, if penitent he 
were, lived in the ruins, exposed to all the 
inclemency of the skies, with no shelter but 
that affoided by the chimney — ^with no cover- 
ing but his ordinary clothes, and a single 
blanket, bestowed upon him by the charity of 



some poor villager. '*He never asked for 
alms, nor would he receive more at Uie time 
than a single penny; he never ate in any 
dwelling but his own, if so it might be called ; 
and yet he had enough to pay for his potatoes 
and nsh at all times, and to oestow a halQ>enny 
and his prayers on those who seemed ftiore 
miserable than himself. He was seldom, or 
never, seen at chapel, though he prayed daily 
at particidar spots in the abbey yu^, devoting 
the remainder of his day to the cultivation of 
his garden. It was reported and believed 
that this lonely man had frequent and per- 
sonal contests with the author of all evil, Uiat 
he was doomed to wrestle with him in the 
flesh, and that it was only by prayer and 
fasting he was able to overcome.*' We never 
met with one of the inhabitants who had 
courage enough to venture within the holy 

Erecincts of Mucross after nightfall ; but some 
ardy fellows had been near the walls, and 
reported that they heard bitter groans, loud 
and an^ words, and sounds as if of men 
engaged in mortal combat If John Drake 
was missed from the village for any length of 
time, some of the peasants would ascend to his 
bed — the old chimney, which, when we saw 
it, was garnished by an enormous tree of ivy, 
that clasps the wall in its gigantic arms — and 
there they would find him, worn, and sad, and 
weary. This, however, occurred but seldom ; 
he was always gentle and patient, and fre- 
quently cheerful —kind to children who curt- 
sied when he passed. Once a woman of the 
village, inheriting her sex's curiosity, asked 
him if he had ever seen anything in the 
ruins? "Nothing," he replied; "nothing 
worse than myself." Whatever the cause of 
his seclusion — ^whatever he endured — ^he kept 
to himself; he neither found fault with others, 
nor interfered with them in any way. Once 
an old man on the verge of the grave de- 
manded his prayers; "God help you, my 
poor man!" he said; "and God will help 
you ; but as for me, all the prayers I can say 
from sunrise to sunset are not sufficient for 
myself" It is almost needless to add that he 
partook of no pastime; observing, "Uiat 
those who were harmless had a ngnt to be 
happy, and those who were not, would not 
try to be so in vain." He excited so strong 
a sympathy in the minds of his kind-hearted 
neighbours, that it was no uncommon thing, 
when the young girls said their usual prayers 
for the repose of their parents* souls bemde 
their graves, to tell over an extra rosary 
for " the sins of poor John Drake." John 
never talked of the past or the future, and the 
peasantry imagined he would leave his bones 
amongst them. Such, however, was not the 
case. One day — it was in spring — ^he was 
nowhere seen ; another, and another passed ; 
and at last they sought him in his usual place. 
He was gone ; the straw of hia bed was damp ; 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



ISl 



his staff and wallet had vanished ; the wren, 
the sparrow, and the robin, peered &om the 
nests he had protected, and twittered their 
anxie^ for his return ; the humble fruit-trees 
he had cared for were fall of blossom, and 
the roses venturing forth their tender buds 
earlier than usual — but John Drake was 
gone. In a retired neighbourhood small 
events produce great sensations. The reports 
as to his sudden disappearance, where he 
had resided so long, were niunerous ; some 
declared "he had been spirited away;" 
others, "that he drowned himself in the 
lake ; '* ^ain, " that he had been seen cross- 
ing the Ilesk-bridge." In short, the reports 
were as varied as numerous, until the sum- 
mer, with its influx of visitors, created new 
themes ; and John Drake's might have been 
forgotten, but that it added a new feature of 
interest to the beautiful Abbey of Mucross. 
Whether the continuation of the mystery be 
romance or not, we cannot sav; but they 
tell how, about ten years after J ohn Drake's 
disappearance, a lady, " a furriner by her 
tongue," arrived at Killamey, where she re- 
mained for many weeks ; how she inquired 
about Ihe pilgnm; how, day by day, she 
used to ascend to the solitary garden, and 
weep floods of tears over his couch ; then 
pray where he had prayed, and distribute 
abundant alms to all who had been kind to 
him. She would answer no questions ; and 
the two servants who attended upon her 
could not speak English. After much prayer 
and penance, she departed as she came, a 
lonely, imknown lady ; and John Drake was 
heard of no more. 

The best preserved portion of the abbey is 
the cloister, consisting of two-and-twenty 
arches. Of these, ten are semicircular, while 
the remaining twelve are pointed. In the 
centre stands a noble yew-tree, in all likeli- 
hood coeval with the abbey itself, and planted 
by the hands of the same monks that reared 
the walls ; at least, there is nothing impos- 
sible, or even improbable, in such a suppo- 
sition ; for in England are many trees of the 
same kind, of a date far anterior to this 
sylvan inhabitant of Mucross. It is thirteen 
feet in circumference, tall in proportion, and 
overspreads the whole area as with a roof of 
leaves and boughs. 

The mansion of Mucross is a modem 
Gothic structiure, built by the present pro- 
prietor. The scenery around is surpass- 
mgly beautiful. Dr. Berkeley, Bishop of 
Cloyne, was so struck with it that he re- 
marked tliat Louis XIV. might lay out a 
second Versailles; but that, with all his 
taste and resources, he could not make such 
a demesne as Mucross. Lady Ghatterton, 
too, in her work on the SouUi of Ireland, 
thus refers to it: — "A region of enchant- 
ments ; a hundred descriptions of it have been 



written, thousands of sketches of it have 
been made, but no description that I have 
read, or sketch that I have seen, made me 
familiar with Killamey. The Upper Lake 
and the Lower Lake, Mucross and Innis- 
fallen, must be seen to be understood. It is 
the colouring, the gleam of sunshine, the 
cloud, the tone, the effect — ^what, in short, 
cannot be conveyed by the pen without the 
cant of art, and is beyond tne power of the 
pencil — that gives a magic to me scenery of 
Mucross." Mr. Herbert is the head of the 
great and chivalrous house whose name he 
bears, and derives descent from Sir William 
de Herbert, Lord of Baglan, knighted by 
King Henry V. at Azincourt. 

The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, the Earl 
of Carlisle, visited Killamey in September, 
1855, and sojourned at Mucross Abbey. 
In his Excellency's speech on the occasion 
of the dejeuner given to him, he thus alluded 
to the lovely sceneiy aroimd him: — **I 
think I shall be fully borne out by my 
honoured neiffhbour and worthy host, Mr. 
Herbert, of whom I am so proud to be a 
guest ; and whom I believe X met last upon 
tiie shores of those classic seas, which have 
lately been illustrated by the most recent 
Western, and conspicuously by Irish, bravery. 
I would appeal to him whether, in those 
favoured cumes, or even among the craggy 
outlines of the Gyclades, or in the sunny 
slopes of the azure Bosphoms, he saw any 
spot which is at once so wild, so soft, and 
so bright as his own Ejllamey." 

8T0XE EDITH FABX^ in the co. of Here- 
ford, seat of Edward Foley, Esq. 

In the reign of Edward II., and probably 
for a considerable time previous, this estate 
belonged to the family of the Wallwyns, so 
named from Gwallain Castle in Pembroke- 
shire, in which county Sir Peter Gwallain 
originally settled. Before the date of Heniy 
VIII., Stoke Edith had changed its owners, 
for in that monarch's reign we find it pos- 
sessed by Sir John Lingen, he having ac- 
quired it by marrying a daughter and heiress 
of the Milwaters. Of this las^named family 
it was bought, in the reign of Charles 11., by 
Peter Foley, Esq., the descendant of an 
ancient house in the adjoining coimty of 
Worcester, a Member of Parliament for the 
city of Hereford, and Speaker of the House 
of Commons. 

This mansion, which was erected in the 
reign of Queen Anne, is a lar^ and hand- 
some pile, standing upon an eminence, which 
has been formed into a terrace. The centre 
is built of stone, and is adomed with foiur 
Corinthian pilasters supporting a pediment ; 
the lateral divisions oi the edifice are of 
brick, but with stone quoins and dressings, a 
bold block cornice of stone surmounting the 

B 



123 



8EAT8 OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IBELAKD. 



whole. On the sides are wings that contain 
the offices The entrance-hdtl and staircase 
are ornamented with paintings hy Sir James 
Thomhill. 

There is a handsome collection of family 
portraits here, scattered through the yarious 
rooms, besides many valuable works of art 
that have been brought from Italy. Among 
the curiosities preserved here is the knite 
with which Felton subbed the Duke of Buck- 
ingham. 

The pleasure-grounds were reformed and 
greatly improved by Repton, the celebrated 
landscape gardener. They exhibit a beau- 
tiful combination of shrubberies, forest trees, 
and verdant lawns. Within the park, 
abounding in fine timber, is a drive of eight 
mfles, with several eminences, from which is 
a great variety of delightful prospects, cer- 
tainly not surpassed, if indeed they are 
rivalled, by any portion of this coim^. One 
point embraces a view of thirteen different 
counties, while from many of the elevations 
the river Wye is seen winding its course 
through meads and corn-fields, rising 
grounds, and valleys. The park, moreover, 
contains many hera of deer. 

About a mile and a-balf south-west from 
Stoke Edith, on the top of a height, is 8t 
Ethelbert's camp, the spot, according to 
popular tradition, whereon Ethelbert pitched 
nis tents whqn journeying to the court of 
" Ottk. 



WUiUUJUl EALL, 00. Nottingham, the 
Beat of Edward Valentine Pegge-Bumdl, Esq. 

This manor belonged, in early times, to 
the Knights of St John of Jerusalem, and 
was taken possession of by Henry VIII. In 
the foUowinff reign, the entire parish, with 
its manorial ri^ts, was granted to John 
Bunell, merchant of London, and Constance, 
his wife, in exchange for certain lands in 
Sussex. In 1772 D'Arcy Bumell left it by 
will to his heir^at-ljiw, upon condition of his 
MMiming the name and anns of Bumell. 
This, the late Peter Pegse, Esq., did, and 
was put into possession of the estate by the 
decision of a court of law, having agreed to 
purchase one moiety of it, in aatiafaction of 
the daim of Mr. Bristowe. 

A veiy large sum was laid out on the Hall 
and grounds after the death of Mr. Peter 
Pe^ge-Bumell ; the original style has been 
mamtained in the restoration, and, as far as 
architectural appearance is concerned, the 
bouse is unrivalJed, in its own part of Eng- 
Lud, as a private gentleman s residence. 
The park, which contains nearly three hun- 
dred acres, and is added to yearly, is well 
wooded, and possesses considerable variety 
and undulatkm. 



Derbyahire (also tha 



seat of Edward Valentine Pegge-BumeD, 
Esq.), a short distance fh>m Sheffield, near 
the northern boundary of the county, is one 
of the best specimens of 'Elizabethan archi- 
tecture now existing. It was built in the 
reign of Charles IL, by Mr. Pegge, and 
stands in a lovely vale at a short clistanee 
from the site of the old abbey, of which no- 
thing remains but a part of the chapel, 
which he fitted up as such for the use of the 
district The surrounding country is very 
beautiful, comprising an endless variety m 
hill and dale, woods, moors, Ac. 

The Abbey of Beauchieff was founded for 
an abbot ana Premonstratensian canons from 
W^elbeck, between the years 1162 and 1176, 
by Robert Fitz-Ralph, Lord of Alfivton and 
Norton. It has been asserted that this Nor- 
man baron established this monastery in 
expiation of his guilt, in having been one of 
the murderers of A'Beckett;but Dr. Pegge 
has laboured, and not unsuccessfiilly, to 
prove that he had no share whatever in the 
transaction. However this may be, the 
establishment was broken up in tiie general 
ruin of monasteries by Henry VIIL, and in 
1537 the site was granted to Nicholas Stiel- 
ley. The only daughter and heir of William 
Strelley, Esq., brought this estate in mar- 
riage to Edward Pe^, Esq., who died in 
1796, and from them it has descended to the 
present owner. 

IHBnSBOH ?ABK| W. B. Yorkshire, the 
seat of John Fullerton, Esq., is about three 
miles from Botherham, and belonged at a 
remote ]>eriod to William de PercL Snbee- 
quently it was in the possession of the Berea- 
bys, a distinguished out unfortunate race, 
and from them it passed throu^ the Saviles 
and Finches to the nreeent family of FuUei^ 
ton. The old hall of the Keresbys was 
pulled down by Colonel Fullerton, and the 
new edifice erected in the Gothic style of 
architecture. 

PtJILOOim, Worcestershire, about two 
miles and a-half from Tewkesbury, the seat 
of William Dowdeswell, Eso. 

At one time the manor of Pulle belonged 
to the crown, from whom it passed to the 
Abbey of Tewkesbury. Upon tiie dissolution 
of monasteries it once more reverted to the 
crown, and subsequently be<»me the urop e itj 
of Sir VTilliam Chyld, who sold it to Sir John 
BouB. By the last-named owner it was again 
dinxieed of to Boger DowdesweU, Esq. 

An old house stood here, erected by Boger 
Dowdeswell, in the reign of Queen ElixaheiUi ; 
but this was pulled down snd rebuilt in 1868, 
by the Bev. Dr. Dowdeswell, late eanon of 
dirist Church, Oxford. It is in the Elixa- 
bethan style of arehiteeture, finom the designs 
of Blore, and contains a good library, with 
soma fine pioturee. The pleasura^rcrands 



..*.♦• 



i^' 



^ 



. f 



*. 



« > 



.» 



• •. • 



11, 



« I 

6) •= 



BEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



123 



and plantations are extensive and picturesque, 
exhibiting the peculiar taste of the celebrated 
Launcelot Brown, better known under the 
soubriquet of Capability Brown. 

In front of the mansion is a magnificent 
park, that slopes from it with a gentle descent, 
and affords a beautiful prospect from the 
terrace. Here it was that the Worcester 
Archery Society held their gathering. 

Bushley Church, in which parish Fall- 
Court stands, was rebuilt and endowed by 
Dr. Dowdeswell. 

XOVZIE CA8TLB, Perthshire, three miles 
north of Crieff, the seat of Alexander Camp- 
bell, Esq., the son and heir of the late Lieut- 
General Alexander Campbell. 

Monzie House is a stately pile, embosomed 
amongst trees of the largest growth, and 
behind it are the five oldest large trees in 
ScotUmd, planted the night before those in 
Dunkeld, which have been generally, but 
en-oneously, considered to be £he oldest. In 
the distance is Benviorish. 

Here is to be seen a splendid collection of 
paintings of ancient armour, besides many 
articles of yertu. They belong to the Baby- 
lonian, the Eoman, and the feudal times, 
which, while tliey gratify the curious, are not 
without their use, as assisting us to imder- 
stand the past. 

The celebrated battle of Sheriff-muir was 
fought within twenty miles of this spot, and 
the '* Witch of Menzie" still lives in popular 
tradition. This was a poor woman, called 
McNieven, who has left her name to the hill 
on which she was execuied—^McNieven's 
eraig, though it is more properly known as 
the Knock. 

7ABMIH0 WOODS, in the co. of Northamp- 
ton, the seat of the Bight Hon. Robert Vei^ 
non Smith, M.P., who married the daughter 
and coheir of the late Earl of Upper Ossory. 

The house, which was built m the reign 
of Henrv VIH., was at one time a royal 
hunting-lodge, and has sucoessivelv been pos- 
sessed by Lord Feterbor6ugh, Archbishop 
l^ud, Sir John Robinson, and the Earl of 
Upper Ossory. It is in the Tudor style of 
architecture, situated prettily upon a lawn, 
and surrounded by most picturesque woods. 

DUmAB 0A8TLE, Scotland, in the co. of 
Linlithgow, the seat of James Dundas, Esq., 
who was bom '' Chief of Dimdas," his father 
having died before his birth. 

The ancient castle of Bundas, which is of 
nearly eight hundred years' standing, now 
forms one side of the interior court of the 
modem mansion, though almost detached 
from it It stands on the brow of a craggy 
hill of that name, signifying "the hill of 
fallow deer," from which nmnerous bones of 



deer, as well as others of large dimensions, 
have been dug up by accident or curiosity. 
In 1416 sevei^ aiclditions were made to the 
original pile, when it was converted into a 
fortalice, oy a warrant from Robert, Duke of 
Albany, and by a subsequent one from 
James L, in 1424. At the same time the 
massive walls were raised to the height of 
seventy- five feet. Its apartments are all 
arched, and a circular stair leads to the flat 
battlemented top, from which there is a noble 
prospect over the surrounding coimtry. The 
principal features in this magnificent view 
are on the east — ^the Firth of Forth, with the 
seats, villages, and towns on the. coasts of 
Fifeshire and Midlothian, while on the nortli 
is a glimpse through the trees of the pictu- 
resque metropolis ; the interesting island and 
fortress of Inch Garvie, Rosythe Castle, once 
a royal residence, and, boimding the pro- 
spect in a beautifrd and varied outline, the 
lulls of Fifeshire. 

The modem mansion, close to the old castle, 
and forming part of it, was built not many 
years ago by the present owner of the estate. 
It is in a sort of modem castellated style of 
architecture, exceedingly pleasing to the eye, 
though it may be somewhat anomalous in 
construction. The cloister, from which the 
principal suite of rooms branches off, is of 
large dimensions, and richly decorated. 

Immediately imder the north front of the 
new building is a foimtain of carved freestone. 
It is of curious workmanship, and originally 
occupied the centre of a parterre, enclosed 
with walls of hewn stone, twelve feet high, 
and of great thickness, with flights of stairs 
in the middle, and a banquetting house at 
each comer. It was supplied with water from 
a great distance, by means of pipes, and was 
ornamented with numerous figures cut in the 
stone. Upon the sides a long inscription is 
seen to the effect that the purport of its erec- 
tion by Sir Walter Dundas, in 1628, and in 
his sixty-first year, was to perpetuate his own 
memory, to be an ornament to his country 
and family — a gratification to his friends, a 
terror to depredators, and to water the garden 
when parched by the heat and drought. This 
inscription is in Latin verse, but of no very 
classical character ; and certainly Dot such as 
would have been recognized by the elegant 
and accomplished Buchanan — accomplished 
at least in Latin, and elegant in builmng up 
Latin verse. 

Tradition gives a somewhat different tale, 
attributing ue origin of the fountain to his 
disappointment at losing the barony of Bam- 
bougle, for the purchase of which he had col- 
lected a large sum of money, when it fell into 
tiie hands of the Earl of Haddington before 
he could frdly accomplish his object The ex- 
pense of it was so enormous as to involve him 
m difficulties from which he never recovered. 



134 



BEATS OP GREAT BRITAIN AMD IRF.LAND* 



Whilst it was in the course of ereetion* it is 
said that he delighted so much in the noise 
of hewing the Htones, that in a fit of sickneaa, 
which confined him to his bed, he ordered 
the masons to perform that operation in his 
ante-chamber. 

B0THXRWA8, or BOTHEBAi, in the co. of 
Hereford, about two miles below the city, the 
seat of Charles Thomas Bodenham, Esq., a 
Justice of the Peace for Uie county, and a 
descendant of the l)e Hodhams, or De Boden- 
hams, who were settled in this shire so far 
back as the time of King Stephen. 

Blount, in his MS. collections for Here- 
fonUhire, 1A7H, speaks of this place with 
glowing terms. He says: **Tliis is a delicious 
seat, situate near the' river Wye, and within 
two miles of Hereford, alK)imd^ing with store 
of excellent fruit, and fertvle arable land, 
having rIm) a park within less tlian half a 
myle of the house, where there is a neat lodge 
upon a hill, which overlooks the whole coun- 
try adjacent It was held so delightful a 
place, that the nroverb was current, as an- 
ciently of Gorintn — 

' KoQ datnr rairlt idlra RoUtem; 
Etmj od« mMf Dot lire at Rothenii' 

'* The house is partly of old tymber work; 
but an end of it was new built of stone in the 
last age bv Sir Roger, where there is a fair 
parlour fuU of arms, according to the fashion 
of that age, and over tliat a noble dyning- 
room wainscoted with walnut tree, and on 
tlie mantle-tree of the chimney twenty-five 
coats in one achievement, with this motto, 
Veritas Hbrrahit. Even the long table, with 
the hall, is inlaid with ooats of arms." 

The house, alwve det»cribed by Blount, was 
taken down al)out a century ago by the 
grandfather of the present owner, and a spa- 
doua mansion of red brick erected in its 
place. To this new mansion were transferred 
some of the ornaments that had belonged to 
the old rt>sidcuoe. The chimney-piece, with 
the twentv-five quarterings over it, now 
stands in the hall. 

The grounds, situated to the south-east of 
the Wye, are exc<>edittgly pleasant, and the 
•4i<^(^nt woods display some fine timber of 
various kinds. On the south-west the pro- 
spect is bounded by an eminence called Dyne- 
dor Hill, crowned with vestiges of an ancient 
camp, which, according to a generally-received 
tradition, was once occupied by the Roman 
commander, Ostorius Scapula. From this 
point therp are many noble views ; upon the 
north-wi^Ht Herpfora is seen, rining with an 
easy aiioent from the banks of the river Wye ; 
ana beyond it extends a beautiful vale, diver- 
hifird with many inlerrating objects, and ter- 
minated by tlie mountains of Brecon. 



In the horizon, in the north and north* 
east, are the Glee Hills of Shropshire ; and 
towards tlie east, the Malvern Hills of Wor- 
cestershire. Upon the south-east and sooth 
is a pleasant and variegated tract, which is 
animated by the meanderings of the Wye, 
while on the south-west appear the Hattcnl 
Hills, or, as they are more usually called, the 
Black Mountains. Dynedor Hill is cultivated 
to the extreme verge of the Roman entrench- 
ment, the bank of which is densely covered 
with underwood. The enclosed area is a 
large cornfield, and several oottages are scat- 
tered along the sides. 



in the co. of Perth, the seat of WO* 
liam Stirling, Eso., M.P. 

This grand ana beautiful place, the most 
imposing in a locality celebrated for its 
scenery, was an ancient Roman station. It 
is situated on a rising ground, between the 
rivers Allan and Forth, four miles from the 
city of Stirling and two from the picturesque 
town and ruins of Dumblane. In front of 
the mansion rise Use wooded and precipitous 
rocks of Stiriing, Craig Forth, and Abbey 
Craig, out of the rich alluvial plain of the 
Forth. Somewhat nearer, in the east, the 
view is bounded by Dumiat, the finest and 
boldest of the Oohif hills; and the rich woods 
of Aithrey and Kippeross. Below the house 
lies the vale of Blair Drummond, with the 
lastrdefended Scottish fortress, the Castle of 
Doune ; and, far to the north, the prospect is 
terminated by the magnificent range of the 
noble Grampians; the mountains of Ben 
Lodi, Ben Lomond, and Ben Venue all being 
included within the horizon of Kier. 

The old house was a large and ugly build- 
ing — an oblong square, three storeys high, 
and whitewashed. It contained nothing 
worth notice, excepting a huge saloon on the 
groimd-floor, painted in fresco, and over- 
looking the lovely valley towards Doune 
Castle ; and a hanosome mrawing-room, with 
some good pictures, on the second storey, 
which commanded the three remarkable 
rocks on the pUin of the Forth. The bean- 
tiful gardens and ho^houses were situated 
behind the house, and approached through 
shrubberies of rare and thriving evergreens. 
They were very extensive and varied, con- 
sisting of large plots of expensive and 
bright-coloured flowers, disposed with artistic 
effect in a lawn of soft green turt and sepa- 
rated by acclimated exotics, such as dioderas, 
scarlet rhododendron, tall fuschias, &c.. not 
known twenty-five years since in other parts 
of Scotland, tieyona the garden lies a richly- 
wooded small park, called Ame Hall, con- 
cealing the ruins of an old jointure bouse of 
Kier. The park is of considerable extent, 
ndining downwards to the rivers Forth and 



n 



BEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



125 



AUan, and having a handsome lodge both on 
the Stirling and JDumblane roads. 

The church of Lockropt, built by the old 
laird, Jamea Stirling of Kier, about 1828, is 
one of the earUest ornamented among the 
Presbyterian erections in Scotland, and pro- 
bably nothing less than the weight of Uiat 
upright laird's character could have persuaded 
the people and their clergy that tbe^ could 
permit towers, parapets, and Gothic windows 
in their churches without becoming rank 
Papists. Many other Scottish gentry have 
since taken heart, and with very good effect 
followed the old laird's example. 

About the year 1830, the old house of Kier 
received very considerable additions ; a hand- 
some corridor and spacious dining-room and 
drawing-room having been built on the 
ground-floor; and about the same time great 
alterations were made in the park — trees 
having been transplanted on a large scale, 
and new approaches having been made. The 
late Mr. Stirling, on succeeding to his brother, 
carried on vast agricultiiral improvements, 
and laid out large sums, for the benefit of the 
property, in the construction of drains. 

But since the accession of the present pro- 
prietor the character of the house and plea- 
sure-grounds has been entirely changed, and 
£ier has been made one of the most remark- 
able places in Scotland. In former times the 
shaved lawn of the park came close up to the 
windows of the house. Now immense ter- 
races are interposed between the mansion- 
house and the lawn, so as to ^ve to the place 
the air of one of the magnificent princely 
villas in the vicinity of Rome. These terraces 
are of very great extent, and have been con- 
structed at much expense. The entrance to 
the house has been entirelychanged,and stately 
colonnades and covered galleries, adorned with 
artificial rock work, have been thrown out 
between the house and the offices. The inte- 
rior of the mansion has been still more com- 
pletely altered. The corridor has been en- 
larffeo, so as to form a magnificent gallery, 
and the entrance-halland old library have been 
thrown together, so as to make a hbrary which 
has been greatly heightened, and occupies two 
storeys of the house, and is surrounded b^ a 
gallery. This room is very pecuhar, bemg 
beautifully panelled, and adorned with 
quaint mottoes in almost every language. 
The collection of books is a very considerable 
one, and the house is filled with many valuable 
works of art, and among these there are some 
fine paintings. 

Among the many beautifiil objects in this 
neighbourhood one of the most striking is 
the cathedral of Dumblane, which may be 
the more appro]^riately noticed here, as it 
contains the family vault of Kier. It stands 
about a couple of miles from Kier, on an 
eminence, on the banks of the river Allan. 



Before Dumblane was a bishopric, it was a 
cell of the Culdees. This see was founded in 
1146. A great part of the cathedral is xm- 
roofed, but the choir is kept in repair as the 
parish church. The ruins are of great size 
and exquisite architecture. The length of 
this church is 210 feet. 

The family of Stirling of Kier is of great 
antiquity. It is generally considered to be 
the principal family of the name. In very 
ancient times there was a great house of 
Stirling of Glenesk, which ended in an heiress, 
Catherine, who married Sir Alexander Lind- 
say, and was mother of David, first £arl of 
Crawford. Two famihes of the name of 
Stirling, since the extinction of the male line 
of Glenesk, seem to have been heads of two 
rival branches, the connection of which it is 
difficult to trace, and which were of equal 
antiquity. These were the Sdrlings of Kier, 
and the Stirlings of Calder. To one or other 
of these two houses all the ancient families 
of the name may be traced. 

The direct line of Stirling of Calder was 
extinguished in the sixteenth century, though 
many of its branches still exist; and the 
estate of Calder became the property of the 
rival house of Kier in a very extraordinary 
manner. Andrew Stirling, the last laird of 
Calder, had an only child, Janet Stirling, 
whose ward and marriage King James Y. 
bestowed upon Sir John Stirling of Kier, by 
a gift under the great seal, dated July 22na, 
1529. This was obviously done with a view 
to marry her to James Stirling, his eldest son, 
and to unite the two families. After having 
been contracted together, which ap^)ears by a 
confirmation to the Archbishop ot Glasgow 
in 1532, wherein the young lady is called 
" Spouse Jacobi Stirling," she eloped from 
her betrothed, and ended her days with an 
ignoble lover. However, the laird of Kier 
kept possession of her estate of Calder, and 
transmitted it to his descendants. 

In the reign of King Charles I. and Khig 
Charles II., the laird of Kier was a very dis- 
tinguished man, and warmly espoused the 
cause of the monarchy. His wife was a 
daughter of the first Lord Napier, and niece 
of the loyal Marquess of Montrose. In later 
times the lairds of Kier have been Jacobites 
and EpiscopaUans. The more recent alhances 
of the famuy of Kier have been with Stew- 
art, Lord Blantyre, Gray, Lord Gray, and 
Maxwell, Bart., of Poloc. 

Besides Kier Mr. Stirling possesses two 
estates in the neighbourhood of Glasgow-^ 
Calder, which has been already mentioned, 
and Kenmure, which formerly belonged to 
the family of Colqidioun, an early branch of 
the house of Luss. The present Mr. Stirling 
has devoted himself to literary pursuits, ana 
a few years ago published a work on the 
history of Spanish art ; and more recently a 



126 



SEATS OF OBEAT BRITAIK AND IRELAND. 



history of the cloister life of the Emperor 
Charles V. He is a deputy-lieutenant of 
the county of Perth, and in 1852 hecame 
Memher of Parliament for that county. 

OITVHATOBS, also called CASTLEYISW, 

CO. Cork, the seat of Richard John Maxwell 
Gimahleton, Esq. 

This mansion was built in 1791, by Robert 
Warren Gumbleton, Esq. It has been called 
" Castleview," from the circumstance of its 
commanding a Tiew of the ruins of the an* 
cient castle of Mogeely, once belonging to 
the Earl of Desmond. An extensive lawn 
stretches, in a gentle declivity, from the house 
to the river Bride ; on the opposite side of 
which the old walls of Mogeely rise from a 
steep rocky bank. This is the castle of which 
the legend goes, that the Earl of Desmond 
commanded his servants to bum it, on the 
occasion of a numerous company of guests 
having suddenly arrived when his larder was 
unprovided; his lordship preferring the de- 
struction of his house to the exhibition of 
his scanty housekeeping. Supplies, however, 
were procured in sufficient time to render the 
conflagration of the castle unnecessary. The 
ruins now present a waste, wide court, and a 
few crumbling towers. Glynnatore is a hand- 
some and comfortable moaem mansion. Its 
owner is heir of line, and representative of 
the Insh branch of the family of Giunbleton. 
Richard Gumbleton, Esq., of Castle Richard ; 
married, in 1704, Anne, daughter of Wallis 
Warren, Esq., of Laragh, county Cork, an- 
cestor of Sir Robert Warren, of Wamens- 
court, Bart. The eldest offspring of this 
marriage, Richard Gumbleton, Esq., married, 
in 1743, Elizabeth, daughter of Daniel Con- 
nor, Esq., of Bandonbndfi^e, ancestor of the 
families of ConnorviUe, Ballybricken, and 
Manche, coimty Cork. Of the sons of Mr. 
Gumbleton, by his marriage with Miss Con- 
ner, the eldest, Richard, inherited Castle 
Richard, which has passed out of the name, 
though not out of the family, being now 

? assessed by his grandson. Major Gervase 
arkerBushe (see" Glencaim Abbey"). The 
second son, Robert Warren Gumbleton, Esq., 
married Margaret, daughter of John Bowen, 
Esq., of Oakgrove, county Cork, by whom 
he had (with other issue) Richard, his heir 
and successor ; who, marrying in 1823, Annie, 
daughter of Fowke, Esq., of Tewkesbury, 
Gloucestershire, had issue by her, Richard, 
d. s. p.. Marguerite, also deceased ; and the 
present possessor of Glynnatore, Richard John 
Maxwell Gumbleton, Esq. The shrubberies 
surrounding the mansion are luiversally ad- 
mired. There is some well-grown old timber 
in the domain ; including a very stately pla- 
tanus near the entrance ffate, of unusually 
large dimensions. From the windows of the 
house may be seen to the left, on the oppo- 



site side of the Bride, the venerable woods of 
CUBHIGLASS, the seat of another offshoot of 
the Giunbleton fanuly. Curriglass belonged 
to the late Captain Henry Conner Gumble- 
ton, of the 13 th Dragoons, brother of the 
founder of Castleview. He married, in 1792, 
the Hon. Sarah Massy, daughter of the 
second Lord Massy, by whom he had (with 
other issue) William, who, marrying a daugh- 
ter of Purcell, Esq., had by her the 

present inheritor, a minor. There is at Cur- 
riglass an old-fashioned square fish-pond, 
surrounded with walks overshadowed by 
embowering elms. An air of great repose 
and seclusion pervades this interesting resi- 
dence. It is situated about a mile from the 
village of Tallow, county Waterford, which 
returned two members to the Irish Parlia- 
ment 

BLITHFIELD, in the co. of Stafford, about 
two miles from Abbott's Bromley, the seat of 
Lord Bagot. 

This estate came into the possession of the 
present family so early as the year 1307, by 
the marriage of Sir Ralph Bag:ot with the 
heiress of Blithfield. This was in the reign 
of Edward III. The house is an ancient 
building, surrounding a quadrangle, and 
though in the course of time it has undei^ 
gone many alterations, they have been made 
with much regard to ite original character, so 
that the whole may be said to retain ite 
primitive simpUcity. The best rooms of the 
mansion are a large drawing-room, added not 
many years since, the libraiy, and the hall, 
over the chimney in which is good sculpture 
in Htone, of King Jolm signing Magna Charta. 
Here, too, is a valuable collection of coins, 
the bequest of Thomas Anson, Esq., and the 
pictures are both valuable and numerous. 
Without entering into more minute details, 
we may briefly state that the collection com- 
prises works by Correggio, Raphael, Paid 
Veronese, Muriflo, Tintoret, Poussin, Guido, 
Albert Durer, Giorgione, And. Sacchi, Guer- 
cino, A. Caracci, Ostade, Holbein, Teniers, 
C. Maratti, Lanfranc, Vandyke, &c. 

The park is at a short distance from the 
mansion, and is remarkable for the number 
and magnificence of ite oaks, to the growth 
of which the soil seems to be peculiarly 
favourable. In height and straSghtness of their 
trunks, they are thought not to be surpassed 
by any in the kingdom. The scenery around, 
too, is exceedingly beautiful and picturesque. 

OHAWTOH H0V8B, Hampshire, about two 
miles south-west of Alton, the seat of Edward 
Knight, Esq. 

This estate was possessed, in the time of 
William I., by Hugo de Port ; and afterwards, 
in succession, by the famOies of St. John, St 
Philibert Poynmgs, and Bonville, up to the 



SEATS OF OBEAT BRITAIN AND IBELAND. 



127 



time of King Henry VII. It then passed by 
marriage to Sir Thomas West, Lord Dela- 
ware, and by purchase to the Knight family 
in 1552. 

The mansion, which was built in 1588 by 
John Knight, Esq., stands upon a rising 
ground, with much fine timber about it. 
Ghawton Park wood, consisting chiefly of 
noble beech trees, and nearly three miles in 
length, forms a prominent feature in the 
landscape, that ia altogether striking and 
picturesque. 

WA21LXI6H E0V8E, in the co. of Somerset, 
the seat of the family of Skrine, about four 
miles from the citr of Bath, and the same 
distance from Braoford, in Wiltshire, on the 
banks of the river Avon, which enters the 
county at Glayerton, a mile and a-half from 
Warleigh House. 

This estate has been in the present family 
for almost three hundred years. The man- 
sion, however, is a modem structure, having 
been erected in the year 1814, from the de- 
signs of Mr. Webb, of Staffordshire. Its 
architecture is somewhat of a mixed character, 
with deep mullioned bay-windows and battle- 
mented walls, the picturesque effect of the 
building being much heightened by its site 
upon an eminence, backed by higher grounds 
beautifully wooded. The whole is built of 
freestone. The principal entrance is by a 
handsome porch; and the stables are not 
only remarkably commodious, but form a 
pleasing addition to the picturesque beauty 
of the house. 

The vicinity abounds in charming walks 
and rides in every direction. No part, in- 
deed, of the country exceeds this romantic 
situation, and we shall hardly go too far, 
saying it will bear a companson with the 
happiest landscape in the kingdom. 

VXW HALL, Wiltshire, near the village of 
Nunton, and a little to the south of Salisbury, 
the seat of Mtijor-General P. Bucklev. 

This estate was in the family of Clarke for 
many years, till it devolved to the Batts, by 
marriage, about the beginning of the last 
century. The late John Thomas Batt, Esq., 
dying without children, bequeathed the pro- 
perty to his cousin, E. P. Buckley, Esq., the 
father of the present owner. 

The mansion was built about a hundred 
years ago, by Mr. Batt, but was considerably 
enlarged in 1792, by Mr. J. T. Batt It now 
presents the appearance of a handsome build- 
ing with a Grecian portico. The grounds, 
which are prettily laid out, extend to the 
river Avon, in the midst of a very picturesque 
country. 

ALTOH T0WSB8, sometimes called Alton 
Abbey, in the co. of Stafford, four miles and 



a-half from the town of Cheadle, the seat of 
the Earl of Shrewsbury. 

Alton, or Alveton, is in the hundred of 
Totmonslow. Soon after the Norman con- 
quest, a castle was erected at this place^ 
tnough it is impossible to give the precise date 
of its foundation. In the reign of King 
Edward II., Joan, daughter and heir of Theo- 
bald de Verdon, conveyed this estate, by majs 
riage, to Thomas, Lord Fumival. In like 
manner it passed to the Talbots, by the mar- 
riage of Maud, daughter and heir of Lord 
Fumival, with Sir John Talbot, afterwards 
created Earl of Shrewsbury. This gallant 
soldier, after having been the victor in no 
less than forty battles and skirmishes, was 
at length killed hj a cannon ball at Chas^ 
tillon sur Dordon m 1453. 

" The great Alcides of the field, valiant Lord 
Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, created, for his 
rare success in arms, Great Earl of Washford, 
Waterford, and Valence, Lord Talbot of Good- 
rig and Urchinfield, Lord Strange of Black-, 
mere, Lord Verdon of Alton, Lord Cromwell 
of Wingfield, Lord Fumival of Sheffield "— 

" Tbe thiioe Tictoriooi Lord of Falconbridge, 
Knight of the noble order of Saint Oeorge, 
Worthy Saint Michael and the Golden Fleeoe, 
Oreat mareehal to Henry the Sixth, 
Of all hia wars within the realm of France." 

The ancient castle was destroyed in the 
time of the Commonwealth during the civil 
war. Its ruins stand upon a rock that is 
well-nigh perpendicular, at the base of which 
flows the sm^ and beautiixd river Chumet. 

The present mansion is of an irregular 
form, having in the centre a gable, with a 
large pointed window, under which is the 
principal entrance to the hall. At either 
extremity of the front are embattled towers. 
In the hall are various niches with classic 
figures, and a noble stone staircase, the 
groined roof of which is supported by clus- 
tered columns, leads to the several large and 
handsome apartments. The present drawing- 
room, originally intended for a picture gal- 
lery, opens into a conservatory ofa light and 
Eicturesque appearance. This famous seat 
as of late years been rendered bv the genius 
of Pugin one of the most magnificent in the 
empire. 

The park is entered through a lodge at 
the foot of a steep hill leading from the town 
of Alton, and over a bridge that spans the 
little river Chmmet. The road to the man- 
sion lies for more than a mile through pine 
woods, witli occasional glimpses of a square 
embaUled tower, built a little below the 
summit of a hill, and intended for an obser- 
vatory. 

The gardens and pleasure-grounds are pic- 
turesque and romantic in the extreme, the 
undmating character of the surface having 



128 



SEATS OF ORBAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



afforded advantages for art to work upon, 
which have heen turned to the best account 
In the grounds is a colossal head of Pitt, 
and opposite, upon a gentle eminence, is a 
second conservatoiy. 



BmnmODS PABK, formerly EGHAX 
PABX, in the co. of Surrey, the seat of Henry 
Salwey, Esq., at one time M.P. for Ludlow, 
who served in the Peninsula in the years 1813 
and 1814, with the rank of Colonel of the Cold- 
stream Guards. He was present at most of the 
actions in the Pyrenees, at the crossing of the 
Bidassoa, and the investment of Bayonne. 

This property originally belonged to the 
David Jebb, Esq., who, in 1807, disposed of 
it to George Parry, Esq., and by him it was 
again sold to Colonel Henry Sidwey in 1829. 

The house, which was erected by Mr. Jebb, 
belongs to the Italian style of architecture. 
It stands upon undulating and beautifully- 
wooded ground, that slopes downward to the 
celebrated Runnymede. 

** H«r0 waa Uut charter sealed wberein the Grown 
All marks of arUtrarjr pow'r lays down ; 
^rrant and alare, those names of hate and fear, 
The happier style of king and subject bear ; 
Happy when both to the same centre move, 
When kings give liberty and subjects love." 

At present Runnymede is confined to about 
a hundred and sixty acres of good lands, fer- 
tilised, like the Egyptian delta, by the over- 
flowing of the adjacent river, and close upon 
two large meadows, respectively called Long 
Mead aind Yard Mead. It is, however, highly 
probable that the whole of this extensive level 
lay entirely open in former ages. On the 
eastern side of these meads rises Coopefs 
Hilly the tbeme of Denham's poem. 

OAKLBTFABX, Shropshire, about two 
miles north-west of Ludlow, the seat of Ro- 
bert Clive, Esq., M.P. 

The family of Clive has been seated in this 
county since the reign of Henry II., and has 
in more recent times attained to high distinc- 
tion, by the deeds of the great Loid CHve in 
India. To the battle of Plassy — ^fought imder 
more disadvantage than even that at Assaye 
— England with truth owes her Eastern em- 
pire. Had that been lost, India had been 
lost with it, if, indeed, we should not rather 
say, that India would have never been won. 

This mansion is finely situated on the banks 
of the river Teme. A large portion of the 
ancient edifice still remains, but large addi- 
tions were made to it some years ago, by the 
Hon. Robert Henry Clive, M.P., and it now 
contains many excellent apartments. The 
gallery is ornamented with marble columns, 
supporting an entablature, the frieze of which 
is aesigned from the celebrated Phigalian 
marbles discovered by S. P. Cockerell, Esq. 
The other rooms consist of a handsome 
drawing-room, a library, billiard-room, and 



museum, besides a Gothic conservatory filled 
with choice exotics. 

The grounds, naturally beautiful, have been 
very much improved by the hand of art, 
directed by good taste and judgment. On 
the south-east is a fine prospect of the town 
and noble ruins of the castle of Ludlow, 
about two miles distant, while the home view 
is enlivened by the river Teme, that meanders 
through the park, and by numerous splendid 
oaks, the remains of a forest, from which the 
place has derived its name. Within its limits 
also are the ruins of Bromfield Prionr ; an arch 
of its gateway is yet standing, ana the west 
end of its church is now parocliial. From the 
record it appears that this was a Benedictine 
monastery, foimded at a very early period, for 
we find that in the year 1155, the canons of 
Bromfield, by the authority and concurrence 
of Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
granted their church to the Abbey of St. 
Peter's at Gloucester ; and that King Henry 
II. about the same time confirmed all the 
estates belonging to it to the Prior and 
monks there serving God. The like confir- 
mation was made by King Henry HI. 

BEMPBIONE, Dorsetshire, in the Isle of 
Purbeck, the seat of John Hales Calcraft, 
Esq., who formerly sat in Parliament for the 
borough of Wareham. 

In the reign of Henry IV., the Remp- 
stones were seated here, a family that took 
their name from the locality, and appear 
to have been of considerable note in those 
days. At a later period we find it possessed 
by the Trenchards of Woolveton. By them 
it was sold to the Framptons, who resided 
here for some years, when their mansion at 
Buckland was Dumt down. It next passed, 
in the reign of Queen Anne, to Thomas Rose, 
who, dying in 1709, left the estate to his son, 
William. By him it was sold to John Gan- 
net of Blandford, but without any right of 
alienation on his part, in consequence of 
which his daughter and heir recovered the 
property in 1748, and disposed of it in 1757, 
to John Calcraft, Esq., in whose family it 
still continues. 

LnEAX HALL, I^^incashire, about twelve 
miles from Preston, the seat of John Talbot 
Clifton, Esq., a magistrate and deputy- 
lieutenant for the county of Lancaster. 

In ancient times the name of this place 
was variously written Lidun and Lethum. 
The whole district belonged at one period — 
about 1 197 — ^to Richard Fitz-Roger, who gave 
all his lands here to the monks of Durham, 
for the purpose of founding a Benedictine 
(*ell in honour of St. Mary and St Cuthbert 
The lands thus granted constitute the whole 
of the present parish of Lytham. 

In 1554, we nnd the site, cells, and domains 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



129 



of Lytham, granted to Sir Thomas Holcroft, 
who in 1606 is said to have sold the property 
to Sir Cuthbert Clifton, of Westby. At afl 
events, the last-named family held the manor 
and estates in the reign of Charles I. 

So entire was the destruction of the monas- 
tic edifices at the time of the dissolution, that 
even the parochial church of Lytham, which 
has not long been built, is placed upon the 
site of a comparatively modem structure. It 
is described as having a low tower, whitened, 
which imparted to it a somewhat picturesque 
appearance. 

GLIFTOV HAIL, another seat possessed by 
the inheritor of Lytham, stands about live 
miles from Preston. It belongs to the Eliza- 
bethan style of architecture, and stands upon 
the site of the old Hall, which was partly 
destroyed by fire in 1745. 

8I0FHAM HOUSE, formerly called POBD 
PLACE, in the co. of Sussex and parish of 
Stopham, about four miles and a-half from 
Petworth, the seat of George Barttelot, Esq., 
a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of Sus- 
sex. 

Ford Place passed, by marriage, first to the 
Stophams, who gave their name to the place, 
and from that family it devolved in the four- 
teenth century, also by marriage, to John 
Barttelot, whose male heirs have ever since 
been in possession of this property. William 
Be Stopham, by his marriage with Joan Ford, 
acquired the lower part of the parish ; while 
John Barttelot, by his marriage with Joan De 
Stopham at a later period, acquired the whole 
pansh, together with other lands, in right of 
his wife. The Fords were the Saxon, the 
Stophams and Barttelots the Norman, pro- 
prietors of this estate; Brian De Stopham, 
the ancestor of WiUiam De Stopham, having 
come over with William the Conqueror, and 
the same being said of the founder in this 
country of the family of Barttelot. 

The earliest residence of the Barttelote was 
at a place caUed '*At Ford," a building in 
the Elizabethan style of architecture, which 
stands upon the hill close to the chiurch, but 
which is now used for a farm-house. The 
stained glass tliat once decorated the old hall, 
and commemorated the Stophams, has been 
removed to beautify the church. 

The present mansion was built in 1787, by 
Walter Barttelot, Esq. It is a handsome 
edifice, in the modem style, and very spar 
cious. Close to it is an ancient bridge, cross^ 
ing the river Arun, and erected in the year 
1309 — that is, much about the same time 
with the church. In the latter are many 
graves and monumente of the Barttelots, 
dating firom 1438. 

PAXnrB MANOB, CO. of Sussex, about half 



a mile westward from Hurstpierpoint church, 
the seat of Nathaniel Borrer, Esq. 

At a very early period, and Tor several 
reigns, this estate was possessed by the family 
of Pakyn, Paken, or Paeon. In the time 
of Edward VI. it was held by the Lux- 
fords ; in that of Queen Elizabeth, by Mr. 
Fiennes, who belonged to the family of Lord 
Dacre; in that of James tbe First, by the 
Whitpaynes; till, in the middle of tbe last 
century, it was purchased by William Borrer, 
Esq., in whose descendante it has been ever 
since vested. 

The house was erected by Sir Walter Pakyn, 
who in the list of sheriffs is called Payonus^ 
and who in all probability gave his name to 
the estate. It dates from the time of King 
Edward I., and is nothing more than a 
plain domestic dwelling, built of brick ; but 
the view from it is extensive and beautiful, 
embracing the whole range of the South 
Downs. 

ATHEBSTON HALL, Warwickshire, about 
nine miles from the celebrated battle-ground 
called Bosworth Field, the seat of Charles 
Holt Bracebridge, Esq., whose family is of 
Saxon descent. They derive from Turchill 
de Warwick, who enjoyed the dignity of Earl 
before the Norman Conquest, but afterwards, 
in conformity with the custom of the invaders, 
assumed the siuname of Arden, from a wood- 
land tract in Warwickshire. 

Like Ansley, this manor belonged, in the 
time of Edward the Confessor, to the cele- 
brated Coimtess ; and, like that, too, it was 
seized upon by the Norman Conqueror. At 
an early period it was bestowed upon the 
monks of Bee, in Norman^, by Hugh, Earl 
of Chester. In the reign of Edward 111., " the 
monks of Bee, being very weary of the fre- 
quent seizmres which were made of their 
lands in this realm into the king's hands, by 
reason of his wars with France, began to 
think of quitting their interest for some cer- 
tain advantage; and therefore in 18 E. 3 got 
license to pass this mannour away unto the 
monks of Merevale ; but it was not accordingly 
conveyed ; for, in 7 H. 4, upon seizure of the 
lands belonging to those forraign monasteries, 
for the reasons before exprest, as a member of 
the priorie of Okebume (which was a cell to 
Bee, before mentioned), it was demised to 
William de Brynklow and Peter Purly, Esq., 
to hold for twenty years." Afterwards the 
king granted it to Earl Stafibrd for life, with a 
reversion — six years subsequently — to King's 
College, Cambridge ; but it would seem that 
the College deriv^ no benefit from the bene- 
fice, since we find it possessed bv Edmund, 
Earl of Eichmond. By Edwara IV. it was 
granted to the Carthusian monks of Mont- 
grace, in Yorkshire, who enjoyed it, though 
not without dispute, till the dissolution of 

s 



130 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN. AND IRELAND. 



monasteries, when it was given to Heniy, 
Marquess of Dorset, and Thomas Duport, 
and to the heirs of the said Marquess for 
ever. By the attainder of Dorset, it returned 
to the Grown, and in the time of Philip and 
Mary was passed to William Devereux, Esq. 
It next came hy purchase to Sir John Keping- 
ton, knight, from whose family it passed to 
that of Bracebridge. 

An old mansion, erected by the Sir John 
just mentioned, stood for many years upon 
the priory. This, however, was taken down, 
and a new one built in its place, by an ances* 
tor of the present owner, who makes it his 
place of residence. 

The town of Atherston has an additional 
claim to notice in having been the birth-place 
of the poet Drayton. 

BAGnrOTOH HALL, Warwickshire, about 
three miles from Coventry, the residence of 
the Right Hon. William Yates Peel. 

This manor apjiears in Domesday Book 
under the name of Babechitone, the deriva- 
tion of which appears very doubtful. Dug- 
dale says : '* Whether the name had its ori- 
ginall ii*om some antient possessor thereof, 
or from the British word JSechan, which is 
the same with parva^ and so might signify 
' a small village' — ^the latter syllable, tone, 
importing with the Saxons as much as villa 
in the Latine — I will not stand to argue." 

In the reign of Richard II. the manor be- 
longed to Sir William Bagot, and from him 
some writers have, absurdly enough, derived 
its appellation. This Sir William, who was a 
staunch partizan of the misguided king, had 
a castle here, in which the Duke of Hereford 
lodged at the time of his expected combat 
with the Duke of Norfolk. Of the building, 
however, nothing now remains but a small 
and solitary piece of masonry to guide the 
antiquary in his researches, when he would 
dive into the mysteries of other times. Even 
in Dugdale's day, he tells us: ** Of the castle, 
sometime standing here, is there now, besides 
the moat, nothing remayning except heaps of 
rubbish ; nor when it was demolish't have I 
yet found; but this is memorable thereof, 
that, when Henry, Duke of Hereford, and 
Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, should 
have determined the diifrence then betwixt 
themselves, by a personall combat upon Gos- 
ford Green, near Coventre, in 21 K. 2, the 
snid Henry then lodg'd thereat; and from 
thence advanc't to the place appointed, upon 
Ins white courser, barded with blue and green 
velvet, gorgeously embroidered with swans 
and antelops of goldsmith's work, and armed 
at all Doints.** 

In the sixteenth year of James I., Baging- 
ton was purchased by William Bromley, 
Esq., who, it is probable, built the house, m 
which the family for a long time resided. His 



son took up arms in behalf of King Charles 
during the great civil war; but the great- 
grandson of the cavalier has earned a name 
yet more illustrious, as one of the most honest 
and able servants of Queen Aime. He was 
for a long time Speaker of the House of Com- 
mons; and upon the dissolution of the Par- 
liament, over which he had presided, he was 
named one of her Majesty's principail Secre- 
taries of State. 

In the year 1706, upon St Thomas's Day, 
a '' dreadful fire consumed the manor-house 
and furniture, a large library of books and 
MSS., with most of the writings belonging to 
the family." Intelligence of this c^amity 
was conveyed to the owner while attending 
his duty in Parliament ; and so high did he 
stand in the esteem of the Commons that 
they immediately voted a considerable sum 
towards the restoration of the edifice. 

The new mansion erected by the Secretary 
is large, but devoid of ostentation, and sufli- 
oient for every purpose of hospitality uncon- 
nected with parade. It stands upon a bold 
eminence, near the town of Bagington, and 
on the road to Coventry, commanding a fine 
view of the provincial capital, as well as of a 
beautifrd and extensive landscape. 

AflKHB&OOX, in the co. of Londonderry, and 
province of Ulster, near the city of London- 
derry, the seat of William Hamilton Ash, 
Esq., a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for 
the county. 

This mansion was built in 1686, by John 
Ash, Esq. It has a picturesque appearance, 
and stands in a part of the country by no 
means deficient in acquired and natural ad- 
vantages. 

XSRTOH HALL, in the oo. of Norfolk, about 
twen^ miles from Norwich, the seat of Lord 
Walsingham. 

In the time of Edward the Confessor this 
estate belonged to the Saxon chief, Ailid; 
but at the time of the Norman Conquest it 
was seized by the victor, and bestowed upon 
Ralph BayniTC, a companion in his invasion. 
Sir Thomas de Grey, Knt, married Isabel, 
daughter and coheir of Fulk Baynard, Esq., 
and thus obtained the property which fell to 
Isabel upon the division of ner father^s lands. 
Here he seated himself, and it has ever since 
continued to be the principai residence of the 
family. 

The name of this place is variously spelt in 
ancient records — Mertuna, Merton, or Mar- 
ton, but all tending to the same derivation ; 
t.tf., Meer or Mere, ** a lake," and Tun, " a vil- 
lage;" a large piece of standing water within 
its bounds in all probability gave rise to the 
first part of the name in this case, as it has 
in so many others. 

The mansion is of ancient date; and the 



6EAT8 OF «&BAT BBITAIN AND IRELAND. 



131 



park, though not very extensive, presents 
many pleasing and interesting features. At 
a short distance is the parish church, con- 
taining many memoriab of the De Greys. 



s, in the co. of Norfolk, 
about two nules from the town of Aylsham. 

In the time of Edward the Confessor this 
manor belonged to Harold, who afterwards 
became King of England. By William the 
Conqueror the whole town and the advowson 
were settled on the see of Thetford. After- 
wards the manor was successively held by 
the families of Dagworth, Erpingham, and 
Fastolf ; and towards the end of the fifteenth 
century it appertained to Sir William Bo- 
levne. Knight, second son of Sir Godfrey 
Boleyne, l^rd Mayor of London in 1458. 
His eldest son and heir, Sir Thomas, was first 
advanced, by Henry VIII., to the title of Vis- 
count Rochford, and subsequently to that of 
Earl of Wiltshire, titles to which indeed he 
had certain hereditary pretensions, but which 
he might never have obtained, had not his 
too celebrated daughter, the unfortunate 
Anne Boleyne, fascinated the imperious 
des]K>t. Soon after the death of the old Earl 
in 1588, the estate was purchased by Sir 
Henry Hobart, Bart., Lord Chief-Justice of 
the Court of Common Pleas. In 1671, while 
it was yet in this family, Blickling was visited 
by King Charles and his Queen, an event 
thus recorded by Stevenson : — 

** PMton and Hobait did bring np the meat. 
Who Ui« n«xt day at their own houses treat; 
Paston to Oxmead did his soTereign bring, 
iind like Araunah offered as a king. 
Blickling two monarchs and two queens has seen, 
One king fetched thenoe, another brought a queen." 

From the Hobarts this estate passed to the 
Harbords, by the marri^e, in 1792, of the 
Honourable William Ashe ton Harbord with 
Lady Caroline Hobart, daughter of John, 
second Earl of Buckinghamshire. Mr. Har- 
bord succeeded eventually to the Barony of 
Suffield, and died 27th October, 1860. 

Blickling Hall was built by Sir Henry 
Hobart, in the Elizabethan stvie of architec- 
ture. Its ground-plan is quadrangular, with 
two open courts in the centre. At each angle 
of the edifice is a square tiuret, terminated 
by a vane, while over tlie entrance is a clock- 
tower of a more modem character. The 
entrance from the court in front, formed bv 
the stables and offices, is over a bridge with 
two arches, that spans a moat, and which has 
on either side of it a buU bearing a shield. 

Upon the ancient hall-door is the date, 
" Ano. Di. 1620," with an arch, in the span- 
drils of which are figures of victory. The 
key-stone supports a grotesque figure, while 
over the entablature, upheld bv two Doric 
columns with pedestals, is a nch compart- 



ment bearing the anns and quarteringB of 
Sir Henry Hobart, surmounted by the helmet 
and ancient crest. The mantling is extremely 
rich ; bulls holding blank shields are at either 
end. 

In the upper storey of this noble mansion 
is a large window with twelve compartments, 
formed by stone-mullions. Ionic pilasters 
upon pedestals support the upper frieze, which 
is ornamented with birds, Uieir wings ex- 
tended; and the whole is crowned with a 
balustrade, and the figures of Truth and 
Justice. 

The hall, which leads to the antechamber, 
is forty-two feet long, thirty-three feet wide, 
and the same in height It opens upon the 
great oaken staircase (the newels whereof 
ore crowned with the heraldic symbols of the 
Hobarts), which branches off to the right 
and left, conducting to a grand gallery of 
communication. In this are full-length sta- 
tues of Anne Boleyne and Queen Elizabeth. 

There are many other large as well as 
handsome rooms in this mansion, and some 
not a httle valuable from their contents. In 
the organ-room is a curiously carved chimney 
piece, that was formerly the arch of a window 
at Castor Hall, in this county ; in the new 
drawing-room — ^a splendid apartment— is a 
large equestrian portrait, in tapestry, of the 
Czar, Peter the Great, which was presented 
bv Catherine II. of Kussia to John, second 
Earl of Buckinghamshire, when ambassador 
extraordinarv and plenipotentiary to her 
court. In me hbrary ore ten thousand vol- 
umes, many of which are curious as well as 
valuable from their rarity. 

The park and gardens comprise about one 
thousand acres, and surround the mansion 
upon three sides. 

A wood of old forest trees, a hundred and 
eighty acres in extent, nearly divides the park, 
the lower part of which abounds in ancient 
timber, while the upper part is ornamented 
with various plantations, and contains several 
buildings; amongst them are the statues 
and the conduit which at one time adorned 
the platform of the gardens at Ormead 
Hall, and a pyramid upon a base, forty-five 
feet square, containing the ashes of John, 
Earl of Buckinghamshire, as also of his 
two wives. 

But the greatest ornament of these grounds 
is a crescent-like piece of water, about four 
hundred yards in breadth. From the edge 
of the lake the hills rise in varied forms, now 
bold and steep, now covered vidth green 
lawns and now overspread with woods that 
fling around a deep shadow, contrasting 
beautifully with the silver brightness of the 
water, in the centre of which is a projecting 
eminence thickly set with beech trees. The 
stems of these forest veterans are denuded of 
leaves, but their heads unite so closely as to 



132 



BEATS OF OHEAT BRITAIN AMD IRELAND. 



entirely exclude the sunbeams, while they yet 
illiuninate the water. 

The pleaifurp f^rounds occupy about a mUe, 
and on three Hides are siurouuded by a ter- 
race commanding a pleasant Uiough some- 
what confined landscafie. the princi])al feature 
of which is Uie neighbouring town of Ayls- 
ham. There is also a spacious and elegant 
greenhouse, containing orange trees and otlier 
exotics in a very prosperous condition. 



KAXTOH ABBET, Staffordshire, a seat of 
tlie Earl of I^chfield, now in the occupation 
of K. I). Moore, Esq., is six miles and a half 
from the county town of Siaflbrd, and three 
miles and a half from Eccleshall. 

An old abbey once stood here, but in the 
time of the great civil war the place was 
besieged by Cromwell, who knocKed down 
the entire building, with tlie exception of an 
old tower, that still remains. Against this 
stronghold, if we may believe the tradition, 
Oliver bent all his efiorts in vain, tJiough he 
kept up a hot fire u])ou it from three guns 
that he had placed for tlie purpose in a field 
close by. 

The present mansion, which stands upon 
the abbey ruins, was erected by the Ean of 
Lichfield about the year 1H20. It was at 
one time surrounded by a moat, but tliis is 
now partially filled up, and in front is a 
large artificial lake, surrounded by pleasure- 
grounds. At the back of the main Duilding 
are the offices and stables, wliile to the left, 
covered with ivy, is that portion of tlie house 
which is betw(»on two and three hundred 
years old. From the tower is an interesting 
prosi^ect til at embraces the country for fifteen 
miles around, the whole IWng stretched out 
under the eye like some distant and ever- 
varied panorama. The ap])roach to the abbey 
is from the Stafford Road, past a neat lodge, 
and by a long drive through the park. 

Connected with tlie grounds are some ex- 
cellent covers that are said to abound with 
game. 



AVnXT HATJi, Warwickshire, near Nun- 
eaton, the seat of Sir John Newdigate Ludford 
Chetwode, Hart, whose family has lieen traced 
by some to a period antececlent to the Nor- 
man conquest. 

In Edward Uie Confessor's time, this manor 
belongtnl to the Countess Uodiva, otiierwise 
called (Sodifa. (f<Hlina, and Gcxlitlia, and so 
famous in tradition for her naked ride through 
Coventry : 

•• I I.urM"h«, for lh#» 1ot«» «f iht^. 
At the time of tlie Conquest it fell into the 



king's bands, and was farmed out, with 
other of her poss(*ssions ; but was after- 
wards ]K)s»essed by the fkmily of Hatshill. 
From tiiem it passed to the Cul])ep]>ers, by 
marriage with the heiresH of the preceding 
possi^ssors. Afler many otlier changes, it at 
last became the property of the Ludfords, 
and from them it devolved to tlie gentleman 
now owning it, by his marriage, in IHiijl, with 
Juliana, eldest daughter and co-heir of John 
Newdigate Ludford, Esq. 

The llall, which stands at no great distance 
from the village of Ansley. is a commodious, 
but irregidar building, with sufficient marks 
of its having been erected at diilerent |)eriods, 
and according to difi'erent tastes. Attachtnl 
to it is an extensive park, well stocked with 
deer, and replete with architectural embel- 
lishments, t i>on an insulated 6]K)t in one 
{)art of the grounds is a Chinese temple, 
luilt from a design by Sir William Cham- 
bers ; and in a cell beneath is carefully pre- 
served a monument commemorative of the 
Piuvfoys, which was taken down and tlirown 
into the churchyard when Caldecote Church 
under^'ent some repairs, about tlie year I7tt«. 

In a sequestered part of the grounds is a 
hermitage, built from the stouen of an 
ancient oratory. According to tradition it was 
a favourite retreat with the {wet Waller ; but 
he has not favoured it, as he has done IVns- 
hurst, with a ])oetical record of his visits. 
Thomas Warton. however, has been more 
grateful in his recollections, W hen he visite<l 
Anslev in 175^, he wrote, and left in this cell, 
the following lines :— 



** n<*nMth ih\n fdnny roof rr^Ilned, 
I M>otli(< tu p^acp my p<»niiT<> mind; 
And while, to ahitdo my lomly c«t«, 
£inb(mi*nii|f «liu> their \m1hntg9 w«t«; 
And while Uie maple dish u mine, 
1 he beechru «up uiiBUiD(>d nilh nine, 
1 ivoni tile If ay lireiiuous cn>wd. 
Nor he«d Uia toys that deok th« proud. 

" Within my limit* lone and utill 
The hlackblrd pii>M in artJesa trill; 
Faat by my cuucd, cuoi^ntal (ni^ai. 
The wren haa woTe her tnitaay Qe«t; 
Fn>m busy tcenea and brighter akim 
Tci lurk with innocenc4> atie fliea ; 
Here host's in aafe repose to dwell, 
Kur auKut attapecta the i^lvan call. 

' At mom T take ray raitoraed ratrnd. 
To mark how htidii you shrubliy muiiiHl« 
And every opening pnmroae count 
Tluit tnmly i<ajni« u) blooming m«>unt; 
i>r o er the iwulpturea, quaint and ruda. 
That uTttrr m\ cl>t>mjr iMihtude, 
I t* ii< >i. in wuKitDi; wrrath* to atray, 
Fautaitio iT)'a gadding ipray. 

".It eTe. within rnn atudioii* nuok, 
I «■;»<• my lira»s-eii>U»<M'«l U«k, 
r<irtrA}ed wiiij maiiv u holji d»ed 
Of martyrs, cn>»iM«<i with heavenly need; 
Then, aa mv taix'r waxe« dim. 
i tmnt. rre 1 •!< «»|>, my m4*«*ureH hjniD, 
And ai th* < !••««■ th** ^'laam* beh'dd 
kH |iartiiig wing* kiedn»pi with gold. 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IREI^ND. 



13^ 



** Wbfle ffaeh ptire joys my bliss create, 
Who but would smile at guilty state ? 
Who but would wish his holy lot 
Id calm obUvion's humble grot f 
Wlio but would cast his pomp away 
To take my staff and amice grey, 
And to the world's tumultuous stage 
Prefer the blameless hermitage ?" 

CHETWODE FBIOSY, in the co. of Bucking- 
ham, the seat of Walter Henry Bracehridge, 
Esq. 

This place was formerly called Chetuood, 
and at a yet earlier period bore the appellation 
of Ceteode^ deriyed from Gyte^ " a cottage, or 
habitation in a wood "-a name higUy cha- 
racteristic of its locality. 

The original priory, fire miles from Buck- 
ingham, with its old Augustine Conventual 
Church, was built in 1244, by Sir llalph de 
Norwich, in the old English style of archi- 
tecture. The Priory House was destroyed 
by fire (13 Edwai'd I.), and only partially 
restored, and the second edifice going again 
to decay, the house was rebuilt by Walter 
H. Braeebridge, Esq., in 1832. 

The prioiy was suppi'essed in 1469, when 
the estate passed to the abbots of NuUey ; and 
in. 1480, at which time tlie building had fallen 
to decay, the use of the Conventual Church was 
granted to the parishioners. Since then it has 
continued to be parochial. It is a small 
building, about eighty feet long and twenty- 
five feet wide, with a tower at the west end, 
containing two bells. On the largest of these 
is inscribed, " me tibi, ohriste, dabat h. 

CHETWODE QUEM PE RAMA BAT." 

In 1582, the conventual manor being then 
in the possession of the Kisleys, the south 
cross aisle of the old chiu*ch is said to have 
been taken into the house. After the lapse 
of many lineal descents in this family, Frances 
Kisley conveyed the estate by marriage to 
Thomas Brewer, citizen of London. Their 
only chUd, Margaret, dying unmamed, the 
nephew of Thomas Brewer became his uncle's 
heir, and assumed the name of Kisley by act 
of parliament Having passed successively 
through the hands of the Pudseys and Jessons, 
it devolved to the family of Bracehridge. 

The chancel windows of the old Priory 
Church, repaired by Mr. H. Bracehridge, 
contain specimens of some of tlie most an- 
cient stained glass in England. (See Lysons' 
Magna Britannia, vol. i. p. 488, for description 
of Uie old east window, and of the architec- 
i\\re of the chancel, a view of which is there 
given.) 

BILTON HALL, Warwickshire, about a mile 
and a-half from Hugby, the seat of Henry 
Bridgman, Esq. 

Early in the reign of James I., this manor 
came into the possession of the Boughtons of 
I^wford, and in 1711 it was sold by William 
Boughton, Esq., to the celebrated Addison, 



the purchase-money having been ten thousand 
pounds. The ownership of such a sum would 
seem fatal to Addison's claim to be a poet, 
but it should be remembered that he received 
considerable aid from his brother, Gulstone 
Addison, who was governor of Fort St 
George, Madras, at a time when India was 
an El Dorado to this country. From the poet 
this estate descended to his daughter, and by 
her was bequeathed to the Honourable John 
Simpson. 

Bilton Hall stands in a very retired situa- 
tion ; yet, although the view from the princix>al 
rooms is limited, it is by no means destitute qf 
interest The building is irregular, and bears 
evident mai-ks of having been erected at dif- 
ferent periods. The largest portion, and that 
which contains the cliiei suite of apartments, 
belongs to the style of architecture prevalent 
in the time of James I., and was, in all like- 
lihood, built by the family of Boughton upon 
their fii*st coming into possession of the 
manor. The rest of the edifice consists of a 
lower range, the windows of which look 
towards the gardens, to all appearance 
constructed towards the beginning of the 
eighteenth centiuy, and most probably by 
Addison for the reception of the future wife, 
who was to add so little to his real happiness. 
The house is entered through iron folding 
gates, conducting to a venerable porch. " On 
entering the mansion," says a well-known 
topographer, ** a thrill of respect, even to 
veneration, imavoidably passes through the 
bosom of the examiner when he finds that the 
furniture used by Addison still remains; and 
the pictures, partly selected bv his judgment, 
or procured as a tribute to his feelings, yet 
ornament the walls, and occupy precisely the 
same stations as when he was wont to pause 
and admire them.*' 

The pictures above alluded to are princi- 
pally by Vandyck, Sir Godfrey Kneller, Sir 
Peter Lely, ana other artists of more or less 
eminence. 

The gardens attached to the house are ex- 
tensive, but laid out in the old fashion of 
straight lines, and long massy hedges of yew. 
In the lower divisions are two ponds, by the 
side of which are seats, with darksome cano- 
pies of yew trained to screen them. On the 
north side of the groimds is a long walk, which 
is still termed Addison's Walk, and was, ac- 
cording to tradition, his favourite resort when 
intent on lonely meditation ; but since his 
daughter's deatn the axe has been used here 
with little mercy, and vet many of Uie oaks 
that deepened &e seclusion ol this chosen 
spot were raised from Spanish acorns given to 
Addison by Secretary Craggs, and planted in 
the groimd with liis own hand. The flower- 
bed, too, has been destroyed, and the her- 
mitage is sinking into imheeded ruin ; yet the 
place has peculiar charms of its own that 



134 



8BAT8 OF GREAT BBITAIN AND IRBLANO. 



nothing can destroy. Tlie scenery around is, 
alter a narrow space, bounded by soil ranges 
of hills, the principal object in the iuteiTal 
being the a(\jacent viJlage>church, conspi- 
cuous from its spire and gothic ornaments. 

ADLS8THB0P PASS, in the co. of Glou- 
cester, about four miles from the town of 
Stow-in-the*Wold, one of the seats of Lord 
Leigh of Stoneleigh. 

The county historian, Atkyns, derives the 
name of this place from two Saxon words — 
^dU and Tltorp — the one signifying " noble," 
the other a habitation. If this be not quite 
certain, it yet cannot be denied tliat worae 
etymological coi^jectures have been received 
and passed ciurent. 

From the time of the Noi-man conquest up 
to the dissolution of monasteries by Henry 
VI IL, the manor and estate belonged to the 
abliey of Evesham. In the reign of Edward 
VI. they were granted to Sir 1 homas Leigh, 
Knt., of a very ancient Chesliire family, 
who was Lord Mayor of London in the 
time of Queen Elizabeth. Upon his death he 
assigned this property to the eldest of his 
sons, and it continued to be the seat and resi- 
dence of the elder branch of the family, until 
they inherited Stoneleigh Abbey in Warwick- 
shire, now their pi-incipal estate. 

1'he house is large, and in part appears to 
be of great antiquity, to which, in later times, 
considorable additions have been made in con- 
formity with the taste of the various owners. 
It stands in the midst of very handsome 
pleasure-grounds, on the slope of a hill near 
the boimdary of the county, where it ac^ioins 
Oxlbrdshire. A small stream rushing down 
a declivity over a rocky bed, falls into a lake 
at some distance from the mansion, and forms 
no unimportant feature in the landscape. 

BAOOSATB HALL, Leicestershire, parish 
of Ilungerton, and himdred of West Goscote, 
the seat of Edwyn Bumaby, Esq., a gentle- 
man of her Majesty's most honoiu'able Privy 
Chamber, deputy lieutenant and magistrate 
for the county, and late captain in the Prince 
of Wales' Dragoon Guards. 

The name of tlus place was originally 
written Babgrave, Babegrave, Badegrave, 
Balbegrave, &c. At one time a portion of it 
was possessed by the Knights Templars, till 
their vices, or more probably Uieir wealth, 
drew down the general destniction of the 
order. It aflerwards belonged to the abbey 
of Leicester, but u|>on Uie dissolution of 
monasteries bv Henry VIII., that monarch 
granted it to Francis Cave. LL.D. It then 
successively passed through the hands of the 
Caves, the Villiers, the Cokes, and the Ed- 
wins, from which last family it passed into 
that of Bumaby, by the marriage of the 
Rev. Andrew Bumaby, in 1770, with the 
dmighter and heut)88 of Mr. Edwin. 



The present mansion was erected by John 
Edwin, Esq., from materials that he brought 
from Kirby Beler. It is a plain-looking 
building, with an open space before it, beset 
with trees at either end, and may perhaps be 
called of the Anglo-Italian style of architec- 
ture, in the absence of any better or more 
appropriate desi^ation. 

Several tumult have been opened at differ- 
ent times in the neighbourhood, and various 
relioues have been brought to light, appa- 
rently of British origin. This subject, how- 
ever, has formed a fertile source of dispute 
amongst the antiquaries. 

DABTIHOTOV HOUSE, in the co. of Devon, 
near the village of the same name, and about 
two miles from Totnes, the seat of the 
Champemounes, one of the oldest families 
in tlie county. The name was originally 
" De Campo Arnulphit from a certain cham- 
pion coimtiy, where one Amulphus lived, or 
had his seat, and thence Campernulpk, then 
Chamhernon, Champemoun, and Oluimpemon, 
unto whom heretofore belonged a vast estate. 
There have been many eminent persons of 
this name and family, the hiatory of whose 
actions and exploits for the greatest part is 
devoured by time; although their names 
occur in the clu'onicles of England amongst 
those eminent worthies who with their lives 
and fortunes were ready to serve their king 
and countiy." 

This estate was bestowed by the Noman 
conqueror on William de Falaise, and after- 
wards became the property of the Martins, 
Lords of Kemes, from whom in the reign of 
Edward II. it passed in marriage to William, 
Lord Audelegh. Upon the extinction of this 
family, in the reign of Kichard II., the 
manor escheated to the crown, and was given 
by that monarch to his half-broUier, John, 
Lord Holland, Earl of Himtingdon, and Duke 
of Exeter, who for the most part made it his 
principal residence. On tiie dearth of Anne, 
wife to the last Duke of Exeter, it once more 
reverted to tiie crown, and was next bought 
by Ail worth, of London, who, if we may lie- 
lie ve Sir William Pole, exchanged it tor some 
lands, near Exeter, with Sir Arthur Champer- 
noune, second son of Sir Philip Champer- 
noune, of Modbury. Rawlin Champemoune, 
tlie last of the male line, died in 1774. 

The manor-house is a pile of ancient build- 
ings that probably date from tlie early part of 
the fifteenth century. It is placed upon au 
eminence, and from some of the windows com- 
mands a view of tlie valley of Totnes. The 
walls axe built of black marble, exceedingly 
strong and massive, though it seems probable 
tliat tiie dwelling-house, and the other rooms 
now in use, served in former times but as 
mere offices to the more splendid edifice m- 
liabited by the duke, of which the great hall 



SEATS OF ORE AT BRITAHC ATCD IRELAND. 



135 



is now the only part of consequence that still 
continues pertect. From the remains of the 
walls, and from other circumstances, it has 
been inferred with much likelihood that the 
original pile formed a double quadrangle, the 
two courts being connected by the hall, 
kitchen, buttery, &c. On the left, in the 
reftr of these, is a large area surrounded by 
walls of great thickness; and on the side 
opposite to the hall are the remains of a long 
pile of building, supported by an arched 
fiiont, the arches of which are walled up to 
the height of two feet. 

Of the outer quadrangle, supposed to have 
been the offices, three sides are still nearly 
perfect ; on the fourth side the buildings tor 
the most part have been destroyed. Tlie 
central part is now the dwelling-house, the 
ninge to the right being occupied as a bam, 
stable, &c. Upon the left is the hall and 
great kitchen, the latter of which is thirty teet 
square, with walls of prodigious thiclmess, 
but the roof has gone to ruin. The whole of 
the building, now used for habitable purposes, 
extends in length to two himdred and fifty 
feet. It was at one time divided into distinct 
tenements, each room having only one door, 
and that opening immediately into the open 
air ; but hardly any portion of the origmal 
building continues unaltered. The rooms in 
the old state of the house were entered by five 
door-ways projecting fi^m the front, with 
steps from each, and conducting to the apart- 
ments above the ground-floor. 

The great hall is seventy feet long, and 
forty feet wide, with an oaken roof curiously 
formed, and a chimney-piece fourteen feet in 
height. The windows are large and pointed ; 
the interior is embattled and strengthened by 
buttresses. The entrance-porch and tower, 
also embattled, is four-and-forty feet high ; 
the porch is vaulted ; and in the centre of the 
cross of the arch is an ornamental rose, with 
a recumbent stag in the middle. 

There are some excellent pictures in this 
mansion, amongst which may be particularly 
noticed '*A Venus," by Annibal uaracci ; "A 
Holy Family," by Ludovico Caracci ; " A 
Bacchus," by Rubens ; and " A Small Land- 
scape," by Poussin. But these form a small 
portion only of the fine collection made by 
Mr. Ghampemoune in Italy. 



STAmXLD HAIX, in the co. of Norfolk, 
about six miles from East Dereham, and two 
miles from Wymondham, the seat of the 
Jermys. 

In the time of the Norman Ck>nqueTor, this 
manor belonged to the Bigots, and subse- 
quently passed through the families of Apple- 
yard, Curson, and Flowerdew, imtil, in 1642, 
It was purchased by Sir Thomas Richardson, 
who afterwards became Lord Chief Justice of 
the Common Pleas, and Baron of Cramond 



in Scotland. In 1785, William Jermy, eft 
Bayfield, in Norfolk, married the Hon. Miss 
E. Richardson, the only surviving sister of 
the late Lord Cramond, and thus became 
proprietor of the estate. After the deatli of 
this lady he married a^ain, his second wife 
being a daughter of Jacob Preston, Esq., of 
Beeston St. Lawrence, who having no issue, 
the property fell by inheritance to the Pres- 
tons. Through them, in 1796, it passed by 
will to the brother of the late Rev. George 
Preston ; and from him, in 1837, it devolved, 
by will, to his son, who assumed the name 
of Jermy. 

The house, which was erected by the late 
Reverend George Preston, is in tne Tudor 
style of architectiu-e, surroimded by a brojid 
moat, across which there is a stone bridge 
directly in front of the building. At the foot 
of the bridge is an iron gate. The principal 
entrance is by a porch in the centre, upon 
which are exhibited the family arms. The 
large windows divided by muUions, and the 
clustered chimneys with the spiral ornaments 
to the gables, give a correct idea of the 
Elizabethan architecture. 

The central porch just mentioned leads to 
a spacious haJi, lighted by a large window, 
and opening to the staircase hall, with win- 
dows at the end. Around it are galleries 
conducting to the other apartments. On the 
left hand, as the visitor enters the staircase 
hall, is a large room having an oriel window 
in the centre, and a second one looking to- 
wards the front. The dining-room is entered 
by the second door in the same hall, and has 
also an opening fit)m the drawing-room. In 
it is an oriel window. Between the two 
oriels is a window in the face of the wall, 
giving light to a small room termed the Tri- 
bune by the late Rev. George Preston, but 
which was throTMi into a drawing-room by 
Mr. Recorder Jermy. At the upper end of 
the staircase hall is a room called the Broirn 
Parhtir, or library, which adjoins a passage 
leading to the butler's pantry, back stairs, 
housekeeper's room, offices, cook's pantry, 
servants' hall, and the court-yard behind. 
Tliese rooms are all in a line with each other, 
and have windows to the front of the house. 
At the entrance to the lobby of the back 
passage is a door opening to it from the 
staircase hall. 

This seat has acquired of late years a 
painful notoriety as the scene of the fearful 
murders perpetrated by James Bloomfield 
Rush, by whose hand Mr. Jermy and his 
son were both assassinated. 

CATB CASTLE, Yorkshire, near Brough, 
and not far from the small market and post- 
town of South Cave, the seat of Heniy Gee 
Barnard, Esq. 

The mansion-house of Cave Castle is a noble 



136 



SKATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



sad spacious structure, ornamented with a 
profusion of turrets, battlements, and but- 
tresses, and all the other embellishments 
peculiar to the castellated style of building, 
it is situated in a small, but venr pleasant 
park, with extensive gardens, and pleasure- 
grounds, commanding several fine views, par- 
ticularly of the Humber, and the well-wooded 
Lincolnshire coast, witli its villages and 
churches rising beyond the grand estuary in 
picturesque beauty. The point is also dis- 
tinctly visible, where the two rivers, Ouse 
and Trent, meet at right angles, and by their 
junction form the Humber. 

Many of tlie apartments are large and ex- 
ceedingly handsome, containing a select and 
valuable collection of paintings by the best 
masters. Among them is a portrait of the 
celebrated George Washington, the hero of 
American independence, whose great-grand- 
father lived here, and possessed a portion of 
the estate ; but who emigrated to America 
about the year 1657, and settled at Bridges 
Creek, in the coimtv of Westmoreland, Virgi- 
nia, where the family has remained ever since. 

FALXBUBH HAIX, in the co. of Essex, 
about a mile and a-half from Witham 
Church, the seat of Jonathan Bullock, Esq., 
a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for the 
county. 

The name of this place is compoimded of 
two Anglo-Saxon words, Folc, or Pak', signi- 
^ing " People," and Bum, a " Spring ; " 
tliat is to say, the " People's Spring** It is 
supposed to have originated from the spring 
that rises between the church and the manor- 
house, and which to this day is called 8t. 
Oerman*8 Well. In the olden time the bum 
was much frequented by the people, who 
attributed to it many healing properties, and 
were not to be restrained from their spring- 
worship by any decrees of kings and synods. 

For a long series of ^ears this estate was 
80 bound up in possession with others, that 
it IB hardly possible to consider it separately. 
In the Saxon time of Edward the Confessor, 
the parish was held by Turbin ; in that of 
William the Conqueror it belonged to Hamo 
Dapifer. After many other successions, in- 
cluding more or less of other lands, we find it 
— ^how, we know not — possessed by the Mont- 
gomerys, from whom it passed to the Fortes- 
cues, in default of the immediate male line. 

In 1637, this estate was sold by John 
Montague to Sir Edward Bullock, or Loftes, 
in Great Totham, within the same county of 
Essex. The family is ancient, though it 
is not known from what part it originally 
came. 

Falkbum Hall is pleasantly situated upon 
the left-hand side of the road from Brain tree 
to Witham, and by some is supposed to have 
been originally built in the reign of King 



Stephen, or Henry II. This, if true at all, 
must apply to a town-gateway, of very 
curious architecture. The rest of the build- 
ing, with its stately towers and battlements, 
belongs to the architecture of various ages, 
and has received many additions and im- 
provements in more modem times. In the 
house are several good paintings by Van- 
dyck, Vandevelde, Michael Angelo, Sartorius, 
and other known masters. 

llie grounds are well laid out and exten> 
sive, containing many fine springs. Here 
also is a cedar-tree that may vie with the 
largest in the kingdom. At six inches from 
the ground its girth is eighteen feet nine 
inches ; at ten feet firom the ground, fourteen 
feet nine inches ; and its height to the first 
branch is nineteen feet. 

** Here," says Morant, " seems to have been 
an ancient P[oman villa, for a silver coin of 
Domitian was found under the foundation of 
an old wall, bmlt partly of Eoman bricks. 

POBT ELIOT, Coruwall, the seat of the 
Earl of St. Germans, was formerly the pri- 
ory of St Germans, but, at the dissolution of 
the monasteries, became the property of John 
Champemoune, Esq., of whom Uarew relates 
a quamt story relating to his acquisition of 
the priory lands. Having, on a former occa- 
sion, given a minute description of this 
ancestral home of the noble family of Eliot, 
we will now merely add that it owes the 
peculiarity of its name to its situation on the 
river nigh the old town of St. Germans. 

LETHJSH H017SE, Nairnshire, the seat of 
James Campbell Brodie, Esq. 

This mansion was built in the last century. 
The main building is three storeys high, but 
the wings are somewhat less loity, and are, 
besides, of unequal pronortions. It is placed 
upon the higher ground of the valley of the 
Muckelbum, or Biun of Lethen, a consider- 
able stream that rises in the south-west part 
of the parish, and flows through it for nearly 
ten miles, nearly parallel to the Findhom, 
which it eventually ]oin8 within about two 
miles of its mouth. Altogether the landscape 
about Lethen, with its woods and waters, is 
one of the first in this county. 

80TTEBLEY HALL, in the co. of Suffolk, and 

Earish of Sotterley, about foiu- miles-and-a- 
alf from Beccles, the seat of Fred. Bame, 
Esq., formerly M.P. for Dunwich, and cap- 
tain in the 12th Lancers. 

At this place the ancient family of the 
Playters had their seat as far back as the 
time of Edward, and they continued in posses- 
sion of it for some centuries aflerwards. 

Attached to the house is a park, and the 
country aroimd is by no means deficient in 
picturesque interest. 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND niEHAND. 



137 



JUBLVIDJUS H01F8B, in the co. of Kent, 
about half a mile westward from Erith Church, 
the seat of Sir Culling Eardley Eardley, Bart., 
who assumed the surname and arms of Eard- 
ley, in lieu of Smith, 14th May, 1847. 

The house which formerly stood here was 
erected by George Hoyley, Esq., who, after 
residing in it some time, disposed of it to 
Frederick Calvert, Lord Baltimore, of the 
kingdom of Ireland. This nobleman died 
here in 1751 ; and, soon afterwards, the estate 
was sold by his devisees to Sampson Gideon, 
Esq., by whom the house was greatly im- 
proved. Upon the death of this gentleman, 
m 1762, he bequeathed it, with a large for- 
tiuie, to his only son and heir, Sir Sampson 
Gideon, Bart, he having been advanced to 
that title during his father's life-time, May 
2l8t, 1759. Soon after his accession to the 
property. Sir Sampson rebuilt the house upon 
a more extensive scale, and in a style of much 
greater elegance. It is now a large pile in 
that mingled kind of architecture which, with- 
out being exactly Greek or Italian, partakes 
of either school, so modified as to suit English 
habits and the English climate. 

The country around, though not possessing 
the bolder features of a northern landscape, 
is exceedingly picturesque and beautiful. 

OreLBBY XAirOB, Yorkshire, in the North 
Riding, five miles from Stokesley, and eight 
and arhalf from Guisborough, the seat of 
Lord De Lisle. 

This manor was for a lon^ period the inhe- 
ritance of the ancient family of Foulis, the 
eventual heiress of which, the daughter of Sir 
WilUam Fouhs, Bart, conveyed it by marriage 
to the present owner. 

GOGXAGOG HILLS, Cambridgeshire, about 
three miles from Cambridge, the seat of Lord 
Godolphin. 

According to a fanciful tradition, the name 
of the hills on which this seat stands was 
derived from the circmnstance of certain 
Cambridge students having carved, upon the 
turf of the summit, the rude figure of a giant 
Layer states that he had seen the figure ; but, 
if so, it has been obliterated by the growth 
of the turf, no one having been at the trouble 
to renew it Upon the top of the Gogmagogs 
is a triple entrenchment with two ditches, 
rudely circular; bv some it is supposed to 
have been a British camp, while others have 
assigned it to the Romans, who may be called 
the fairies of antiquarian superstition, and 
the ready authors of any work for which the 
legend has provided no other owners. At 
the same time it must be allowed that Roman 
coins have been found here, — some while 
digging a cellar, in 1685; and, moreover, a 
so-cfdled Roman way runs from the brow of 
the hill towards Cambridge. 



Within the entrenchment just mentioned, 
which encloses about thirteen acres and 
a-half, are the house and grounds of Lord 
Godolphin. It was originally intended for a 
mei« huntmg-box, and established for the 
rearing and breeding of horses. In form it is 
an irregular building, composed of brick, and 
little noticeable in an architectural point of 
view, though it commands an extensive pro- 
spect The gardens belonging to it have, of 
late years, been much improved, and many 
trees have been planted. Near the centre is 
a small fish-pond, which is supplied witli 
water by means of a large forcing machine, 
worked by horses, the stream being raised 
from a well more than two hundred feet in 
depth. From this same well is also prociu^ 
all the water required for domestic purposes, 
as there is no spring within a considerable 
distance. 

KIBXSTALL ABBEY, Yorkshire, about three 
miles from Leeds, the seat of Sir Sandford 
Graham, Bart. 

This estate derives its name from the old 
abbey of Kirkstall, and, indeed, is a part — 
nearly five hundred acres — of the lands that 
belonged, in the olden time, to the abbot and 
monks of Kirkstall. Queen Elizabeth, in the 
twenty-sixth year of her reign, granted tlie 
entire property to Edmund Downynge and 
Peter Asheton and their heirs for ever. At a 
later period, — ^but when is not exactly known, 
— ^the site and demesnes of Kirkstall were 
purchased by the Saviles of Howley, and 
since then they have passed, by marriage, 
with the other estates of that family, through 
the Duke of Montagu, to the Brudenels, 
Earls of Cardigan, in whose immediate pos- 
session the ruins now are, together witn a 
portion of the annexed grounds. About five 
hun(fred acres — as we have already said — 
of the estate near Kirkstall wefd detached 
from the mass; these were sold, more than 
seventy years ago, by one of the Earls of 
Cardigan, upon a lease of nine hundred and 
ninety-nine years, to Mr. Moore, minister of 
Headingley, through whose daughter that in- 
terest devolved to Sir Sandford Graham, Bart. 

For many centuries the old abbey had ob- 
tained a happy exemption from the usual 
destiny of such venerable piles, the ruins 
having been carefully preserved in their se- 
clusion. A few years ago, however, a serious 
innovation was made upon the quiet sanctity 
of this spot by the demand for new roads, and 
the dtd^ hiEis been made to give way — ^as 
perhaps it ought — ^to the utile. 

These interesting remains of the olden time 
are situated in the valley of the Aire, very near 
tibe nortliem bank of the river. They occupy a 
considerable space — ^no less, indeed, than three 
hundred and forty feet from north to south, 
and four hundred and forty-five feet from east 

T 



138 



SBATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



to west The oburch is in the fonn of a cross, 
and onoe had a tower; but this many 
years since fell down. The whole building 
bears evidence of the transition from the early 
Norman to the pointed order — the two styles 
being combined here, and, in some instances, 
the earlier architecture having been evidently 
altered and remodelled into t£e latter. 

According to the best authorities, this 
monastery originated with Henry de Lacy, 
who, being seriously ill, made a vow to build, 
if he recovered, an abbey in honour of the 
Blessed Virgin, to be tenanted by monks of 
the Cistercian order. The sick baron re- 
covered, and faithfuUy kept his vow. 

The situation of the abbey is delightful in 
the extreme ; the only drawback bemg that 
it is in some danger in the time of floods, 
when the water rushes down with much vio- 
lence from the hilly parts of Craven. 

WABTHABYEAIL, Leicestershire, the seat 
of Henry Corles Bingham, Esq., (High- 
Sheriff, 1854,) is a plain, unpretenmng struc- 
ture, devoid of any architectural character, 
but well adapted, in its internal arrangements, 
to the requirements of a countij gentleman. 
The domain, which includes Wartnaby and 
Abbkettleby, is compact, contains some of the 
best land in the coimty, and has been greatly 
improved by the present possessor. The little 
chapel of Wartnaby, contiguous to the man- 
sion, is one of the outlying dependencies of 
the Soke of Bothley. The fine Norman 
church of Abbkettleby, of which Mr. Bing- 
ham is patron, has lately been restored, chiefly 
at the patron's expense. It contains some 
monuments of the Digbys — ^formerly lords 
here. The old Hall, long occupied by them, 
and subsequently by the Hackett family, no 
longer exists. It was the scene of much 
revelry. Royalty had been a guest there. 
Charles II., when on a progress at Belvoir 
Castle, with his whole suite, and the then 
Earl of Kutland, took breakfast at Mr. Hack- 
ett's, and offered to confer the honour of 
knighthood on his hospitable host. The 
dearth of this Mr. Hackett was remarkable. 
On the 25th of November, 16B6, the Earl of 
Rutland, Chiverton Karloph, and Mr. Hack- 
ett, dined with Mr. Bennett at Welby. Mr. 
Hackett thrice went to the door to observe 
the weather, and each time an owl perched 
on his shoulder. The last time this occurred, 
he mentioned the imusual circumstance to 
the company. They were struck at the rela- 
tion, while he made a joke of their supersti- 
tion. On the party breaking up, Mr. Bennett 
and the others, mindful of the omen, urged 
Mr. Hackett to allow his (Mr. B.'s) footman 
to accompany him home — ^litUe more than 
half a mile off. **What! gentlemen," said 
he, " do you think Jack Hackett is afraid of 
an owl T The company, however, were re- 



solved that the footman should follow him on 
horseback, and watch him at a distance. Mr. 
Hackett heard the horse's steps behind him. 
He stopped, turned his horse, and peremptorily 
ordered the man to return — actually whipping 
him back to the HaU. Early the next morn- 
ing, a shepherd's wife found his nearly lifeless 
body on &e road a short distance from Ida 
own door. He was conveyed home; and, 
though he lived a few hours, he never spoke 
again ! He was in his 52nd year, and had 
dissipated a splendid fortune. 

ELYA8T0H CASTU — ^This noble seat of 
the Earl of Harrington is situated about 
five miles east of Derby. The estate was 
settled by Sir John Stanhope (father of the 
first Earl of Chesterfield) on Sir John Stan- 
hope, the eldest son by his second wife. In 
1043, the old Hall was occupied by Sir John's 
widow, when Sir John Gell, with the Parlia- 
mentary forces, attacked and plundered it. 
Lady Stanhope had recently erected, at ao 
expense of J§600, a rich altar-tomb to her 
husband; and such was the personal and 
political hatred of the Roundhead knight 
against his late stout opponent, that he pro- 
ceeded to the church, mutilated theefiigy, and 
then wantonly destroyed Lady Stanhope's 
favourite flower-garden. Nor did his revenge 
stop here— for he married the lady, for the 
express purpose, it is said, " of destroying the 
gloiT of her husband and his house. Pro- 
bably, it was in reference to this si^e that the 
late Lord Harrington changed the name of 
his seat from Elvaston Hall to Elvaston 
Castle. We can discover no other reason. 
Neither from its situation, its architectural 
features, nor from any previous erection, has 
it the slightest claim to the appellation. As, 
however, every Englishman's house is said to 
be his *' castle," Lord Harrington had an un- 
doubted right so to name his — ^if it pleased 
him. 

The Castle then, in 1817, underwent ex- 
tensive alterations. The Oothic hall, which 
forms the entrance, was begun; and, sur- 
rounded with niches containing many choice 
specimens of ancient armour, it is surpassed 
by very few vestibules in the kingdom. The 
dming-room, drawing-room, and library, are 
very fine apartments. A profusion of gilding, 
of which tne late lord was exceedingly fond 
(extending it even to the statuary), meets the 
eye in every direction. An admirable series 
of family portraits, and some paintings by 
the ancient masters, adorn the walls. 

There are some seats whose charm is, how- 
ever, less in the mansion itself than in the 
park and grounds by which tliey are sur- 
rounded. This is decidedly the case with 
Elvaston Castle^though the edifice, as will 
have been gleaned from what has been stated, 
is possessed of considerable interest The 



BEATS OF OBEAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



189 



late eail's taste, though somewhat bizarre, no 
one will question. It was devoted for more 
than thirty years to the realization of his own 
peculiar ideas of the Perfection of landscape 
gardening. The result has heen the trans- 
lormation of a spot having of itself ver^ few 
natural advantages into an English Eden. 
With the exception of the wondrous gardens 
at Alton Tower, those at Elvaston stand un- 
rivalled. The Allanton process of trans- 
planting full-grown trees has been very suc- 
cessfully practised, under the direction of Mr. 
Barrow, the head-gardener. Every beautiful 
tree for miles round has been brought to 
Elvaston with as much ease as Bimam wood 
came to Dimsinane, and the result is such an 
arboretum as no other nobleman's seat can 
show. Gilded statuary, interspersed among 
these, has the rich effect which green and 
gold always produce. Water, too, has been 
made, by machinery, a great auxiliary to the 
l)eauty of the scene. Beautiful, however, as 
Elvaston gardens confessedly are, thev were, 
during the late earl's time, entirelv shut up 
from the public. Even his lordship's own 
tenantry could not gain admittance. The 
present more liberal-minded earl has shown a 
better feeling; and so great has been the de- 
sire of the pubUc to avail themselves of the 
new privilege, that it was suggested that some 
security against the great influx of people was 
absolutely necessaiv. Special d!ays have 
therefore been fixea upon, and a small sum 
charged for admittance, which is generously 
devoted to the county charities. The sums 
realised have been considerable ; and it is not 
unusual, on these public days, to see several 
thou!^ands enjoying the beauties of this en- 
chanting scene. The river Derwent bounds 
the domain on the north. The acljoining 
church, covered with ivy and containing several 
fine monuments, is weU worth a visit. A few 
years ago, it was hung with those rustic 
funeral garlands of which Derbyshire has re- 
tained me last trace. The Whitsun Ales 
paid by the parish of Elvaston to the vicar of 
the neighbouring parish of Ockbrook, is a 
custom still retamed, though the origin of it 
is imknown. 

BLAnrS CA8TLE, North Britain, Aber- 
deenshire, and in the parish of Slains, the 
seat of the Earl of Erroll. 

The family of Erroll resided in ancient 
times in a castle, the extensive ruins of which 
still remain to attest its original grandeur. 
These picturesque relics stand upon the sum- 
mit of a rock that juts out into tne sea, at an 
elevation of a hundred or a hundred and 
twenty feet above the water. The only access 
to it is by a narrow defile upon the north, so 
that before the use of cannon it must have 
lieen well-nigh impregnable, as a few brave 
men must have been enough to have defended it 



against the most numerous assailantB. It was 
demolished, at the advice of the politic Lord 
Lindsay, by James the Sixth, when in 1594 
the Earl or Erroll joined in the rebellion of 
Lord Huntly. The work of destruction was 
tolerably complete, nothing now remaining 
but three sides of a square tower, strewn 
about with fallen masses of masonry. 

flAWBTOV HALL, Cambridgeshire, about six 
miles from Cambridge, and seven from Roy- 
ston, the seat of Ferdmand Huddleston, Esq. 

William Huddleston, who settled at Saw- 
ston in consequence of his marriage with one 
of the co-heiresses of the Marquess Montagu, 
having acquired this and other manors in her 
right, sprang from an ancient family inCum- 
berlana. His son, John Huddleston, a de- 
voted Catholic, entertained the Princess Mary 
at his dwelling immediately after the death 
of her brother, Ring Edward the Sixth, and 
contrived her escape to Framlingham Castle, 
for which his house was burnt by the people, 
who sided with the amiable, but unfortunate, 
Lady Jane Grey. According to the tradition, 
as related by a modem historian, the fugitive 
witnessed the conflagration horn a distant 
hill, when she exclaimed, " Let the house 
bum ; I. will build Huddleston a better.** 
Fuller tells us, " He was highly honoured by 
Queen Mary, and deservedly. Such the trust 
she reposed in him, that (when Jane Grey 
was proclaimed Queen) she came privately to 
him at Salston, and rid thence behind his 
servant (the better to disgui<<e herself from 
discovery) to Framlingham Castle. She af- 
terwards made him (as I have heard) her 
privy-councillor, and (besides other great 
nouses) bestowed the bigger part of Cam- 
bridge Castle (then much ruined) upon him, 
with the stones whereof he built his fair house 
in this county." The latter part, however, of 
this story cannot be true, the castle having 
been of stone, while the house is chiefly of 
brick, besides which we leam from two stones 
in the court-yard the date of its commence- 
ment and termination — 1&57 and 1084; and 
Mary, who began to reign in 1553, died in 
1558. Lysons had already seen, and started 
this objection to the popular accoxmt 

Sawston Hall is a large quadrangular edi< 
flee, and stands upon low ground, almost 
hidden by a thick cluster of cottages and gar- 
dens. It still retains much of its original cha- 
racter both within and without, presenting a 
very fair specimen of the gable-ended style of 
the sixteenth century. The chief entrance is 
by a low door-way, with a porch, that leads 
into a large hall, paved with black marble 
and Kettering stone. This is lighted by a 
large bay-window and two smaller windows 
all upon the same side. The rare specimens 
of painted glass which they formerly con- 
tained were abstracted, with the consent. 



140 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AKD IRELAND, 



however, of the proprietor, hy a clerical friend, 
who wished to use them iB decorating a 
neighbouring church. 

** Surref this Tscast Tiolated ikne. 
Recount the relies torn that yet rcmun." 

And many relics do remain, but happDy not 
torn, in the finely-painted portraits that 
adorn the walls, the wainscoting of which is 
stained in imitation of walnutrwood. 

Two of the bed-rooms are hung with faded 
tapestry, concealing doors that conduct to 
distant parts of the mansion. The gallery, 
which is more than a hundred feet in length, 
and eighteen feet in width, occupies almost 
the entire length of the building, and has 
oaken panels up to the ceiling. Here, too, is 
a large collection of family portraits. 

A door-way in tlie court-yard leads to a 
neat chapel, in which are a wmdow of stained 
glass, and an altar of fine Egyptian marble, 
inlaid with lapis lazuli. 

Since the death of the late Mr. Edward 
Huddleston, in 1847, the house has been for 
the most part shut up, the owner having 
taken up his residence abroad. Occasionally, 
however, it is visited by his brother, Major 
Huddleston. 

SUininrCkHILL PABX, Berkshire, near 
Windsor, the seat of the Crutchleys. 

In tlie reign of King Edward the Third the 
manor of SunninghOl appertained to the Sun- 
ninglulls, who took their name fi'om the vil- 
lage so called. At a later period it passed 
into the family of Norris, and afterwards to 
that of Hartley, from whom it was purchased 
in 1787 by James Sibbald, Esq. 

The seat, called Sunning hill Park, the 
more immediate subject of this notice, was 
formerly part of the royal demesnes, and is 
6upiK)sed to have been granted by Charles 
the First to the Careys. In or about 1660 
the heiress of that family conveyed the estate 
by marriage to Sir Thomas Draper, of whose 
grandson it was bought, in 1769, by Mr. 
Cnitchley. 

The house and park are described by Mrs. 
Thrale in her day as being '*extremelv fine." 
Of the owner she says, according to ^tadame 
D'Arblay, " his character among his own 
people, and in his own neighbourhood, is so 
high, that she left his place with double the 
esteem, if possible, that she entered it. He 
is indeed, 1 sincerely believe, one of the wor- 
thiest and most amiable creatures in tlie 
world, however full of spleen, oddities, and 
minor foibles." 

SunninghiU Park would seem to have been 
often visited by Dr. Jolmson, who highly es- 
teemed its eccentric but shrewd and generous 
possessor. Madame D'Arblay speaks of him 
repeatedly in her memoirs, and always in 
terms of esteem, and, almost of afifection. 



7A8KALLT H0TI8B, Scotland, in the co. 
of Perth, the seat of Archibald Butter, 
Esq. 

This mansion stands in the midst of wooded 
hills, and altogether has a very picturesque, 
and almost romantic aspect. iJpon the es- 
tate, and on the high ground about a milo 
from Pitlochrie, is a pretty little waterfall, 
called the " Black Spout,** a name indicative 
of the sombre hue it borrows firom the rocks 
down which it pours. Yet further on, but 
still in some measure connected with this 
place, is the celebrated pass of Killiecrankie, 
which extends for more than a mile along 
the termination of the river Oarry. At 
the north end of this pass was fought the 
battle of Kilhecrankie, and a stone yet marks 
the spot where Dundee fell in the arms of 
victory: — 

" He waved his prond arm, and the tmmpets were blown. 
The kettle- drams clashed, and the horsemen rode on, 
Till on Karelston crags, and on Clermiston lee, 
Died away the wUd war-note of bonuie Dundee." 

ITBHET PASX, in the co. of Gloucester, 
and parish of Lydney, the seat of Charles 
Bathurst, Esq., a magistrate, and one of the 
verderers of the Forest of Dean. 

This manor was originally granted by 
Queen Elizabeth to Wyntour, then vice- 
admiral of England, for his gallantry in the 
defeat of the Spanish Armada. He built here 
a mansion, which he called Whitecross. 
During the great civil war it was fordfied 
by his descendant, Sir John Wyntoiv, and 
held by him for King Charles, in consequence 
of which the neighbourhood became the 
scene of several severe actions. Thft he 
served the king no less truly than ably may 
be inferred from the acrimonious way in 
which he is spoken of by Corbet in his 
" MilitaiT Government of Gloucester.** 

" Amidst these things,'* says the angry pam- 
phleteer, " Sir John Winter, a zealous papist, 
began to declare himselfe. A subtile wit, 
that pretended innocency 'till his houre was 
come, and had almost perswaded the world 
that he durst deny himselfe, and commit an 
unpardonable sinne against the CathoUke 
cause. His house in die Forrest of Deane 
was at first neglected, when it was in the 
power of this garrison to mine his designe. 
i)ut imderhand he prepared for defence, sud- 
denly clapt in )iis owne confidents, and with 
a little laboiu' made it inaccessible, but with 
apparent great losse, and maintained his den 
as the plague of the Forrest, and a goad in 
the sides of this garrison.'* 

Then, again, we are told that a ** guard was 
set, at Westbury, on the edge of the forrest, 
to afi^ont Sir John Winter, a most active 
enemy, and one chiefe agent of the Popish 
faction. Sir John, assisted with the Lord 
Herbert's horse, tiireatened us out of tlie For- 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



141 



i^t, and bad made a passage over Seayem, at 
Newuhain, to afflict those parts beyond the 
river." Tliis liaise, bowever, if praise it can 
be called, is afterwards mucb qualified ; for 
it appears tbat " Sir John was wise for him- 
selfe, nimble in inferiour businesses, delighted 
rather in petty and cunning contrivance than 
open gallantry, refened all bis industry to his 
<^m house or the limits of the Forrest, vexed 
his neighbours more than weakened his enemy, 
and advanced the Catholike cause no other 
way than by the plagiie and mine of the 
coimtrey ." Last of all , in the list of Sir John's 
offences, when the royal cause became des- 
porate, and it became plain that neither skill 
nor courage could avail any longer, he set fire 
to his house, and abandoned the smoking iiiins 
to the conqueror. 

From the heirs of this gallant Royalist, 
Lydney was pm'chased by Benjamin Bathurst, 
Esq., yoimger brother of Allen, first Earl 
Bathurst. By him the mansion, which had 
been but imperfectly destroyed, was repaired, 
and made much as it now appears. 

In a wood near the house is an excavation, 
known imder the name of the Scowls, which 
forms a sort of irregular rocky trench of some 
extent, overhung by trees and underwood. 
The entrance is between upright stone pillars, 
unwrought, and the interior is fringed with 
shrubs and moss. 

M1LKHAX HALL, in the co. ofNorfolk, about 
seven miles from East Dereham, the seat of 
the Rev. Charles Barnwell. 

This is a convenient dwelling-house, built 
of red brick, and erected in the last century. 
It presents no peculiar ai'chitectural fea- 
tures, but has some good rooms, well suited 
for domestic purposes, tmd stands near the 
church, tliough at a little distance from the 
site of the castle, once the stronghold of the 
Fitz-Alans, before they acquired the earldom 
and castle of Arundel. The importance of 
tlie former may be inferred from the extent 
of tlie earth-works siuroimding it. Blom- 
field, in his " Norfolk," says, ** In the said 
town (Mileham) was formerly a strong castle, 
the site of which is now part of the demeans 
of the manor of Mileham. It stood by the 
road-side on the left hand beyond the church, 
being of an oval form, containing about 
twelve or thirteen acres, smroimded by deep 
ditches or trenches ; in that part to the south 
was the keep, with another ditch, where are 
ruins of walls that crossed tlie ditch; and the 
north part was the barbican. The outward 
ditch and enclosure seems to have gone across 
the high road, and to have enclosed the 
house and ground wherein Sir Edward Coke 
was bom, as on each side of it, and behind 
it, may be observed. The entrance to it 
seems to have been on the west side." 

The manors of Mileham and Beeston now 



go with the Hall estate. The oastle and the 
park -lands adjoining belong to another 
branch of the Barnwell family. 

WEBTBUSK, in the co. of Lanark, the seat 
of J. Graham, Esq. 

This ancient mansion is pleasantly situated 
at the distance of about four miles from the 
city of Glasgow, on the banks of the Clyde, 
in the midst of venerable trees, in a small 
park, close to the river. The most ancient 
portion of the house was built in the early 
part of the seventeenth centiiry, and the more 
modem was erected about eighty years ago. 

The property is of considerable extent and 
value, and consists of two estates — ^West- 
bum proper, which has been the longest in 
the Hamilton family, and Gilbertfield, which 
was added about a himdred and fifty years 
ago. The mansion-house of Gilbertfield is an 
ancient castle of venerable appearance, which 
must have been a place of some importance. 
It is an excellent specimen of the old Scottish 
feudal keep. Gilbertfield belonged to an an- 
cient branch of the house of Glencaim. 
There were several generations of this family 
who resided in the castle of Gilbertfield dur- 
ing the seventeenth century. There was a 
Sir Robert Cuningham, and a Sir William, 
who was his son. Tlie former married Mar- 
garet, daughter of John Hamilton of Udston 
by Janet, daughter of Sir Archibald Stewart 
of CasUemilk. The family of Cuningham of 
Gilbertfield is now extinct in the male line. 
It is represented by Hamilton of Westbum, 
Gabriel Hamilton of Westbum having mar- 
ried Margaret Cuningham, the daughter of 
Sir Robert. 

The estate of Westbum was acquired by 
the family of Hamilton about the year 1600 
The laird of Westbimi was representative of 
the ancient house of Torrance, which, in 
common witli Raploch, was descended from 
Sir John Hamilton, fourth lord of Cadzow, 
grandfather of the first Lord Hamilton, who 
married Princess Mary of Scotland. 

Thomas Hamilton, yoimger son of the 
Lord of Cadzow, married a daughter of Dou- 
glas of Lochleven, by whom he had two sons, 
James, the ancestor of Raploch, and Thomas, 
the ancestor of this family. 

Thomas Hamilton married the daughter 
and heiress of the ancient race of Torrance of 
that ilk, by whom he acquired that estate. 
His son, John Hamilton of Torrance, was 
alive in 1475. His son, James, married a 
daughter of the ancient house of Maxwell, by 
whom he had issue James Hamilton of Tor- 
rance, who, about 1540, married Christian 
Stewart, daughter of Stewart of Minto, ances- 
tor to Lord Blantyre. His grandson, Matr 
thew Hamilton of I'orrance, married a daugh- 
ter of Muirhead of liachope, and niece to 
Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, who assassinated 



^^im 



^mam^ 



142 



BEATS OF GREAT BRITARY AND IRELAND. 



the Regent Murray ; by her he had two sons, 
James, who carried on the line of Torrance, 
which became extinct in the course of a few 
generations, and Archibald, ancestor of Ham- 
Uton of Westbum, now the representative of 
the Torrance family. 

Archibald's son, Andrew Hamilton, was 
proprietor of Westbum in 1600. He was 
alive in 1608. His son, Gabriel Hamilton 
of Westbum, lived during the protectorate of 
Cromwell and the reign of King Charles H., 
by whom he was severely persecuted on ac- 
count of his religion, and fined a thousand 
pounds. By his wife Margaret, daughter of 
Sir Robert Cuningham of Gilbertfield, he 
had a son, Gabriel, who succeeded him in the 
estate of Westbum in 1669 ; another son, Ar- 
chibald, who succeeded his brother; and a 
daughter, Elizabeth, who married James 
Hamilton of Newton, cousin to Hamilton, 
Baronet of Silvertonhill, bv whom he had an 
only child, Elizabeth, wife of John Gray of 
Damamock and Camtyne, the greatrgrand- 
mother of the Rev. John Hamilton Gray. 

Archibald Hamilton of Westbum married, 
first, a daughter of Hay of Craiffnethon. 
This is one of the most romantic and beauti- 
ful of the old castellated seats in the west of 
Scotland. The fanuly of Hay, which was a 
branch of the house of Tester, is now extmct, 
and Craignethan is a picturesque min. It is 
said to have suggested to Sir Walter Scott 
the idea of Tillietudlem ! Archibald Hamil- 
ton's second wife was Margaret, daughter of 
Claud Hamilton of Bams, representative of 
the house of Raploch, bv Anne, daughter of 
Sir Walter Stewart of Allantoun, and niece to 
the first Lord Belhaven. He was succeeded, 
about the year 1780, by his son, Gabriel 
Hamilton of Westbum, who married Agnes 
Dundas, eventually heiress of Duddingstone, 
in West Lothian ; her brother, John Dundas, 
having left no issue by his wife, Lady Marga- 
ret Hope. , , - _ 

Agnes Dundas was daughter of George 
DundoB of Duddingstone, by his wife Magda- 
len, daughter of the Hon. Patrick Lmdsay 
Craufurdof Kilbimie, granddaughter of John, 
seventeenth Earl of Craufurd and Lindsay , and 
niece to James and William, Dukes of Ham- 
ilton. The issue of this marriage was seven 
sons and seven daughters, of whom onlv 
three left issue. The eldest son, Gabnel, 
succeeded his fatiier about the year 1760. 
He was a captain in the army, and died un- 
married at tie Havannah, immediately after 
storming tiie Moro Costie, where he greatly 
distinguished himself. The children of G^ 
briel Hamilton and Agnes Dundas who left 
issue were, I. John, bom 1745, who succeeded 

his brother. ^ ^ , xt • 

1 1 Christian, wife of tiie Hon. Charles Napier 
of Merchiston Hall, in the co. of Stirling, 
second son of Francis the fifth Lord Nai»ier. 



By him she had issue, first, Charles, a Knight 
Commander of the Bath, Vice- Admiral, Coimt 
Cape St. Vincent in Portugal, now Com- 
mander-in-chief of the Baltic Fleet; second, 
Thomas Erskine, Companion of the Batli, 
Major-General, now Commander of the Forces 
in Scotiand. 

III. Mary Anne, wife of Robert Gray of 
Camtyne, in the CO. of Lanark. Byhimshehofi 
issue, John Hamilton Gray, now of Camtyne, 
in holy orders, vicar of Bolsover, in the co. of 
Derbv, who, by Elizabeth Caroline, eldest 
daughter of J. R. Johnstone of Alva, has one 
daughter, Maria, wife of John Anstruther 
Thomson of Chorleton, in the co. of Fife. 

John Hamilton of Westbum took the name 
of Dundas on succeeding to the estate of 
Duddingstone, in West IjOthian, of which 
county he was for many years vice-lieutenant. 
He married Grizel, only daughter of John 
Hamilton of Bams, representative of Raj)- 
loch. He died in 1820, and was succeeded 
by Ms son, Gabriel Hamilton Dimdas of 
Duddingstone and Westbum, who sold both 
of these estates, the former to the Earl of 
Hopetoun, and the latter to Mr. Graham, the 
present proprietor. 

Westbum House has now been deserted 
for half a century, as Mr. Hamilton Dundas 
always resided at Duddingstone, and the pre- 
sent proprietor has never taken up his resi- 
dence there. Though tiie situation is lovely, 
the place has a lonely and melancholy appear^ 
ance, which singularly contrasts wim the 
traditions of its firmer history, for it was ce- 
lebrated as one of the most hospitable houses 
in the west of Scotland. The grandfathers 
and great-grandfathers of the existing gene- 
ration have recorded the old Scottish festivi- 
ties of the lairds of Westbum, and the nume- 
rous and joyous assemblages which used to 
meet under that roof-tree now deserted. 

BRODICK CASTLE, in the island of Arran 
and shire of Bute, the seat of the Duke of 
HamOton. 

Arran is the principal island in the Firth 
of Clyde; and tnat it must have been a place 
of great consideration in very remote times is 
proved by its immense cairns, monumental 
stones, and relics of Druidism. There are 
many traditions of the Celtic hero Fingal. 
Magnus Barefoot, the Norwegian king, in- 
cluded Arran in his conquest of Cantyre, and 
his successor, Haco, in 1263, laid claim to it 
and the other islands in the Firth of Clyde ; 
but his signal defeat at Largs obliged him to 
abandon his Scottish acquisitions. 

Arran was a domain of the Scottish crown, 
and thither King Robert Bruce retired in his 
distress, and met with protection from his 
faithful vassals. Many of these followed his 
fortunes to the glorious field of Bannockbiim. 
and were rewarded by him with charters of 



BEATS OF GXEAT TntTTATK USD lEELAITD. 



148 



koids in &ariiitm island, and ircan ihem 
are dflBoended aevexal finniliBB who, mzdl le- 
cmuy, were — >**" pnypnatore tiure. 

In Hie jeacr 1334, Anan foimed a portian 
<a ihB OHlalB of fiobert, Graat Btewaid of 
Soodand, afterwards King Egbert tl^ Second. 
In 1450 this island, tiMsn tiie jiiujieily of 
King James tiie Second, was rav ag e d by 
Donald, Lord of tiie IsleB. His son, James 
tte TlunU granted Aixan, with the title of 
£■1, to Thomas JjonrA. fi(^d, his principal 
uTutiute, iHien he gave him his sister, the 
IVIn eaai liaiy, in marriage. This yonng 
nobknuB did not long enjoy the pre«mi- 
neniie whini ihis royal allianoe oonfened 
iqicm hsBL, ae Ik was soon diegraoed at oonrt 
and attainted, while his estates were forfeited. 

In 1474 the PxinoeBB Maxy, Countess of 
Anan* was beatoaredinmaniage upon James 
Lord HamiltCTn. !Rus nobleman was head 
of a nnmenms and powerful femily in Lan- 
aiiuJiiie, of iUuatnoos 1^-^w^*^^ descent, bcdng 
a biandi of the Be BfiyQamonts, Earls of 
Leioeatar. They had bean Lords of Cadzow 
for several generations, and had maudied 
with the first Bcotti^ houses. 

Sir James Hamilton, fifth Loid of Cadzow, 
maxxied Janet daughter of Sir Jbomb Ltrin^- 
Btone of Calender, the most powerful man m 
Boodand during the minori^ of King Jaaus 
the Second. % this lady he had, fint, 
James, his heir; second, Alexander of Sihw- 
tan-hin, whoee aon, James Hamilton of Sil- 
v<erton*hi]l, by a dau^ter of the houae of 
Don^aa, acquired the estate of Kewton. 
From him are deaoended the Hamihons of 
Sflverton-bill, Barts., lepi ee on ted by bir 
Bobert Hamilton, and their immediate ca- 
dets the Hamihons of Kewton, represented 
by the Beverend John Hamilton Gray of 
Camt^rne (these two fa»"^i«« are the nearest 
branches of the ducal houae of Hamiltou, 
alitar the Marquess of Abereom and his 
cadets) ; third, Gavin, a churehman, provost 
of the collegiate churah of Bothwell. This 
eoeleBiaattc was fiiUher, by " the bonny lass 
of Lodibrunnnck," of a son, from whom is 
deaoended the family of Hamilton of Orbis- 
ton andDalziel. 

Sir James, fifth Baron of Gadsow, was 
aooeeeded by his eldest son. Sir James Ha- 
milton, one of the most distinguished states- 
men in Scotland of his day, and a man who 
filled a most important ptaoe in the histoxy 
of his country. His first wife, to whom he 
was united in 1440, was a lady descended 
maternally from the ro3ral family, Euphemia, 
dauj^ter of Patrick Graham, Earl of Stra- 
them, and widow of Archibald, fifth Karl of 
Dou^as and Duke of Touriaine. By her he 
had an only dau|^ter, Elizabeth, wife of 
David Ead of CFanford and Duke of Mon- 
trose. In 1474 he manied the Prinoeas 
Mary, eldflBt danghtwr of King Jamea te 



Second, and widow of Boyd, Earl of Arran. 
fib* James Hamilton vras, m 1445, created a 
Peer of Parliament He died in 1479, leav* 
ing by the princee s an infiant son, James, 
second Lord Hamikon, who, in 1503, was 
created bv his cousin-gennan, King James 
the Pour^, Earl of Arran, and obtained a 
giant of that island, which had been in the 
possession of his mother's unfortunate flrat 
husband. 

The Earl had one son, his heir, James, 
aeoond Earl of Arran, Eegent of Scotland, 
next heir to ^kne Drawn, and Duke of Chatel- 
hecauh in Fiance. This iUnstrious peraon 
marhed a daughter of the great fiamily of 
Douglae, Earl of Morton, like himself,' de- 
scended, though more Temotely, fitnn the 
Boyal femily . Frcmi his eldest surviving son, 
John,firBt Marqueas of Hamilton, the present 
Duke of Hamilton is deaoended, vrhile from 
hifi younger son Claude, Lord of Paisley, is 
descended tlie Marquees of Abereom. 

From the year 1508. the island of Anvn 
has continued in the Hamiltan family, and 
Brodick Castle has been their ocoasional re- 
aidenoe. This seat is beautifully sitoated on 
an eminence, amidst flonriBhing woods, over- 
looking a charming bay. it is a place of 
vexy great antiquity, ana was a fortress held 
by the English, under Sir John Hastings, in 
1806, when it vrassunineed and taken % the 
partiaans of King Bobert Bmee. In 1464 it 
was demohshed by the invading Lord of the 
Ides, in the reign of James XL It vras re- 
built in the reign of James V. : and, dming 
the naorpation of Oliver Cromwell, there was 
a ganiaon here. 

Brodid^ Castle has not been inhabited as 
a prin c ip al femily residence until this gene- 
ration. The Dukes of HamDton have, 
indeed, paid frscjuent visits to Arran, and 
have made Brodick their shooting quaiters; 
but the present Duke, vdiQe Marauess of 
Douglas, imd his wife, the Princess Marv of 
Baden, resided ahnoat eonstantly at Brodidc 
as their country seat — and they still eon> 
tinue to make it a fi^uent place of abode. 

Very peat additions have been made to 
the ancient castle, and it is now a spacious 
and even magnificent mansion, in iSne cas- 
tellated style. It is difficult to conceive a 
finer or more picturesque sitnation. The 
mountains of Arran are of great height, and 
their lofty and rugged oidline fonns the 
grandest object in the Firth of Clyde. The 
name of the >ii g*iAgt. mountain is Goatfell, 
frtmi vdience the three Britiah kingdoms and 
the Isle of Man may be seen at once. The 
Duke of Hamilton is proprietor of atanost the 
whole of the i 



OUMBmUXai BDHIBvin the oo. of Thnat- 
barton, the seat of John ElphinfltniMvFtonh 
ing, Esq. 



144 



8E4I8 OF GBfiAT BSITAIM A3ID IBSLAKZn 



This is the ancient seat of one of the Scot- 
tish families that can boast of the hiffhast 
antiquity and imrest blood. Sir Malcom 
Fleming was ShehfiT of Dumbarton in the 
reign of Ring Alexander III. He was great 
mndson of a distinguished Flemish leader, 
Baldwin Flandrensis, who had a grant of the 
lands of Biggar from Xing David I., and 
was Sheriff of Lanark in the reigns of Mal- 
colm IV. and William the Lion. B.obert 
Fleming of Biggar, the son of Sir Malcolm, 
was a faithful adherent of King Robert 
Bruce, and obtained from that monarch the 
lands of Cumbernauld on the forfeiture of 
the great house of Comyn. He died before 
1314. He left two sons ; first, Sir Malcolm, 
whose son, Sir Malcolm, was created Earl of 
Wigton in 1341, but his line failed in the 
person of his grandson, the second Earl, 
soon afber 1382; second, Sir Fadick Fleming 
of Biggar. 

There was a long succession of Lords of 
Biggar and Cumbernauld in this family ; and 
in the reign of James U., Sir Robert Flem- 
ing WBS created a Peer of Parliament. In 
1606, the ancient title of Earl of Wi^n 
was revived in the person of John, sixth 
Lord Fleming. In 1747, the earldom of 
Wigton became extinct, and the estates of 
Biggar and Cumbernauld devolved on I^ady 
Clementina Fleming, only surviving child of 
John, sixth Earl. 

The matrimonial alliances of the successive 
generations of the Flemings were illustrious, 
—Robert, Duke of Albany, Regent of Scot- 
land, — ^Douglas, Earl of Douglas,— Living- 
ston, Lord Livingston, — Drummond, Lord 
Drummond, — James IV., Kins of Scotland, 
natural dauffhter, — Ross, Lord Ross, — Gra- 
ham, Earl of Montrose — Livingston, Earl of 
Linlithgow, — ^Drummond, Earl of Perth, — 
Seton, Earl of Dunfermline — and last, and 
not least, Keith Earl Marischal. 

Lady Mary Keith, the sister of the last Earl 
Marischal and Field-Marshal Keith, the sole 
heiress of her illustrious house, had, by the 
Earl of Wigton, an only child, Clementina, 
in whom centred the most noble blood in 
Scotland, and the representation of its great- 
est families. 

In 1735, she married Charles, tenth Lord 
Elphinstone, by whom she had several chil- 
dren who filled distinguished situations; 
1st, John, eleventh Lord Elphinstone ; 2nd, 
Hon. William Fullarton Elphinstone; 3rd, 
Hon. George Keith Elphinstone, a highlj di<)- 
tinguished Admiral, created Viscoimt ieiih. 
His eldest daughter, Margaret Elnhinstone, 
Baroness Keith and Nairn, married Count de 
Flahault First daughter, the Hon. Eleanor 
Elphinstone, married, 1777, the Right Hon. 
Wm. Adam, of Blairadam, M.P., and Lord- 
lieutenant of Kinross-shiie, Baron of Exche- 
quer, and Lord Chief-Commissioner of the 



Jury Court One of her aoB8» Sir CStfute 
Adam, was a distinguished Admiral; anothev. 
Sir Frederick, G.C.B., was a distingoiahiad 
General and Privy Councillor, Governor of 
Madras, and Lord High-Commissioner of 
the Ionian Islands ; and her daughter,^ Cle- 
mentina Adam, married John Anstruther 
Thomson, of Charleton, in the county of 
Fife, and is mother of the present John 
Anstruther Thomson. Second daughter, 
the Hon. Clementina Elphinstone, married, 
1783, James Drummond, Lord Perth. Her 
only child, in 1807, manied Lord Gwydir, 
now Lord WiUoughby de Eresby. 

John, eleventh Lord Elphinstone, had a 
niunerous family. His eldest son was father 
of the present peer. His second son, the Hon. 
Charles Elphinstone, took the name of Flem- 
ing upon succeeding to the estates of Biggar 
and Cumbernauld, in consequence of an en- 
tail by John, Earl of Wigton, in 1741. Their 
possession was adjudged to him by a decision 
of the House of Lords. He was an Admiral 
in the British navy. He sold the ancient 
estate of Biggar, and on his death was 
succeeded by his eldbst son in the estate of 
Cumbernauld. He is also heir-presumptive 
to the Elphinstone peerage. 

Cumbernauld is an old house of consider- 
able size, situated in the midst of very exten- 
sive woods. 



OLOSSBUBV HOI78E, in the co. of Dum* 
fries, the seat of Douglas Baird, Esq. 

This is a very extensive estate, with fine 
park, great woods, and beautifiil pleasure 
grounds. The house was built some ^ne- 
rations ago, and is large and commodious. 
In the immediate vicinity stands the pic- 
turesque old tower of Closebum, a venerable 
relic of the olden time. Closebum formerly 
belonged to one of the most ancient families 
in Scotland, Kirkpatiick, which can be 
traced in a direct hue of proprietors to the 
twelfth century. A knight of Closebum was 
a faithful adherent of King Robert Bruce, and 
his well-known deed of cruel zeal in ^ving 
the final stab to Comyn, in the church of Dum- 
fries, has been commemorated by the fanuly 
crest — a hand grasping a dagger, with the 
words which he uttered by way of motto, " I 
make sicker." 

Thomas Kirkpatrick, of Closebum, the heir 
and representative of this distinguished race, 
was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia in 1685. 
In the time of Sir Thomas, the third Baronet, 
in 1740, the house of Closebum was burnt to 
the groimd, upon which the present mansion 
was erected in its place. 

Her Majesty Euffenie, Empress of the 
French, is descended from the Kirkpatricks 
of Closebum, through her mother, the Count- 
ew do Montyo, who was a Miss Kirkpatrick. 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



145 



Her ancestors held the position of provincial 
gentry, and were allied, by intermarriages, 
with some of the leading local families. 

The grandfather of the grandfather of the 
Empress Euff^nie's mother was Tliomas 
KirKpatrick of Knock, in Dumfriesshire, who 
derived his descent from a scion of the Close- 
bum family. His second son, Robert Kirk- 
patriek of ulenkiln, in Dumfriesshire, married 
Henrietta Gillespie, by whom he had William 
Kirkpatrick of Confaeath, in Dumfriesshire, 
who married Mary Wilson. Their younger 
son, William, a merchant in Malaga, married 
a lady, of good family, by whom he had 
three daughters, one of whom, the Countess 
Montijo, is mother of the most illustrious 
descendant of the race of Kirkpatrick, 
EuoENiE, Empress of the French. A 
grandaunt of the Empress, of the name of 
Kirkpatrick, was lately living in the town of 
Dumfries, and other relatives are resident in 
the same district. 

We have thought it right to state these 
particulars, as, at the time of the marriage of 
the Countess de Theba to the Emperor Nar 
poleon III., there was considerable interest 
excited concerning her Majesty's maternal 
descent from ancestiy of Scottish origin, and 
a feeling of national pride experienced at her 
Majesty's being thus associated with one of 
tlie ol(£e8t houses in Scotland. 

In the latter part of last century the estate 
of Closebum was sold to the Reverend James 
Stuart Menteath, rector of Barrowby, in the 
CO. of Lincoln. His son, Charles Menteath 
of Closebum, a most active and useful coun- 
try gentleman, and one of the most enterpri- 
sing agricultimsts in Scotland, was created a 
baronet in 1838; his son. Sir James, in 1852, 
sold the ancient inheritance of the Kirk- 
patricks to Mr. Douglas Baird, an iron-master, 
for the sum of two himdred and twenty thou- 
sand pounds. 

It 18 remarkable that within the last three 
jrears, two of the most ancient family estates 
m Scotland should have been purchased by 
brothers and partners of the same wealthy firm 
of Baird, viz., Closebum, in Dumfriesshire, 
and the still older domain of Elie, inFifeshire, 
which had for eight hundred years belonged 
to the noble, knightly family of Anstmther, 
of Anstnither. The brothers Baird have risen 
within the last thirty years irom an humble 
position, near the town of Airdrie, in Lanark- 
shire, to that of the richest commoners in 
Scotland. Their success has b^en owing to a 
rare combination of good fortune with judg- 
ment and frugaUty, and the present generation 
of Baird have reason to be proud of their 
origin. These remarks cannot possibly of- 
fend the praiseworthy fotmders of a wealthy 
family, wno, according to the happy cus- 
tom of Great Britain, are hastening to in- « 
vest their immense gains in broad acres, and 



to obtain a place for their race among the 
landed aristocracy, secure from the vicissi- 
tudes of traide. The new possessor of Close- 
bum, and his opulent brothers, have good 
cause to gloiy with thankfulness to Provi- 
dence in a rise, mainly through their own 
exertions, to an eminence which their good 
sense will enable them worthily to fill. Their 
predecessors in the lands of Elie and Close- 
bum were, indeed, lords of the soil long 
before records, even long before tradition. 
But in this country, which, happily for its 
stability, sees every day the able and enter- 
prising man gaining a position among the 
aristocracy, it need not take many genera- 
tions to raise the Bairds to a higher rank 
in society than even the AnstmSiers ever 
enjoyed. 

A curious anecdote has been preserved of 
a collateral ancestor of the Menteaths. In 
1633 Robert Menteath, son of Alexander 
Menteath, burgess of Edinburgh, himself mi- 
nister of Duddingstone, had been guilty of an 
intrigue with Dame Anna Hepburn, wife of 
Sir James Hamilton, a son of the first Earl 
of Haddington. She was one of the most 
beautiful women of her time. Menteath was 
expelled the Scotch kirk, and fled to France, 
where, turning Jesuit, he wormed himself into 
the favour of Cardinal Richelieu. This great 
minister, when the stranger presented him- 
self, asked to what family he belonged, which 
was a poser to the ex-pastor, whose father, the 
Edinburgh burgess, had gained his living by 
"netting salmon" in the Forth. Menteath, 
being both a tactician and a humourist, truly 
answered that he was of the Menteaths of 
" Salmon-net ! '* This quite satisfied the car- 
dinal, who knew as much of one Menteath as 
another. " De Salmonet," for such was the 
designation he assumed, according to French 
usage, became secretary to Cardinal de Retz, 
and in 1648 his brother, Patrick Menteath, 
obtained a birth-brief from Scotland, which 
grafted him on the highest branch of the 
Menteath tree. 

]f£W HALL, in the co. of Clare, within 
three miles of Ennis, the seat of William 
Edward Armstrong, Esq., J.P., High-Sheriff 
of Clare 1853, second son of William Henry 
Armstrong, Esq., of Mount Heaton, and 
nephew maternally of the late John Mac- 
Donnell, Esq., of New Hall. 

At one period this property belonged to 
the O'Briens, but passed mto the family of 
MacDonnell, upon the marriage of James 
MacDonnell with Elizabeth O'Brien, daugh- 
ter of Christopher O'Brien of Ennistymon 
House, brother-in-law to the ill-fated Lord 
Clare. It remained with the immediate 
heirs of MacDonnell for four descents, 
after which it devolved in June, 1860, on 
the present owner, upon the death of 

u 



146 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



his maternal uncle, the late John MacDonnell, 
Esq. 

This mansion is a convenient, and not im- 
picturesque edifice, huilt of red hrick, with 
coins and dressings of cut limestone, and 
stands upon an eminence, commanding a 
magnificent view of the Fergus upon its jimc- 
tion with the hroad waters of the Shannon. 
The former of these rivers is studded with 
romantic islands, and in the grounds, con- 
nected with the Upper Shannon, are two 
lakes that add not a little to the life and 
general aspect of the scene, hy the shruhs 
and trees that ornament thetn upon one side, 
while the opposite shore presents the con- 
trast of craggy and precipitous grey limestone 
clifis. The nearer foreground is occupied hy 
rich pasture lands, such as the people of Clare 
deem peculiar to their own county, and which, 
indeed, are remarkable for theur exuherant 
beauty and verdure. In the distant prospect 
are the nohle moimtains of Tipperary, that in 
misty weather seem to hlend with the horizon, 
and have all the appearance of a mighty 
voliune of dark cloud overhanging the 
grounds below. 

On the border of one of the lakes just men- 
tioned stand the picturesque ruins of Killone 
Abbey, founded about the year 1190 by Don- 
ald O'Brien, king of Limerick, who placed 
therein a sisterhood ' of the order of Saint 
Augustine. It was dedicated to Saint John, 
the Baptist, as its name imports — Kil in Irish 
signifying " the church,'* and oan meaning 
John. Close to the monastic pile is a holy 
well, which is also consecrated to Saint John, 
and which is still held in great veneration by 
the country people, with the lingering love 
and recollection of former times. Upon it 
are numerous inscriptions, some of them 
bearing the date of IfiOO. 

Slaney, the pious daughter of Carbrea||[h, 
king of Thomond, was at one time the abl>ess 
of Killone, an abjuration of rank and worldly 
goods that will hardly surprise us in those 
days of violence, when the monastery ofiered 
the happiest, as well as safest, asylum for 
female virtue. 

0LA8FBTH, Wales, in the co. of Carnar- 
von, the seat of the Rev. John Williams Ellis, 
M.A., J.P., and D.L. 

This property has been for a very consi- 
derable period in the hands of the family now 
possef'sing it — so long, indeed, as to have left 
few vestiges of those to whom it previously be- 
longed. Even the date of the house is not 
known, and the vague strle of what, for want 
of a better name, is called the old English 
stvle of architecture, leaves us no clue by 
which to supply the deficiency of all historical 
record. 

The mansion, which stands near the Bival 
mountains, was altered and much added to 
by the Venble. John Ellis, archdeacon of 



Merioneth, — ^these improvements being partly 
necessitated by the' effects of time, and partly 
by the wants or the fancies of the owner, 
llie groxmds, which are extremely picturesque 
and DeautiM, abound in fine beech trees, 
remarkable for their size and age. Here, 
too, is a sheet of ornamental water, about 
twenty acres in extent, studded with three 
romantic islands, the resort of numerous wild 
fowl of various lands and plumage. 

BBOHDAHW, Wales, in the co. of Merioneth, 
the ancient seat of the Williams* family, and 
now the property of the Rev. John Williams 
Ellis, M.A., of (Jlasfryn. 

The time at which this mansion was first 
built is no longer known, and the alterations 
of the original pile have been so niunerou.<t 
as to leave us lew grounds on which to ap- 
^proximate to a date with any degree of cer- 
tainty. All that can be said with respect to 
this is, that it must have belonged to the old 
English style of architecture, and that the 
waUs were composed of a dark-grey slate- 
stone, a natural product of the surroimding 
district. Upon the garden side it is four 
storeys in height, and it stands in a beautiful 
situation near the foot of Mount Snowdon. 
The most important alterations were made 
about a himdred years ago by William ap 
Williams, the then owner of the estate; but 
so far back as the time of Charles I., it ap- 
pears to have been a mansion of considerable 
note, the fortune and influence of the owner 
in all probability lending consideration to the 
dwelling. 

The grounds command a fine view of Snow- 
don, ^o celebrated in song and romance as 
well as in the page of history. The limber 
here is abundant, and of excellent quality, 
the ash in particular being remarkable for its 
fineness; while the antiquary will find ob- 
jects of no less interest to his own peculiar 
habits and pursuits. Celtic and Fhoenicean 
remains, circular huts, mines, and all the 
other usual relics of bygone ages, are pro- 
fusely scattered about tiie fields in the vici- 
nity. 

XnUHET GAffECS, in the oo. of Dublin, 
distant about eight miles from the Irish 
metropolis, the beautiful seat of Robert 
Warren, Esq. 

This is a convenient family mansion, erected 
early in the eighteenth century, with much 
regard to internal comfort as well as to pic- 
turesque and architectural effect. It stands 
on the west side of a hill, called the Obelisk- 
Hill, in a situation affording infinite attrac- 
tion to the tourist through this part of Ire- 
land. The name has been given to the hill 
from an obelisk on its summit, which was 
built in 1742 for the purpose of supplying 
employment to the poor labourer. With its 
surrounding wall, it occupies an area of nearly 



-0- 



13 « 

Is 



.5 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AMD IRELAKD. 



147 



two hundred acres, and is full five hundred 
and fifty feet above the level of the sea, being 
somewhat the highest of what is called the 
Rochestown Range. The to^ of this moun- 
tain eminence is easily attamed by an ex- 
cellent road, being at a short distance from 
three several stations on the Kingstown and 
Bray railway, which nearly surrounds the 
district 

A few minutes wiU now bring the tourist 
to the opposite hill of Dalkey. This also is 
the property of Mr. Warren, and on its sum- 
mit IS a castellated building, lately fitted up 
for the accommodation of pic-nic parties. 
Both the hills afford extensive prospects, 
which, for beauty and variety, can scarcely 
be surpassed. From either, upon a clear day, 
the Welsh mountains may be distinctly seen, 
as well as the moimtains of Moume, the lat- 
ter being about sixty miles north of the me- 
tropolis. The entire range is chiefly com- 
posed of granite of excellent quality, much of 
which has been employed in the construction 
of Kingstown harbour; but whinstone and 
slate are also found here in considerable 
abundance. Several sbafts of lead-mines 
bear witness to the existence of other trea- 
sures within the bowels of the earth, although 
they have now been neglected for many years 
— ^works of this kind, like commerce itself, 
being of a very changeable and capricious 
character, abandoning any particular spot 
with as much, or even more, lightness than 
it was first adopted. 

On the souUi side of the hill are three 
marine residences. One of these, called Vic- 
toria Castle, well deserves the attention of the 
tourist, from its picturesque associations. 
The road to it will guide hun onward to the 
Strand, now easily reached by means of hand- 
some bridges across the railwav, which for 
about a mile runs through the grounds. 
Until lately numerous varieties of deer em- 
bellished tlus delightful scene, but tlieir place 
is now occupied more profitably, although 
with much less interest to the traveller. In 
fact, the " utile dulce" of Horace would seem 
to be a mere dream that has vanished before 
the light of the inductive philosophy. Wher- 
ever utility establishes itself, the picturesque 
is tolerably sure to disappear, leaving painters 
and poets to lament the advance of a civiliza- 
tion so opposite to their own. 

BOVSVBT HALL, Cumberland, the seat of 
Mrs. Dykes. The place takes its name — 
Dolphinby, hence Dovenby — ^from Dolphin, 
the son of Aleward, who first seated himself 
here. It was given to him at the time of the 
Norman Conquest upon his marriage with 
Maud, sister of Waldeof, first Lord of Aller- 
dale, and son of Oospatric, Earl of Dunbar. 
The female heir of one of his descendants 
married De Rolle, in the time of Henry III., 
from whom, at a later ])eriod — temp, Edward 



III. — ^it passed to the Lucys. From them, 
again, it descended to the Kirkbrides — a 
branch of the family of Odard, Baron of Wig- 
ton, and their female heir married the son 
of Sir Thomas Lamplugh, of Lamplugh, from 
whom it descended to Sir Thomas Lamplugh 
of Dovenby, temp, Charles I. He dying 
without issue, the estate passed to the de- 
scendants of his brother's daughter, the last 
of whom, Miss Molyne, married Richard 
Lamplugh, Esq., of Kibton (a branch again 
of Lamplugh of Lamplugh). He died in the 
reign of Queen Anne. Through his descen- 
dants in the female line, and eventual heirs, 
Peter (Brougham) Lamplugh, Esq., and his 
sister, who married Frecheville Dykes, Esq., 
of Wardhall, the property came to the pre- 
sent owner, Mrs. Dykes, their heiress, as 
niece of the first and daughter of the second 

5 arty. Mrs. Dykes is the widow of the late 
oseph Dvkes Ballantine Dykes, Esq., of 
Dovenby Hall. 

The oldest part of this edifice— a large 
square tower — ^was probably built in the 
time of Henry III., or perhaps at an earlier 
period. The long low wing was next added, 
and subsequently the larger and more elevated 
square mansion-like buUding was erected, as 
in similar ancient residences in the county. 
On the ground-floor of the old tower, now 
cellars, are the marks of stabling for cattle, 
when it became necessary to secure them 
from the attempts of borderers, or other 
marauders in wcufare, with embrasure open- 
ings, now closed. On the walls of the house 
outside are old escutcheons, with the arms of 
Lucy, Preston, Fenwick, Barwise, and Lam- 
plugn, and Lamplugh and Kirkbride quar- 
terly. In the house are a number of old 
fanuly portraits. This ancient residence 
stands, uke so many other old mansions, 
near the usual aitenaant village of the same 
name, with gardens and pleasure-grounds atr 
tached, and surrounded with wooded park-like 
ground. 

IHOWXLL, Cumberland, about two and a- 
half miles from the town and port of White- 
haven. It is a modem and commodiously- 
built mansion, standing upon a gentle emi- 
nence, with the lawn and grounds sloping 
from it It commands a fine view of the 8ea 
at St Beeshead, and another view inland of 
the Ennerdale mountains. It contains a 
numerous collection of paintings by the old 
masters, — among which are a '* Cyrus and 
Tomyris," by Tintoretto; two "TivoUs," 
" Morning " and " Evening," by Salvator 
Rosa ; a '' Paschal Lamb," small altar-piece, 
with appropriate Latin uiseriptions, by Mu- 
rillo ; the " Idolatry of Solomon," by Spiel- 
berg (with his name inscribed) ; '* St i* rancis," 
by Spagnoletto ; a small highly finished paintr 
ing on panel by Hans Uemmling, of " St 
Francis raising a man from the dead — of 



148 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



whose murder he was accused — ^to speak to 
his innocence" (the picture, of the painter's 
peculiar oblong shape, has liis monogram 
and date, 1517, on it) ; " St. John in the Wil- 
derness," by Caracci — ^the finished picture, 
apparently, of a similar sketch in the Bridge- 
water Gallery; " Sophonisba with the poisoned 
chalice," by Guercino ; two " battle pieces," 
by Brauer, with monogram ; a " Dutch Musi- 
cian" on panel, by Andrew Brauer, with 
name at the back ; two " Sacrifices," a 
" Narcissus," and ** Endymion," by Albano ; 
a highly-finished ** Landscape," of large size, 
by Moncheron; two paintmgs of "Popes," 
by Manfredi; two paintings of "Joseph and 
his Brethren," by Patel, considered first-class 
pictures of the painter; two highly-finished 
large "Architectural pieces," by Pannini; a 
fine "Monk's Head," by Murillo; "A River 
View," in Vanderveldt's style ; and a curious 
old series of six paintings on copper of " The 
Pi'odigal Son," with a very peculiar mono- 
gram (not yet deciphered). In the rooms are 
several specimens of rare and ancient Ori- 
ental China-jars, between four and five feet 
high, with China tanks or large vases, of cor- 
responding proportions, and similar quality, 
to match. 

The eldest surviving daughter and co-heir 
of Joseph Gunson, Esq., late proprietor of 
the place, married Frecheville Lawson Bal- 
lantine Dykes, Esq., eldest son of the late 
J. Dykes Ballantine Dykes, Esq., and the 
present Mrs. Dykes of Dovenby Hall, in the 
same coimty. Air. Gunson married the eld- 
est daughter of the late Edmund Lamplugh 
Trton, Esq., of Irton Hall, and sister of 
Samuel Irton, Esq., of the same place, M.P. 
for West Cumberland, and present represen- 
tative of the very ancient Cumberland family 
of Irton of Irton. 

EABEWOOD HOUSE, in the co. of Corn- 
wall, half-a-mile irom the village of Calstock, 
and six miles from Callington, the seat of 
Sir William Lewis Salusbury Trelawny, 
Bart., I-iord-Iieutenant of the coimty, wliich 
he also represented in Parliament from 1832 
to 1887. 

llie surname of Trelawny is derived from 
the lordship of Trelawny, or Treleon, situ- 
ated in the parish of Altemon, in this county, 
which, in the reign of Edward the Con- 
fessor, was held by Eduni, the earliest ances- 
tor of the family upon record. Many of the 
descendants of the redoubted Saxon thane 
have also in their day attained considerable 
distinction, although, as tune rolls on, it 
naturally happens that the end of honour's 
bede-roll lengthens into forgetfiilness of its 
beginning. ' 

Harewood House is delightfriUy situated on 
the bankH of the Tamar, and occupies a 
tongue of land washed on three sides by the 
river, wliich takes its onward course through 



a landscape of infinite variety and beauty. 
The building is of frve-stone, with three regu- 
lar fronts, and a flight of stone steps leading 
to the vestibule in the centre. On the right 
of this is a drawing-room, thirty feet long, 
and twenty feet in width; on the left is a 
dining-room, of the same dimensions. The 
library is twenty-four feet long, and twenty 
wide, upon the left of which is a breakfast- 
room twenty feet square. The grand stair- 
case— -well worthy of that name from the 
exceeding elegance of its design — ^leads up to 
a gallery, frt>m which is a separate entrance 
to the various bed-chambers and dressing- 
rooms. 

The grounds form the eastern extremity of 
Cornwall, and abound in well-grown planta- 
tions, by which the offices attached to the 
house on either side are completely hidden. 
A sunken fence, overhung with shrubs and 
trees, skirts a large and verdant lawn — ^that 
unfailing and beauti^ accompaniment of 
the English landscape. The singular love- 
liness of the district may be imagined frx)m 
the fact of its having been chosen by the 
poet Mason as the scene of his dramatic 
masque, Elfrida. 

At one time, Harewood formed a part of 
the duchy manors. It is believed to have 
been origmally held by the Courtenays, and 
imquestionably it belonged, a little time 
after the Restoration, to the Fowells. In 
the earlier portion of the bygone century it 
was possessed by the family of Foot, as 
tenants imder the duchy, one of whom, J. P. 
Foot, Esq., purchased the fee in 1798, which 
he afterwards sold to Thomas Beeves, Esq. 
At a subsequent period it came into the 
hands of Sir Walter Roberts, Bart., andfrtim 
him it was bought by the present owner, who 
is also the possessor of — 

TBELAWHT, in the co .of Cornwall, about 
three miles from Looe, and eight from Lis 
keard, in the parish of Pelynt, a name to be 
more particularly remembered, that this place 
may not be confounded with Trelawny in 
Alternotit the original seat of the ancient 
family. 

The manor of Trelawny, in Pelynt, be- 
longed at an early time to the Bodrugans, 
but subseouently devolved to Henry Cham- 
penowne, by his marriage with the daughter 
and heiress of Sir Henry Bodrugan. It was 
next possessed by Sir William, who after- 
wards became Lord Bonville, the last of an 
ancient Devonshire family; and in 1600 it 
was bought of the Crown by Sir Jonathan 
Trelawny, father of the first Trelawny that 
attained the honour of the baronetage. 

The house at Trelawny is a building of a 
venerable and ancient ap])earance, but with 
every mark in its difierent parts of having 
been erected at various periods. Tlio old 
eastern front, with its two Gothic towers, stil! 



t5 ? 
R 1 






SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



149 



remains as it was built hj Lord Bonville. 
The rest was entirely reconstructed by Sir 
Jonathan Trelawny when he bought the pro 
perty, but, less fortunate than the older por- 
tion, it was burnt down, though it was alter- 
wards once again re-edified by Edward Tre- 
lawny, Esq., Governor of Jamaica. In the 
mansion are several handsome apartments, in 
which will be found an interesting collection 
of family portraits, from a very early period 
up to the present time. The portraits of Sir 
Jonathan Trelawny, Lord Bishop of Win- 
chester, and his lady, by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 
are reckoned among the very happiest efforts 
of that celebrated artist. 

The country about this venerable mansion 
is not a little picturesque, from its varied 
combinations of hill and dale, although, 
perhaps, deficient in some of the softer graces 
of an English landscape. 

MEHABILLY, in the co. of Cornwall, and 
parish of Tywardreath, or Trewardxeth, 
nearly tliree miles from Fowey, the seat of 
William Hashleigh, Esq. 

The family of the Kashleighs originally 
came from Devonshire, where they first 
established themselves about the year 1067, 
their name being derived frY>m their seat in 
the neighbourhood of South Molton. This 
estate passed from them b^ the marriage of 
an heiress of their name mto the family of 
Clotworthy,from whom it afterwards devolved 
to the Tremaynes. Philip Rashleigh, de- 
scended from a yoimger branch of this house, 
was the first Rashleigh who quitted Devon- 
shire for Cornwall, when he located himself 
at Fowey, one of the most interesting sites in 
tlie county. His grandson, John Hajihleigh, 
becoming the head of the family, foimded Me- 
nabilly about 15H5, which, since that period, 
has continued to be the principal seat of the 
family. 

The present house at Menabilly is con- 
structed of stone, and nearly forms a square, 
standing upon an eminence at no great 
distance from the shore, and on a penin- 
sula of its owD, containing from 8,000 to 
4,000 acres. It is in the modem style 
of building, and less remarkable for archi- 
tecture than the magnificence of its difierent 
views. The principal front, which faces the 
south, opens to a wooded lawn boimded by 
the sea, the most noble and varied of aU 
nature's prospects, especially upon a coast 
like this. T)ie western front looks towards 
the park, and embraces what in general par- 
lance would be called, a much greater diver- 
sity of scene, though unquestionably far 
below it in amplitude and grandeur. In the 
chief rooms are several portraits by Jansen, 
Vandyck, Kneller, and Lely, besides many 
paintings from the pencils of the Dutch and 
Italian masters. Here also is a museum of 
minerals, more particularly of such as are 



found in Cornwall, in which respect, if not 
the first, it is amongst the first in Europe. 
The copper specimens alone exceed a thou- 
sand, and the collection of specimens of tin 
is unequalled even by the British Museum. 
Nor are these the only treasures worthy of 
note at Menabilly. The antiquary will find as 
p^at, or even greater, pleasure in contemplat- 
ing thevenerable fragments, and other inter- 
esting objects from Egvpt, Syria, and the 
East, and the various British instruments 
discovered in opening' the barrows on St. 
Austell Down, and in the stream-works of 
Tywardreath Bay, as well as of Forth — ^re- 
markable sites from works having been 
carried on there before the use of iron in 
mining operations. Other curiosities might 
be mentioned, but enougli will have been 
said on this head if we conclude with naming 
the two fragments of the chain used in 
Edward the Fomth's time to close the har- 
bour of Fowey against piratical invaders. 
The two links, which are of a triangular 
form, covered with rust and shells, were foimd 
in the haven not long ago by certain fisher- 
men, and thence transferred to the museum 
at Menabilly. 

One of the most interesting spots in the 
neighbourhood is the little harbour, or cove 
rather, of Polridmouth, about a mile off from 
the house. It is only calculated for boats, 
and is bordered by gardens in a small seques- 
tered valley. Close to the shore in this port 
is an octagonal grotto, built entirely of fossils 
and minerals, and containing a remarkably 
handsome table, formed from thirty-two 
specimens of Cornish granite. This stone is 
susceptible of the highest polish, and was 
raised in the parish of Lanlivery. 

Near the spot in question is another pretty 
little cove, which is said to afford excellent 
fishing. About two miles off from the man- 
sion is the fine old church of St. Andrew 
Tywardreath, in which are several memorials 
of the Kashleighs, as weU as of other leading 
families in the district. But it is at Fowey 
that the chief monuments and brasses of the 
Rashleighs are to be found. 

TBSLOWABBEN, in the co. of Cornwall, 
and parish of Mawgan, five miles from Hel- 
ston, the seat of Sir Richard Vyvyan, Bart., 
Member of Parliament for the borough of 
Helston. 

This estate, in the olden times, was suc- 
cessively possessed by the families of Tre- 
thuke, Cardinham, and Ferrers. From an 
heiress of the last-named house — Honor, 
daughter of Richard Ferrers — it passed to a 
member of the Vivian, or Vyvyan family 
(John), then settled at Trevidren in 
Burian : and from the reign of Edward IV. 
up to the present hour, it has continued 
with his descendants. John Vyvyan's son. 
Richard, designated by Leland "a gal- 



150 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



lont coiurtior," was lineal ancestor of Sir 
Aichard Vyvyan, of Trelowan-en, a devoted 
Koyalist, who was created a baronet in 
1640. 

Trelowarren is a picturesque edifice in that 
old English style of architecture which is 
generally called the manorial, a name by no 
means inappropriate, since the snme fashion 
characterizes so many of our ancient coimtiy 
mansions. One portion has somewhat the 
appearance of an ecclesiastical building, but 
the greater portion has no very remarkable 
features. It was erected about the year 1615, 
and, according to Hals, by the father of the 
first baronet, an opinion contradicted by Dr. 
Borlase, who maintains that he did no more 
than enlarge and repair it. Twycross follows 
the dictum of Hals, but without assigning any 
reason for his preference. Sir Richard Vyvyan, 
the first baronet above mentioned, rebuilt 
the chapel in 1640, and in later days it has 
been provided with an excellent organ. The 
library is a spacious a|)artment, fitted up, as 
are the other rooms, in the style that pre- 
vailed about the middle of the last century. 
Here, too, is to be seen an excellent col- 
lection of family poitraits, many of them by 
the celebrated Vandyck. A picture, by that 
master, of Charles I., and presented to the 
Vyvyan of that day by Charles II., still attests 
the zeal and devotion of the house in the 
cause of rovalty . Nor was this testimonial 
undeserved, for they appear, like most of the 
Cornish people, to have sufiered not a little 
in fighting for the Stuarts against the Parlia- 
ment, who, in the hoiu* of triumph, were not 
inclined to forget or forgive the obstacles to 
its achievement. 

Of the three distinguished families — the 
Roskymers, the Carrainows, and Vyyyans 
— that at one time resided in the parish of 
Maw^an, the last is the only one that now 
remains. 

DAHS SHD HOTTSB, Little Munden, Hert- 
fordshire, the seat of Charles Snell Chauncy, 
Esq. 

At the time of the Norman Conquest, this 
manor, sometimes called Munden FreviUe, 
was bestowed upon Walter of Ilanders, in 
reward of liis services. It was subsequently 
possessed by tlie Scalers and Frevilles, and 
m the reign of Richard II. belonged to Sir 
John de Thombury. In the reign of Eliza- 
beth we find it held by Michael Woodcock, 
whose son sold it to Sir Peter Valore. From 
soiue defect in the title it returned to tlie 
Woodhtdlrt. Mary, the daughter and heiress 
of John Woodhall, conveyed it in marriage to 
Edmund Thornton, who "died without heirs 
male, and his two daughters having married 
in succession Robert Heyslmm, FiS<j., Alder- 
lUrtti, of London, he acquired the projHjrty in 
tlieir right. His son, Robert, bequeathed 



this and other estates to Ms kinsman, Giles 
I'homton, upon condition of his assuming 
the name' oi Heysham. In IB 16, it passed 
from this family, by purchase, to Nauianiel 
Snell Chauncy, Esq., and to his brother, 
Charles Snell Chauncy, in IB44. 

BOIHWELL CASTLE, in the co. of Lanark, 
the seat of the Reverend the Lord Dou^as, 
of Douglas. 

In passing along the Clyde, on the road 
from Glasgow to Hamilton, the traveller is 
struck with the extreme beauty of the distant 
view of the ruins of Bothwell Castle, and on 
a close inspection his expectations are more 
than realised by the grandeur of the pile, 
and the loveliness of the surrounding scenery. 
The castle of Bothwell is a noble monmnent 
of antiquity, and is one of the most magni- 
ficent ruins in Scotland. The struoture is 
superb, and all the surrounding objects have 
a corresponding aspect of grandeur. The 
Clyde takes a fine sweep round the mound on 
which the castle stands, and is here very 
broad; and the banks on both sides are 
lofty, and are adorned with natural wood. 

On one side of this noble river stands the 
ruined priory of Blantyre, on the brink of 
a perpendicular rock, while on the oppo- 
site side stands this magnificent castle, 
rearing its lofty towers at both ends of the 
great castle courts. The whole work is exe- 
cuted with polished stone of a red colour. The 
roofs of the apartments are very high. That 
which remains occupies a space in length of 
234 feet, and in breadth, 100 feet The 
rooms now preserved are confined to the east 
and west ends. The chapel is marked with 
a number of small windows, and two large 
windows to the south. Tlie stair of the 
highest tower is almost entire to the top, 
wliich presents an immense height above the 
broad oed of the river. The court in the 
middle is very spacious, and reminds one of 
Carnarvon or Conway, Vestiges of the fosse 
are still visible. This is one of the most 
imposing remnants of antiquity in the nortli, 
and is well worthy of the illustrious race 
which possessed it, as well as another proud 
castle of almost similar dimensions, viz. Tan- 
tallon, which rises proudly over tlie German 
ocean, as Bothwell rears its towers aloft over 
the Clyde. The woods and pleasure grounds 
are of great extent, and endless l^utiful 
walks are found along the margin of the 
river. Bothwell appears to have been built 
and enlarged at different times, and by the 
different proprietors to whom, in the course 
of its history, it belonged. 

In tlie wars of Bruce and Edward of 
England, it was a place of imjiortance. The 
latter king granted it to the Earl of Pem- 
broke, his governor of Scotland. Robert 
Bruce granted it to his brother-in-law, Sir 



SEATS OF GREAT DRITAIM AND IRELAND. 



151 



Andrew Moray, whose granddaughter carried 
this castle and lordship to her hushand, 
Archibald the Grim, lord of Galloway, the 
third Earl of Douglas, who, upon this occa- 
sion, added the three silver stars of Moray to 
the azure chief of Douglas. After the for- 
feiture of the potent house of Douglas, Both- 
well was granted to the Grightons, and then 
to the Moneypennys. In 1483, King James 
III . granted this lordship and estate to Sir John 
Ramsay, ancestor to the baronet of Balmain. 
He was forfeited in 1488, when Bothwell was 
given, with the title of earl, to Patrick Hepburn, 
third Lord Hales. This earldom returned to 
the crown on the forfeiture of James, Earl of 
Bothwell, for the murder of King Henry 
Damley. But it would seem that even pre- 
viously to this forfeiture, the castle had been 
alienated, in exchange for other lands by the 
Earl of Bothwell, to the Earl of Angus, and 
thus, after a time, it reverted to the mighty 
house of Douglas, in whose hands it has con- 
tinued until the present day. The second 
Marquess of Douglas left a son and daughter. 
The former was, in 1703, created Duke of 
Douglas, and died without issue in 1761, 
when the ducal title became extinct, and the 
marquisate of Douglas and earldom of Angus 
went to the Duke of Hamilton, as heir male. 
The Duke's sister, Lady Jane, by her hus- 
band, Sir John Stewart, Bart., of urandtully, 
had a son, Archibald Stewart, who, on the 
death of his uncle, claimed the great Douglas 
estates. Hence arose the famous Douglas 
cause, which occasioned extraordinary interest 
eighty or ninety years ago, and will ever be 
remembered as one of the most remarkable 
cases in the history of jurisprudence. A 
decision adverse to Mr. Stewart's claims was 
given in the Scottish courts, but this was 
reversed in tlie House of Lords, and he 
accordingly was put in possession of the 
immense possessions of his family. He 
assumed the name of Douglas, and was 
created a peer in 1790. ^The present Lord 
Douglas is the fourth baron, being a younger 
son of the first Lord by a sister of the Duke 
of Buccleuch. He is in holy orders, and is 
married to Wilhelmina, daughter of the Hon. 
General James Murray, and granddaughter 
of the fourth Ix)rd Elibank. 

Adjoining the m agnificent ruins of Botliwell 
Castle, stands the modem house, a spacious 
mansion,devoid of architectural beauty, but 
containing many noble rooms. One of the most 
remarkable objects in the modem Bothwell is 
the ^lendid collection of portraits, not, 
indeed, of the heroes of the illustrious race of 
Douglas, but of tlie princes and statesmen 
who lived in the times of the two first Stuart 
monarchs of Great Britain. Many of these 
are by Vandyck, and all of them are of great 
value and beauty. They formed one half of 
the famous collection made by the Lord 



Chancellor, Earl of Clarendon, They fell to 
the share of the Duchess of Queensbiiry, and 
ft-om the family of Queensbury they passed 
to this branch of the house of Douglas. At 
Bothwell there are very fine gardens, and the 
pleasure grounds are of great extent and 
beauty. 

The priory of Blantyre, the mins of which 
stand on the opposite side of the Clyde, was 
founded in the thirteenth century, and it was 
a monastic establishment of great wealth and 
consideration. The parish church of Both- 
well is of very ancient date and considerable 
beauty. Not far distant stands Bothwell 
Bridge, the scene of a celebrated engagement 
between the king's troops and the cove- 
nanters, in the reign of King Charles II. 
Besides Bothwell Castle, Lord Douglas pos- 
sesses another great residence in the county 
of Lanark — Douglas Castle, — ^which is the 
most ancient property and place of abode of 
the illustrious house which he represents as 
heir of line. 

In this short sketch we have purposely 
avoided any historical notices of the family 
of Douglas. Their annals are identical with 
those of Scotland since the days of King 
Robert Bmce, and oiu* space does not admit 
of so vast and important a subject. 

STSAKAM HALL, in the co. of Durham, and 
parish of Seaham, nearly five miles fix)m 
Sunderland, the seat of the Earl Vane. 

In- the Saxon days this manor belonged 
to the shrine of St. Cuthbert, but was severed 
from the Church in the lapse of three centu- 
ries. It has successivelv passed through the 
families of Bowes, CoHingwood, and Mil- 
banke. 

Of this seat Surtees observes, — *'A situa- 
tion not, perhaps, naturally very attractive, 
has been rendered extremely pleasing by the 
taste and attention of its owner. The grounds 
are laid out with the most elegant simplicity; 
and a warm simny vale to the south, which 
shelters and conceals tlie garden, is filled 
with rising plantations. Yet I cannot help 
regretting that the deserted tower and dene 
of Dalden have not received an equal share 
of attention; half the sums expended at 
Seaham, would have rendered Dalden a spot 
of no common beauty. The deep repose and 
tranquillity of the scenery round the tower 
might have alliu-ed an anchoret; and towards 
Dawdon field houses, the dale unites, with 
a noble sea view, the softest pastoral scenery 
on the eastern coast." 

EASTHAXPSTEADPABK, Berkshire, about 
three miles from Wokingham, the seat of the 
Marquess of Downshire. 

For many years this nark was a royal resi- 
dence. Holingshed tells us, in his " Reign 
of Richard the Second,**—** The king rode to 



152 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



Berkhamsteed, where he remained for a time, 
and went to Esthamsteed (East Hampstead), 
to recreate himself with himting, whei'e he 
was informed that those which were hanged 
at Saint Alhons, were taken from the gallowes, 
and removed a good waie from the same ; 
with which presumption he was so stirred 
tliat he sent forthwith his letters to the 
hailiffes of the towne of Saint Albons, com- 
manding them upon the sight of the same 
to cause chaines to be made, and to bring 
the said bodies backe unto the gallowes, ana 
to hang them in those chaines upon the same 
gallowes, there to I'emaine so long as one 
peece might sticke to another, according to 
the forme of the judgment given. The test 
of this writ thus directed to the hailiffes of 
Saint Albons was at Esthamsteed, the third of 
August, in the fift yeare of this king's reigne, 
and in the year of our Lord a thousand three 
hundred fourscore and one.*' From the same 
authority we learn that Queen Catherine was 
residing here when Henry VIII. sent some 
of the lords of his council to persuade her to 
submit to a divorce ; and iu 1622 and 1623 
it appears to have been the abode of King 
James I. Soon afterwards the park was 
granted to William Trumbull, Esq., agent 
both for James and Charles I. at Brussels, 
and one of the clerks of the Privy Council, 
from whom it descended to Sir William 
Tiimibull, the friend and correspondent of 
Pope. Sir William died here, and was duly 
commemorated by the poet in the following 
epitaph, which, however, is not inscribed 
upon his monument in East Hampstead 
Church. 

'* A pleasing fonn ; a linn yet cautious mind ; 
Sincere, though prudent; constant, yet resign'd; 
Honour unchang'd, a principle profest. 
Fixed to one side, but mod'rate to the rest; 
An honest courtier, yet a patriot, too ; 
Just to his prince, and tu his country true ; 
Filled with the seuse of age, the tire of youth, 
A scorn of wrangling, yet a zeal for truth ; 
A gen'rous faith, from superstition tree ; 
A love to peace, and hate of tyranny : 
Such this man was, who, now flrom earth remov'd. 
At length enjoys that liberty he loved." 

From this family East Hampstead passed 
to the Honourable Martin Sandys, by his 
marriage with the granddaughter and sole 
representative of Sir William Trumbull; 
and the daughter of Mr. Sandys having mar- 
ried Arthur, second Marquess of Downshire, 
it has lineally descended to their grandson, 
the present noble owner. 



ABBKT, Berkshire, about three 
miles from Oxford, the seat of the Earl of 
Abingdon. 

In the olden time a nunnery stood here, 
the original establishment having been re- 
moved from Abingdon. Of this ancient pile 
nothing remains but the conventual name, 
which it has bequeathed to the more modern 



edifice. This last was built in the reign of 
King Henry VII. by Sir Richard Harcourt, 
who became possessed of the manor of 
Witham, or Wytham, in 1480. It would 
seem, however, from the form of the windows, 
that some alterations were made in the original 
structure during the reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth, or that of James I. 

In early days the neigbourhood became 
celebrated as the site of the so-called Berk- 
shire Tragedy, which was hooked into a 
ballad, still preserved in the Roxburgh col- 
lection, imder the name of the Wittam Miller. 
The case was one unfortunately of too 
common occurrence, and the song which 
records it, though enshrined with other value 
less rarities, might have been left to it) 
proper fate without much loss to any one. 

TATXOUTH CASTLE, Scotland, in the co. 
of Perth, the seat of the Marquess of Breadal- 
bane, K.T. 

The castle that once stood here, and was 
called Ballock, but of which little now re- 
mains, was erected by Colin, sixth laird of 
Gleniu'chy. He died there in the April of 
1583. 

The modem mansion was begun about 
the beginning of the present century. It 
stands upon the southern bank of the Tay, 
in a semicircular lawn about a mile below 
the termination of the lake, embosomed by 
woods that well-nigh seem interminable, it 
consists of a large quadrangle, with a circular 
tower at each comer, and a lofty lantern 
tower in the centre, and an eastern wing one 
himdred and eight feet long, in which are 
comprised the offices. An arched cloister 
goes round the exterior on three sides, the 
tracexy of which is exceedingly light and 
beautifnl. The principal rooms are tlie 
baron's hall, containing a large collection of 
books, the dining-room, the drawing-room, 
and the Chinese room. The grand staircase, 
in the florid Gothio^tyle of arcliitecture, rises 
to the fiill height of the central tower, being 
lighted above oy long pointed windows, while 
gaUeries open below to tlie apartments in the 
higher stories. Many valuable paintings by 
the older masters are to be seen here, — ^Titian, 
Annibal Caracci, Tintoretto, Castiglione, 
Teniers, Vandyck, Rembrandt, Leonardo da 
Vinci, Salvator Rosa, Ac. 

This magnificent estate is about 100 miles in 
length, and occupies one of the most delightful 
valleys in the Highlands. Tlie deer park, 
which is extensive, abounds in fine timber, 
one noble avenue of Umes being at least a 
mile long. " Nothing," says one writer, 
" can exceed the beauty and ^andeur of the 
scenery of this princely domam. Wood and 
water, mountain, meadow, objects animate 
and inanimate, in endless variety, are here 
so blended, and on such a scale, that when 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



153 



Tiewed from certain positions, and in certain 
states of the atmospheres, they give you an 
impression as if you had heen transported to 
a region of enchantment. But to speak be- 
comingly, there is iiere the workmiinship of 
far more than enchanters ken, or enchanter's 
might: — 

' Surroiinded by His power we stand ; 
On every side we feel His hand ; 
Oh ! skjl] for human reach too high, — 
Too dazzling bright for mortal eye t ' " 

TINTEB8, in the co. of Kent, about one 
mile from Maidstone, the seat of James Wha^ 
man, Esq., a descendant of the old Saxon 
family of Hwateman. The difference of or- 
thography in the ancient and modem name 
arises solely from the changes produced by 
time in the original stock of the English 
language. 

At an early period this estate belonged to 
the family of Vinter, who either gave their 
name to or received it from the locality. 
One of their successors. Sir Roger Isley, 
being concerned in the unsuccessful re- 
bellion of Wyatt against Queen Mary, was 
attainted, ana executed at Sevenokes, when 
his estate was forfeited to the crown. Soon 
afterwards, the Queen granted this seat 
to Cutts, who in the reign of Elizabeth 
alienated it to Sir Cavaliero Maycott, alias 
Mackworth. By him it was conveyed in 
the following reign, by sale, to \Villiam 
Covert, whose son, in the time of Charles I., 
sold it to Sir William Tufton, Kt. From 
this family it passed, in the reign of Charles 
U., to Daniel Whyte, Esq., whose son, in the 
reign of Queen Anne, passed it away by sale 
to Sir Samuel Ongley. From the Ongleys, in 
default of issue, it passed by will to Robert 
Henley, Esq., who took the siuTiame of the 
devisor. In 1783, Lord Ongley, the then 
possessor of this estate, obtained an act of 
parliament, empowering him to dispose of it 
to Mr. Wliatman, who had been sheriff of 
Kent in 1767, and it now belongs to his 
grandson, who is M.P. for Maidstone. 

The old house was probably a place of 
great strength, for it had at least three towers, 
ihe last of which was pulled down in 1783. 
The style of architecture is something ante- 
rior to the time of Elizabeth, though possess- 
ing many of the peculiar features of the Eli- 
zabethan school, while the exterior in some 
parts is decorated in the stjle that prevailed 
m Scotland during the reign of James VI. 
In 1582, the oak staircase, with the date and 
arms of the Coverts, was put up. Several of the 
principal modem rooms were built and orna- 
mented by Adams. They contain a valuable 
collection of historical and other paintings, 
and the library is very extensive. 

The garden is laid out with terraces, appro- 
priate to the style and situation of the house. 



and the park is exceedingly picturesque, from 
the undulating character of the ground, as 
well as from the variety and beauty of the 
timber. Elms, oaks, beech-trees, and many 
rarer kinds of wood abound here. 

The present mansion was erected by the 
late James Whatman, Esq. In pulling down 
parts of the old edifice, to make room for 
modem additions, several Roman coins have 
been dug up. most of them having the in- 
scription of the Emperor Hadrian. 

MAPLE DUBHAV, in the co. of Oxford, 
about tlu'ee mUes from Caversham, the seat 
of Michael Henry Mary Blount, Esn., a 
magistrate and deputy-lieutenant for Oxford- 
shire. This gentleman also served the office 
of sheriff for the same county in 1832. 

The name of Bloimt is for many causes 
familiar to English ears. Descended from 
the counts of Guisnes in Picardy, and going 
still further back, irom the Scandinavian 
rulers of Denmark, the three sons of Rodolnh 
accompanied the Norman William in his de- 
scent upon England, and shared largely in 
the plimder of the conquered country. Two 
of tne brothers remained, and settled here. 
In the reign of Charles I., Sir Charles Blount, 
Kt., was slain fighting under the royal banner 
at Oxford, 1st Januair, 1644; but it may be 
doubted whether, witn all his courage and 
loyalty, he is so well known in the present 
day as Martha Blount, the well-remembered 
friend of the poet Pope : — 

" Let Jot or ease, let afllnence or content. 
And the gay coo science of a life well spent. 
Calm every thought, inspirit eveiy grace. 
Glow in thy heart, and smile upon thy face ; 
Let day improTe on day, and year on year, 
Without a pain, a trouble, or a fear, 
Till death unfelt that tender frame destroy. 
In some soft dream, or ecstasy of Joy ; 
Peaceftil aleep out the sabbath of the tomb, 
And wake to raptures in a life to come." 

Of this intimacy Dr. Johnson has said, 
" Their acquaintance began early ; the life of 
each was pictured on the other's mind ; their 
conversation therefore was endearing, for 
when they met, there was an immediate coa- 
lition of congenial notions.** 

The estate of Maple Durham consists of two 
divisions: Maple Durham Gumey (in which 
the mansion stands) and Maple Durham 
Chazey, the former purchased by Richard 
Blount, Esq., in 1489, and the latter by Sir 
Richard Bloimt, in 1581. The venerable man- 
sion of Maple Durham still exists in the roost 
perfect state, the hand of innovation not having 
oeen allowed to approach it. The building 
stands upon an extensive lawn. In front is 
an avenue of noble elms, more than a mil^ in 
length, and notwithstanding the disadvan- 
tages of a low, flat ground, the whole has an 
interesting, if not picturesque appearance. 

IRAZXID PABK, in the co. of Essex, near 

X 



154 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



Witham, and fourteen miles from Colchester, 
the seat of Charles Du Cane, Esq., a county 
magistrate and deputy-lieutenant. 

Braxted is a handsome mansion, situated 
upon a gentle eminence, and commanding 
some very agreeable prospects of the adjoin- 
ing country. Aroimd it is a small, but well- 
wooded park. The house stands in the pa 
rish of the same name, on the right side of the 
river Blackwater. 

AMI8FIELD, Scotland, in the go. of Had- 
dington, and parish of the same name, one of 
the seats of the Earl of Wemyss. 

Amisfield is situated on the south bank of 
the river Tyne, with plantations of consider- 
able extent, running up in broad, regular 
belts to the Garleton hills. In the neighbour- 
hood are several family seats and mansions. 

HBSUjreTOH HALL, Yorkshire, in the East 
Riding, about two miles south-west from the 
city of York, and more than ten frx)m Pock 
lington, the seat of Yarburgh Yarburgh, 
Esq. 

This edifice is a fine specimen of the style 
of architecture usually denominated Eliza- 
bethan, and has suffered little change since 
the time of its construction. An ornamented 
porch, ascended by steps, leads to the hall, 
which is forty-one feet long, twenty- one feet 
wide, and twenty-eight in height, exhibiting 
a very venerable appearance, and not a little 
resembling the hall of a college. At the 
lower end is an oaken screen, handsomely 
carved, while on each side stand two large 
tables, likewise of oak ; one of them is eight- 
een feet long, the other smaller. The ceil- 
ing has been much and justly admired for 
its elaborate as well as elegant workmanship. 
Bound this hall, upon wainscot panels, are 
arranged upwards of sixty different shields, 
with the familv arms and intermarriages up 
to the present aay. Here also are the follow- 
ing portraits : Queen Elizabeth ; Charles I., 
by Vandyck ; James II., an admirable pic- 
ture, by Wissing ; Charles II. ; Henry, Prince 
of Wales, son to James I. ; Prince Charles 
Edward; the Duchess of Orleans, by Sir 
Peter Lely ; the Duchess of Grafton, by Sir 
Godfrey KneUer ; Lord Leicester; Archbishop 
Juxon, &c., besides many family portraits, 
some possessing great merit as works of art, 
and others not less curious from their anti- 
quity, — aU in good preservation. Beyond 
the hall, with which it communicates by 
folding-doors, is the drawing-room, thirty feet 
long, and corresponding in style with the 
former. Adjoining to this are various other 
rooms, and at one time there was a gallery, 
a hundred and eight feet long. All those 
were arranged as a suite of state apartments 
for the reception of Queen Elizabeth, had her 
Majesty visited the north, the majosion having 



been constructed for her under the direction 
of her chancellor. 

The gardens are of considerable extent, 
and correspond with the antique character of 
the hous^ for the yews and hollies still retain 
those fantastic forms into which they were 
dipt in the olden times. 

The family of Yarburgh is of high antiquity. 
In this country its origin dates from the pe- 
riod of the Norman Conquest, commencing 
with Eustachius, Lord of Yarbiu^h, in the 
county of Lincoln, in the year 1066. 

XOTIIITAINSTOWV, Ireland, in the co. of 
Meath, six miles from the post town of Navan, 
and thirty miles from Dublin, the seat of John 
Osborne George Pollock, Esq. 

This estate was in the possession of the 
family of Pollock some time prior to 1825. 
In that year it was left by John Pollock 
to his son, Arthiur Hill Comwallis Pol- 
lock, Esq., from whom it descended, in 
1846, to his son, the present proprietor of the 
estate. 

TBSHT PABK, in the co. of Middlesex, a 
little more than ten miles from London, and 
near the marketrtown of Chipping Bamet, the 
seat of Robert Cooper Lee ^evan, Esq. 

This mansion was erected by the late Sir 
Richarb Jebb, an eminent physician, who 
obtained from the crown a lease of a consi- 
derable tract of land within the chase. This 
he surrounded with a pale, and shortly after- 
wards stocked his new domain with deer. 
Upon his demise the lease of the premises 
was bought by Lord Cholmondeley. The 
estate subsequently passed, at different times, 
through the nands of John Wigton, Esq., Sir 
Henry Lushington, and John Cumming, 
Esq. 

The house is of large size, built of brick, 
and stands in the midst of the attached 
park, which comprises nearly five hundred 
acres. The groimd here has a bolder cha- 
racter than is usual in this county, the sur- 
face being varied by inequalities, and in 
some parts are to oe seen traces of its 
ancient forest scenery. Venerable trees, 
twisted into fantastic forms by the winds of 
a past century, are scattered m picturesque 
irregularitv over the precincts of the former 
chase, while each access is beset by a tliick 
entanglement of underwood, brambles, and 
ferns. In a valley immediately before the 
dwelling is a fine and picturesque sheet of 
water, that adds not a little to the general 
efi[bct. 

ENGLBFIKLD HOVfiB, Berkshire, about six 
miles from the town of Reading, the seat 
of the late Richard Benyon de Beauvoir, 
Esq., who assumed the surname of Powlett- 
Wryghte, in 1814, and that of De Beauvoir 



BRATS OF GREAT BRITAIK AND IRELAND. 



155 



in IA22. He died in 1H54, leaving Engle- 
field to his nephew, Richard Fellowes, Esq., 
its present possessor. 

Ihis manor was held under the baronial 
family of Someiy at a remote date. The 
Englefields, however, who took their name 
from the village, are yet more ancient, and 
many of them served, at different penods, 
as knights of the shire. At the beginning 
of the sixteenth century, we find two of 
tliem holding the high office of judge. In 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the manor 
was forfeited to the crown, in consequence 
of tlie part taken by Sir Francis Englefield 
in the plot to rescue Queen Mary out of 
the hands of her formidable rival. He be- 
came attainted, and a grant of the property 
was made to Sir Francis Walsingham, the 
celebrated secretary of state, whose grand- 
daughter, the Lady Honora Burgh, con- 
veyed it in marriage to John, Marquess of 
Winchester. Upon the destruction of Basing 
House, in Wiltshire, which the Marquess 
had defended with much gallailktry against 
the republicans, he set about building a new 
mansion at Englefield, which was then called 
Henfelde House, and is described by Sir 
Balthazar Gerbier as '* a well-seated palace, 
with a wood at its back, like a mantle about 
a coat of arms, which doth defend it from 
the north-west windes. These advantages," 
as the writer goes on to say, " argueth that 
it is good to be there, as it proves a daily 
ease to travellers, who by four miles at once 
shorten the tediousness of a too long journey, 
for I doe perswade myself to heare many of 
them saj, — good cheere ; it's but four mile 
to Henfeild seate, and thence not so much 
more to a good town, to refresh and rest." 

Subsequently this estate devolved to the 
Rev. NaUian Wirghte, by his marriage with 
Anne, a grand-daughter of the Marquess; 
and in 1789 it passed to Richard Benyon, 
Esq. 

This mansion was originally built in the 
Elizabethan style, and Uiough it has been 
einoe reduced and modernised, it still retains 
enough of its former characteristics to be 
classed amongst the buildings of that form of 
architecture. It stands on the declivity of a 
hill, with a lawn in front that slopes down- 
wards to a handsome sheet of water, inter- 
spersed with small islands, in which nume- 
rous wild fowl have taken up their abode. 
Beyond this, upon Uie south, stretches out a 
beautiful valley, boimded by hills, whereon 
the beech and ash are thicKly planted, tlio 
dark glossy leaves of the one forming to the 
eye a pleasing contrast with the light foliage 
of the other. Tlie intermediate space is occu- 
pied with woods, seats, villages, and cultivated 
groimds. 

P0WSB800VBT in the co. of Wicklow. 



three miles from Bray, the beautiful seat 
and far-famed demesne of Viscount Powers- 
court. 

In ecclesiastical records this place is desig- 
nated StagonUy while by other authorities it 
is called Templebeaeon. Its present name is 
derived from the family of De la Poer, who 
obtained it by marriage with the daughter of 
Milo de Cogan. The latter was one of Strong- 
bow's followers, and erected a castle here to 
protect his domains from the inclusions of 
the moimtain septs in the neighbourhood. 

In the year 1535, this stronghold was sur- 
prised and taken by the Byrnes and O'Tooles ; 
but their triumph was of short endurance, 
for it was shortly afterwards recovered by the 
English. At a later period it was granted 
by Henry VIII. to a branch of the Talbots, 
from whom it was taken, in 1556, by the 
Kavanaghs, and garrisoned with a hundred 
and forty of their sept. This victory, how- 
ever, proved as fruitless to the conquerors as 
the one we have just recorded ; it was shortly 
afterwards attacked and retaken by Sir 
George Stanley, when, the garrison being 
sent prisoners to Dublin, seventy-four of tlieir 
number were executed. In 1609, King 
James I. bestowed the castle, as weU as all 
the lands of Fercullen — with the exception 
of one thousand acres in the parish, now the 
property of the noble family of Monck— on Sir 
Richard Wingfield, ancestor of the present 
Lord Powerscourt, which splendid gift was 
intended to reward his services in suppressing 
the rebellion raised in Ulster (1608) by Sir 
Cahir O'Dogherty and Sir Nial O'Donnell. 
Upon this occasion the latter was made 
prisoner in his camp, but the former, by what 
must be called a happier fate, was slain on 
the field of battle. A short time afterwards 
the lands were erected into a manor, and in 
1618 the proprietor was created Lord Pow- 
erscourt. 

The mansion of Powerscourt stands upon 
a natural terrace, and is a spacious builoing 
of hewn granite, the size, as well as the ma- 
terial, giving it a very imposing appearance. 
It presents two fronts ; one of them consists of 
a centre and two wings. The centre has a 
portico, supporting a pediment, in the tym- 
panum of which are the family arms; the 
wings terminate each in an obebsk that sup- 
ports the crest. At either extremity of tlie 
other front is a round tower, surmounted by 
a cupola and ogee dome. Witliin are several 
noble apartments. The hall is eighty feet 
long, and fortyfeet in width, and is richly 
ornamented. The ball-room is of equal di- 
mensions, with galleries on either side, that 
are riclily decorated, and upheld by lofty 
fluted columns, while the floor is of chesnut- 
wood, inlaid, and highly polished. Here 
it was that George iV. was so sumptu- 
ously entertained at dinner by the 5th Vis- 



156 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



count Powerecomt, when his Majesty visited 
Ireland in 1821. The chair of state which 
was provided for the king's use on that occa> 
sion is still preseiTed. 

Nothing can he more exquisitely beautiful 
than the si te of this mansion, standing as it does 
upon the left bank of the lovely Dargle-glen, 
and the view from its south, or garden, &ont 
is one no less varied than magnificent. From 
the terrace the prospect stretches down into 
this romantic glen, which is about a mile in 
length, closed in by impending mountains, 
the two Sugar-haves being amongst its most 
conspicuous features. In some parts its sides 
rise to a height of more than three hundred 
feet above the rugged bed of the river DargUy 
which, rising in the higher slopes of War-hiU 
— between iJouce mountain and Kippure — 
is precipitated in its infant state over a ledge 
of rocks in the old deer park of Powerscourt, 
and finds its way into this ravine, augmented 
by the stream that runs through Glencree. 
Confined within narrow bounds, and in its 
course obstructed by fragments of loosened 
rocks, the Dargle now rushes along with all 
the fiuy of a torrent, imder the shadow of 
overhanging precipices, sometimes clothed to 
the top with dark oaks, and at others pre- 
senting bare and rugged rocks. 

" The Olen of the Waterfall^ says one 
toiuist, " to which the approach is through 
the deer park, is embosomed in mountains, 
clothed almost to their summit with woods of 
oak; emerging fiom these the cataract is 
seen in all its picturesque grandeur, precipi- 
tating its waters in an unbroken volimie from 
a height of more than three hundred feet, 
with scarcely any interruption fiom projecting 
crags, into a chasm at its base between lofty 
detached masses of rock. When not aug- 
mented by continued rains, the sheet of de- 
scending water is clear and transparent, and 
the face of the precipice is distinctly seen ; 
but after heavy falls of rain it descends in vol- 
umes, and the whiteness of the foam forms a 
striking contrast with the dark foliage of the 
surrounding woods. A slippery path, beneath 
impending rocks, leads to the summit of 
the precipice, from which the view down- 
wards to its base is awfully terrific. The 
scenery here is wildly romantic; a pictu- 
resque wooden bridge over a stream, that 
runs from the foot of the waterfall, leads to 
a banquetting-room commanding a fine view 
of the glen. The stream in this part of its 
coiu*se is called the Glenistorean, but meet- 
ing on the outside of the deer park with ano- 
tlier from Glencree, it takes that name, and, 
after flowing through a succession of richly- 
cultivated demesnes, assumes the appellation 
of tlie Dargle river on its appraacn to the 
celebrated glen of the same name. The en- 
trance to the upper end of this very remark- 
able glen is altout a quarter of a mile from 



Enniskerry, and to the lower end about two 
miles from Bray." It may also be added that 
in the upiier part of this ravine are two cel^ 
brated cliffs, of great height, known as the 
Lover's Leap^ and View Rock, which com- 
mand a prospect of nearly its whole extent 
The waterfall is about two miles and a half 
distant from the mansion. 

The gardens attached to this seat are ex- 
tensive, and near the house is the largest old 
ash tree to be seen in this part of Ireland. 
Altogether the domains comprise twelve hun- 
dred and fifty acres, of which five hundred 
constitute the home demesne, and lie about 
the dwelling; five hundred and fifty are 
allotted to the deer park, which abounds in 
noble timber ; and the remainder is devoted 
to various purposes. 

In the mansion are several splendid paint- 
ings, and, take it altogether, this seat may be 
reckoned amongst the finest in Ireland. 

PSE8T0K HALL, in the co. of Kent, and 
in Aylesfoifl parish, but on the south-west 
side of the river Medwav, opposite the village 
of Aylesford, — the handsome seat of Edward 
Ladd Betts, Esq. 

In early times this place was possessed by 
the Colepepers, or Gulpepers, a family which 
produced many warriors and statesmen. In 
1723, Sir Thomas Golepeper, Kt., dying 
without issue, bequeathed all his property to 
his sister-in-law, Alicia, then the widow of 
Thomas Golepeper, Esq. This lady marrying 
a second time, and with John Mimer, oi the 
county of York, M.D., she settled the seat 
and manor upon him and his heirs. By him 
they were bequeathed to his brother, Charles, 
who died unmarried in 1771, and left this 
property to his nephew, the Rev. Joseph Butr 
ler, when the latter, in pursuance of his 
uncle's will, took the surname and arms of 
Milner by his Miyesty's royal licence. From 
the Milners this estate passed to the present 
owner. 

The old house was so much altered and 
improved by the Rev. Joseph Butler, that he 
may be almost said to have rebuilt it The 
existing structure owes its attractions to the 
taste of the present owner, E. L. Betts, Esq. 
The grounds, exquisitely laid out are situated 
in a verv pleasant and fertile part of a county 
that weU deserves to be called ** the garden 
of England," and at no. great distance from 
the river Medway. 

BALEATE E0V8B, Ireland, in the co. of 
Meath, the seat of John Armytage Nicholson, 
Esq. 

This estate at one period belonged to Sir 
Nicholas Plunkett, but after a time was confis- 
cated, and granted to the family of Fisher, 
from whom it was purchased by Gilbert 
Nicholson, Esq. 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



157 



The present mansion was erected in the 
year 1671, by the gentleman just mentioned, 
upon his acquisition of the property. It is 
a good substantial building, and il* not re- 
markable for any picturesque or architectmral 
advantages, is botn spacious and convenient. 
Attached to it, and immediately adjoining, are 
large yards, gardens, and pleasure-grounds, 
the two last m a high state of cultivation. 
The whole is siuroimded by an extensive 
demesne of the finest land, well calculated for 
all purposes, whether of agricultiure or pas- 
turage, and abundantly supplied with old 
and valuable timber. 

TEHIBYPABX, in the co. of ComwaU, 
nearly foiur miles north-west of the town of 
Kedruth, and in the parish of lUogan, the 
seat of the Right Hon. Frances Baroness 
Bassett 

The name of Tehidy— or Tyhidy, as it was 
anciently written — signifies, accoraing to the 
local historian, Hals, " the narrow house." 
Tonkin, when speaking of the early owners, 
says, in a note to Carew's Survey ^ *' The first 
owner I met of this ancient lordship was 
Dunstauville ; and Basset was nepos ^us, 
nephew or grandson. Reginald de Dunstan- 
ville was a baron of the realm temp. Henry 
I., and I take him to be the person men: in 
Testa de Kevill : ever since which this lord- 
ship hatli been in this ancient family. I 
shall only add that the family now residing 
here are descended from George Basset, the 
third son of John Basset, of Umberley, in 
Devon, and this Tyhidy, who had this manor 
for his portion. Leland saith, * Basset hath 
a rights goodlie lordship, csdled Treheddy ; ' 
and well might he call it a right goodly lord- 
ship, since it hath the advowsons of three 
large parishes : this, Gambron, and Redruth." 

The baronial family of Basset unquestion 
ably is of Norman origin, and proceeds from 
one of the Conqueror's companions, named 
Osmond Basset, who seems to have had an 
ample share in the spoils dealt out by Wil- 
liam with such pruaent munificence to his 
most distinguished retainers after the bloody 
fight of Hastings. Many of Osmond's de- 
scendants added fresh increase to the family 
honours. Amongst them must not be for- 
gotten Ralph Basset, who held the high office 
of Justice of England, with the singular pri- 
vilege conferred upon him ofpresiding in what- 
ever court of law he pleased. He died in the 
year 1 120, leaving behind him four sons, who 
were the founders of foiur distinct branches. 
As regards the first possessor of Tehidy, 
though beyond doubt derived frt)m tlie com- 
mon stock, there is yet some difficulty in 
tracing his descent with the precision so 
desirable in such cases. 

In the time of the great Civil War, we find 
one of the Bassets — Sir Francis — ^highly dis- 



tinguishing himself as a partisan of Charles 
I., during whose reign he filled the office of 
high sheriff of Cornwall. He was with the 
king at Lostwithiel, when the army of Essex 
surrendered to the royal forces, and received 
the monarch's especial thanks for the zeal 
displayed by him in his service. At parting, 
Charles, who never appears to have been 
deficient in gratitude— so far at leajst as it 
could be expressed by words — said to him, 
" Mr. Sheriff, I now leave the coimty of 
Cornwall to your care and protection." This 
dangerous honour was willmgly accepted by 
the stout Sir Francis, who was also Vice- 
Admiral of Cornwall, and Governor of the 
Mount ; but eventually, when the Parliament 
in their turn came to triumph, he suffered 
not a little in his fortune for nis zeal in the 
king's cause. His son, John Basset, who, as 
he had taken no active part in the war, might 
reasonably be supposed to have escaped its 
consequences, was yet imprisoned " for his 
delinquences and his own disaffection.*' 
Being allowed, like so many others, to com- 
pound, he obtained his libertv, but it cost 
him the estate of Moimt St. Michael, which 
he found himself obliged to dispose of to the 
family of St. Aubyn. 

The mansion at Tehidy is a handsome 
square edifice, although of a somewhat novel 
style of architecture. At the angles of the 
centre, but detached from it, are four pavi- 
lions, the effect of which is fanciful, and not 
unpleasing to the eye. It was commenced 
in 1736, by John Fendarves Basset, Esq., 
who, however, did not live to see the comple- 
tion of his design, and the building, after his 
death, was finished by his widow according 
to the original plan of the architect, Mr. 
Edwards. In later times a noble banquet- 
ting-hall has been added, greatly to the im- 
provement of the edifice as it first appeared. 
The eastern front, which is built of free- 
stone from Illogan, is further ornamented 
with a handsome pediment, containing the 
arms of De Dunstanville. On the nordiem 
side is a splendid terrace, commanding an 
extensive sea view, with a magnificent range 
of coast scenery. 

Many of the apartments in this noble man- 
sion are spacious, all are fitted up with much 
taste, and some contain several choice pictures 
by the old masters — ^Rubens, Rembrandt, 
Vandyck, Carlo Dolce, Lanfranco, Giacomo 
Bassano, and others, more or less celebrated. 
Amongst the portraits, we find the works of 
Sir Peter Lely, Sir Godfrey Kneller, Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, Gainsborough, Hudson, 
Ramsay, &o. 

Attached to the mansion is a well-planted 
lawn, of unusual extent— one hundred and 
fifty acres — and terminating, after a gradu^ 
descent, in a handsome sheet of water. The 
principal woodland comprises one hundred 



158 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



and thirty acres; and the entire grounds, 
including the parts just mentioned, extend to 
no less a space than seven hundred acres, or, 
it may be, somewhat more. As regards tim- 
ber, there is scarcely any kind of tree that our 
soil and climate admit of which is not to be 
found here, and most of them in great abun^^ 
dance — oak, holly, cypress, Scotch and silver 
firs, common and Portuguese laurels, the 
beech, the sycamore, and the Spanish chesnut. 
Of these many have attained an enormous 
size, that speaks not a little for the pecidiar 
aptness of the soil for the growth of trees. 

At no great distance from this estate are 
the ruins of an old castle, to which there does 
not belong in the present day either date or 
tradition — " omnia fert astas." They stand 
upon the crest of a steep hill, called Gam 
Bre, which commands from its different sides 
several glorious views ; on one side the pros- 
pect reaches to the Bristol Channel, on ano- 
ther it passes over Cornwall to the English 
Channel, and on the south-west it includes 
St. Michael's Mount, extending to the ocean 
beyond the Land's End. The height is ren- 
dered yet more interesting to the tourist by 
the speculations growing out of the nume* 
rous granite-blocks, of every size and shape, 
that are so profusely scattered over its siu*- 
face. Are they Druidical remains ? or frag- 
ments thrown up here in some convulsion of 
nature? or what are they ? Borlase inclines 
to the first of these suppositions, while he 
attributes the castle itself to the ancient 
Druids, who, indeed, seem to be the legiti- 
mate proprietors of all unowned ruins and 
fragments throughout the island. Others 
have set down these masses of granite for 
natural formations, no very satisfactory con- 
iecture, since it leaves unexplained the pro- 
blem of how stones so shaped and sized could 
have arrived at such a position ; at the same 
time they conclude the ruins to have been^ 
at some remote period, a military station. 
In favour of the latter opinion it may be re- 
marked that on one part of the hill-top are 
the remains of an intrenclmient, near to 
which several Roman as well as British coins 
have been found. Be this as it may, one 
part of the castle carries with it the appear- 
ance of high antiquity ; but, although pierced 
with loopholes tor defence, it coiUd hardly 
have been in any age a place of much 
strength, beyond what it might derive from 
the mere advantages of the ground. 

Upon another side of &e hill is a tall 
pyramid with this inscription : " The county 
or Cornwall to the memory of Francis, Lord 
de Dunstanville, 1836." This nobleman, the 
late proprietor of Tehidy, appears to have 
been held by the Comishmen in the highest 
honour and regard, a feeling that is said to 
have been common to all classes, and no less 
richly merited. 



The greater part of the country about Illo- 
gan belongs, and has belonged for centuries, 
to the family of the Bassets. Of this a con- 
siderable tract is either barren by nature, or 
uncultivated, but the deficiencies of the sur- 
fioce are amply compensated by the treasures 
within the earth. The tin and copper-mines 
here are extensive ; and those of tin in par- 
ticular upon the hill named Cam Kye have 
been worked with enormous profit to the 
owners. The principal copper-mine is Wheal, 
or Huel Basset. 

XXLBUBY, Dorsetshire, the seat of the 
Earl of Ilchester. 

This place belonged at one time to the 
Maltravers and Staffords, having been origi- 
nally possessed by the Sampfords, the ancient 
lords of the manor. Finally it came to the 
family of Strangways, by marriage with the 
heiress of the then possessor. 

The site of the present mansion was once 
occupied by an older pile, and, according to 
JiCland, Sir Giles Strangways the elder 
" avaunced the inner part of the house with 
a lofty and fresche tower." In this work 
the knight is said to have used 3,000 loads of 
freestone, brought from Hampden quarry, nine 
miles distant. The present house, which is 
100 feet square, stands upon a gentle emi- 
nence, and occupies three sides of a quad- 
rangle, respectively fronting east, north, and 
south. Of these, that which fronts the east 
is the principal, and each is adorned with 
pilasters of the Corinthian order. The path 
leading to the entrance is conducted over a 
stone bridge of ten arches, that spans a fine 
sheet of water on the north side of the man- 
sion. 

Many family portraits of considerable merit 
are to be seen here, besides many valuable 
relics, the most curious of which is an original 
letter in the hand-writing of Oliver Cromwell. 
It i-uns thus : — 

" For ye hbie Coll. 
Edmund Whalley 
at his quajters 
haste these. 
"Sir 

I desire you to be with all my troopes, 
and Collonel Ffines his troopes alsoe at 
Wilton at a Rendevous by break of day to- 
moiTOw morning, for we heare the enemy 
has a dcsigne upon om- quarters to-morrow 
morning. 

"Sr. I am 

Y*" Cozen and Servant, 

" Oliver Cromwell. 
Sarura, Wednesday^ 
night at 12 a clock.*' 

Hutchins speaks in glowing terms of tlie 
scenery about this seat, its extreme l>eauty 
having warmed him to a flight somewhat 



(( 



It I 



8BAT8 OF GREAT BRITAIN AMD IRELAND. 



159 



unusual with antiquaries. ** The ground/' he 
says, " around the mansion is diversified hy 
nature in beautiful irregularity of hill and 
dale, of verdant pastures, and venerable 
woods. Various trees, of great size and 
beauty, P|[^iit themselves in every point of 
view. The oak and the elm distinguish 
themselves above the rest; of the former 
there is one whose circumference exceeds 
thirty-two feet. At a pleasing distance from 
the south front, the canal extends itself into 
the shape and size of a majestic river, whose 
opposite bank is clothed with a numerous 
assemblage of lofty forest trees. These cover 
the base of a hill, whose summit rises over 
their tops, and extends in a deUghtful terrace 
to the east and west. Hence the eye traverses 
an immeasurable tract of country. On the 
east, the bold prominence of Bub Down 
presents the first object ; and at the distance 
of almost thirty miles in the same line, the 
entrenchments of Humbledon Hill, and the 
town of. Shaftesbury are distinctly seen. 
IVoceediug northwards, Bradley Knoll, Al- 
fred's Tower, Wells Cathedral, the Mendip 
range of hills, the wonderful chasm at Ched- 
dar cliffs, and other remarkable objects rise 
to view. On the north-west are the Quantock 
hills ; and to the west, the eve catches the 
appearance of a forest, stretc&ng to an im- 
measurable distance, whose utmost boun- 
daries reach the clouds.'* 

BSBBT POMSBOT, or BUBT POMEBOT, in 

the CO. of Devon, about a mile from Totnes, 
the property of the Duke of Somerset. 

The castle of Berry Pomerov took its name 
frx>m the Pomeroys, by one of which family 
it was originally erected. Tliey came over 
with the Norman Conqueror, ana resided here 
until the reign of King Edward VI., when 
the manor was sold by Sir Thomas Pomeroy 
to Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, from 
whom it has descended to the present owner. 

From the ruins it may be inferred that the 
ancient castle was quadrangular, with a 
single entrance, upon the south, between two 
towers, through a double gateway. They 
were in form hexagons, one of them being 
strengthened by angular bastions, and still 
retaining the arms of the Pomeroys. Over 
the gateway is a small room divided by a 
wall, supported by three pillars and circular 
arches, lliis was probably the chapel. The 
ruins in the interior part, or quadrangle, are 
much more modem Uian any other portions 
of the edifice, but in truth we cannot do 
better than quote the words of Prince, who 
thus describes it in his '* Worthies of De- 
von" : — 

** It was a castle, standing a mile distant 
towards the east from the parish church of 
Biry (Berry). What it was in its antique 
form, can hardly be calculated from what at 



present remains standing, which is only the 
nront facmg the south in a direct line, of 
about sixty cloth-yards in length. The gate 
standeth towards the west end of the front, 
over which, carved in moor-stone, is yet 
remaining Pomeroy's arms. It had heretofore 
a double portcullis, whose enteranoe is about 
twelve foot in height, and tliirty foot in 
length ; which gate is turretted and embat- 
tled, as are the walls yet standing home, to 
the east end thereof, where answereth,yet in 
being, a tower called St. Margaret's, from 
which several gentlemen of this country 
antiently held their lands. Within this is a 
large quadrangle, at the north and east side 
whereof the honourable family of Seymour 
built a magnificent structure, at the charges, 
as fame relates it, upward of twenty thousand 
pounds, but never brought it to perfection, for 
the west side of the quadrangle was never be' 
gun. What was finishedmay be thus described : 
— Before the door of the great hall was a noble 
walk, whose length was the breadth of the 
court, arched over with ciuiously-carved free- 
stone, supported in the fore part by several 
stately pillars, of the same stone, of great 
dimensions, after the Corinthian order, stand- 
ing on pedestals, having cornices, or friezes, 
finely wrought, behind which were placed in 
the wall several seats, of frieze stone also, cut 
in the form of an escallop shell, in which the 
company, when aweary, might repose them- 
selves. 

" The apartments within were very splen- 
did, especially the dining-room, wmch was 
adorned, besides paint, with statues and 
figures cut in alabaster, with admirable art 
and labour; but the chimney-piece, of 
polished marble, curiously engraven, was of 
great cost and value. Many other of the 
rooms were weU adorned with moldings and 
fret-work, some of whose marble clavils were 
so delicately fine tliat they would reflect an 
object true and Uvcly from a great distance. 
In short, the number of the appartments of 
the whole may be collected hence, if report be 
true, that it was a good day's work for a ser- 
vant but to open and shut the casements 
belonging to them. Notwithstanding which, 
'tis now demolished, and all this glory lieth 
in the dust, buried in its own mines ; tliere 
being nothing standing but a few broken 
walls, which seem to mourn their own 
approaching funerals. But what we may 
think strangest of all, is that one and the 
same age saw the rise and fall of this noble 
structure." 

As a pendant to this jdcture, it will not be 
amiss to give here what Maton has said of 
the same place, in a tour more picturesque, 
though, perhaps, not more graphic, than the 
description of the old chronicler : — 

" BeiTy Pomeroy stands upon a rocky emi- 
nence rising above a brook. The approach is 



160 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



through a thick wood, extending along the 
slope of a range of hills that entirely intercept 
any prospect to the south ; on the opposite 
side there is a steep rocky ridge covered vrith 
oak, so that the ruins are shut into a heautiful 
valley, Placed in so retired and so romantic 
a situation, on the hanks of a hright stream, 
which — 

* Rushing o'eritJi pebbly bed, 

Imposaa silence with a stiUj sound,' 

the venerable remaine of Berry Pomeroy 
Castle at first suggest only an idea of some 
peace^ monastic mansion to the mind of 
the spectator. When he perceives frowning 
tiurrets, however, massy walls, and gloomy 
dungeons, his imagination will be wholly at 
variance with the beauty and serenity of the 
spot, and he wUl think only of sieges, chains, 
torture, and death. The great gate [with the 
walls of the south front], the north wing of 
the court or quadrangle, some apartments on 
the west side, and a turret or two, are the 
principal remains of the building ; and these 
are so finely overhimg with the branches of 
trees and shrubs that grow close to the walls, 
so beautifully mantled with ivy, and so richly 
incrusted with moss, that they constitute the 
most picturesque objects that can be ima^ 
gined. And when the surrounding scenery 
IS taken into the account, — ^the noble mass of 
wood fronting the gate, ^e bold ridges rising 
in the horizon, and the fertile valley opening 
to the east, — the ruins of Berry Pomeroy Castle 
must be considered as almost imparalleled in 
their efiect. The eastern tower is accessible by 
a passage from the room over the gateway; 
here, we found, was the best point for sur- 
veying the environs of the castie. The inte- 
rior part appears to be considerably more 
modem than the gate and outer walls, the 
windows being square or oblong, with lintems 
and cross-bars of stone. It is going rapidly 
to decay, however, and the walls being com- 
posed of slate, might be entirely demolished 
with little trouble." 

To these details should be added that the 
castle was dismantled in the time of the great 
Civil War. There is, however, in the present 
mansion, a fine apartment, called the great 
hall, seventy feet long and forty feet in width, 
while the roof is of oak very curiously framed, 
and the chimney piece is fourteen feet in 
height. 

CAVEB8HAM FABX, Oxfordshire, two miles 
friom Heading. 

There was at one time upon this estate, 
but nearer to the river than the present man- 
sion, an ancient pile called Caversham 
Lodge, to which belong some interesting 
historical recollections. It was visited by 
Anne of Denmark, ¥rife to King James I., on 
her progress to Bath, and in the next reign 
it was die temporary abode of Charles the 



Firsts children, during the time that monarch 
was a captive at Windsor. Whitelock says, — 
" The king*s children coming to Causham to 
meet their father, great numbers of people 
flocked thither to see them, and strewed the 
ways with green boughs and herbs. After 
dinner at Maidenhead, the king and his 
children went together to Causham." The 
meeting, here recorded, took place July 15, 
1647, Charles being at that time in the hands 
of the army. 

The present mansion was erected by Wil- 
liam, Earl of Cadogan, a very distinguished 
military commander. In laying out the 
grounds he trusted to the well-known skill 
and taste of the celebrated capability Brown. 
Since his time, however, the house has 
been considerably improved, and chiefly by 
Colonel Marsack, who added a noble Co- 
rinthian portico upon the south front. The 
wing on this side of the building is par- 
tially hidden by trees, while the opposite 
wing displays itself with much effect. 
Upon the north, or carriage-front, is a 
Doric porch of solid and imposing appear- 
ance. Detached offices have lately been 
added to the house, which, standing upon 
an eminence, commands an extensive view 
of Berkshire, and the adjacent counties, 
— the town of Reading, with Ceesar^s camp, 
and the hills of Windsor Forest, in the dis- 
tance. 

The park contains about 500 acres ; twenty- 
five more are occupied by pleasure-grounds, 
plantations, and shrubberies. The canal is 
somewhat more than an acre in extent ; and 
the whole scene is enlivened by an alternation 
of wood and dale, a lovely valley passing 
through the very centre of Uie park. 

TOBHHAX 8T. GEHSVEBYB, in the co. of 

Sufiblk, a few miles distant from Bury St. 
Edmund's, the seat of Lord Manners. 

In early days this manor belonged to the 
abbey of St. Edmund, whose prior had a villa 
here, the estate being managed by the 
convent-treasurer. Rather more than thirty 
years ago, some foundations were discovered 
near the church, when digging there for other 
purposes. These were supposed by many 
skilful in such matter, to be the remains of 
the old monastic pile, an opinion which may 
be received with uttle hesitation. 

At the dissolution of monasteries by King 
Henry VIII., Fomham, like so many si- 
milar establishments, fell a prey to the uni- 
versal spoiler. It was then bought by Sir 
Thomas Keytson, and after having passed 
through various hands in somewhat rapid 
succession, became the property of the Duke 
of Norfolk in 1789. From the noble family 
of Howard it was subsequently purchased by 
Lord Manners. 

Sufiblk abounds as much as any county 



SEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



161 



and more than most, in historical recolleo^ 
lions. In the time of the Saxon rulers of East 
Anglia, many a well-contested battle was 
fought in this district between the English 
and the invading Danes, as at a later period 
liere was more than once the battle-field 
l)etween the reigning mouarchs and their 
revolted subjects. The bones and other 
relics of these long since forgotten warriors are 
still found, and not unfre(}uently, on the hills 
and plains. But no spot m the whole county 
has obtained more of uds sad distinction than 
the immediate neighbourhood of Fomham St. 
Genevieve, where the cause of Henry II. 
finally triumphed over the chief ally and 
supporter of bis rebellious sons, Robert Bel- 
lamont, sumamed Blanchmains, Earl of 
Leicester. This battle took place on the 27th 
day of October, in the year 1173. In addi- 
tion to the native insurgents under his com- 
mand, the earl had upwards of twenty-four 
thousand Flemings, who, indeed, constituted 
the principal portion of his army. The men 
had long been famous as the best and stoutest 
hirelings of Europe; but opposed to them 
was the fiower of the Enghsh army, led on 
by Henry de Bohun, high constable of Eng- 
land, by Richard de Lacy, and by others no 
less celebrated for their sJdll and daring in 
the preparation and shock of battle. To 
stimulate yet further the spirit of the soldiers, 
a sacred banner, in some way connected with 
St. Edmund, was borne along in the ro^al 
ranks, and the coura^^e of the men was in- 
flamed by the zeal of the religionist. Foiu*- 
teen thousand of the Flemings were left dead 
upon the battle-field; the survivors were 
aUowed, by the clemency or the prudence of 
the conqueror, to return to their own country. 
The earl and his. Amazonian countess, Fetro- 
niUa, who had accompanied him upon this 
bloody day, were also taken prisoners; the 
latter was treati^ by Henry with the gallant 
courtesy of his age, while her husband was 
detained in close captivity in the Norman 
castle of Falais, tiU the king had finally put 
down rebellion. 

The witnesses to this bloody day still 
remain in certain large mounas or earth 
thrown up at Fomham St. Genevieve, upon 
which the winds have beaten, and the rains 
fallen, of many centuries. Nor are they less 
testimonials to the perishableness of all 
human glory, in spite of all human artifices 
for its preservation. The green turf, although 
more durable than marble, is hardly a more 
certain record. Under these hillocks moulder, 
no doubt, the bones of the high-bom and the 
valiant, — ^men in their own day illustrious 
both at home and abroad; heroes, whose 
names were in the mouths of all, the honoured 
or the dreaded of a wide world ; and now 
how few know, or care to know, anything 
about them ? They died for glory, and that 



glory has perished even before their bones, 
for many skeletons yet remain, but not one 
solitary memorial. Even the i)easantry, with 
whom events of this kind linger in ballad and 
legend long after they have ceased to have an 
interest for the chronicler, who assigns to 
them in his ponderous folios as small a niche 
as their dust itself occupies in the grave, — 
even the peasantiy are ignorant of what is 
sleeping beneath these mounds: vanitas 
vanitatum! The antiquary, perhaps, is the 
only one who any longer takes much interest 
in the spot or m its details, and for him, 
indeed, it supplies much of that pecidiar food 
in which he delights. In the neighbourhood, 
roimdabout, innumerable relics of the past 
have been found at various times, — coins 
belonging to Henry the Second's reign, and 
culinary utensils, such as we might expect to 
meet with in a camp of soldiers. Of these 
remains, the most curious is a golden ring, 
with a ruby enclosed in it. The general 
notion is that it was worn by the Amazonian 
coimtess on the day of battle, and thrown 
away by her in her subsequent flight, though 
what encumbrance a small ring could pos- 
sibly have been, the inventors of the legend 
have forgotten to inform us. It seems to be 
a faint imitation of the '*parmuld non bene 
relictd'* of the Roman poet. 

fiBABCSVF MAHOB, in the co. of Surrey, 
about a mile from Guildford, the seat of the 
ancient family of Wight, and now the resi- 
dence of Mrs. Shrubb, whose first husband, 
the late Major Arthur Wight, of Braboeuf 
Manor, was a highly distinguished oflicer in 
the East India Company's service. 

The manor originally appertained to the 
Braboeufs, from whom it derived its appel- 
lation, and with whose immediate descendants 
it remained for upwards of 130 years. From 
them it passed, by the marriage of an heiress 
of that name, to the Loxleys, then to tlie 
Danhursts, and then to the Jenyns, all, how- 
ever, being more or less closely connected with 
the original stock of BraboBui. In 1&57 John 
Jenyns dying without issue, the estate 
devolved to his cousin and heir, Joan, the 
wife of Robert Kemp, whose daughter and 
heir, Agnes, conveyea it by marriage to John 
Wight, of Wimbledon, and in that family it 
still remains. 

Braboeuf Manor House stands on high 
groimd in a dip of the hill, opposite to St. 
Catherine's Chapel, which was formerly a 
chapel of ease to St. Nicholas', Guildford. 
This last is of very ancient architecture, and 
it was in a sad state of decadence, when it 
was repaired by Mrs. Sarah Wight (the 
mother of Major Arthur Wight), soon after 
the death of her husband in 1817. It now 
forms a lasting memorial to the good taste 
of the lady, and adds greatly to the embellish- 

Y 



162 



SEATS OF GREAT DHITAIK AND IRELAND* 



ment, not only of Braboeuf, but of the sur- 
rounding scenery, which is of a very beautiful 
and varied character. St Catherine's Hill, 
in particular, is eminently picturesque. It is 
a bold knoU, or eminence, rising abruptly 
from the banks of the river Wey, and is com- 
posed of red sand, intermixed with occasional 
layers or concretions of iron-stone. At one 
time it appears to have been called Drake 
HilL The fair, established here so far back 
as the reign of Henry VII., still continues to 
be held, though Bray and Manning are 
incorrect in giving the tolls arising from it to 
the rectors of St. Nicholas. By the original 
charter, — a copy of which is among the Bra- 
boBuf papers, — " the issues and profits of this 
fair, arising from tolls paid for tlie erection of 
booths, &c., belong to the lords of the manor 
of Braboeuf, and have been received by them 
from time immemorial." 

QUIBDXHHAM HALL, in the co. of Norfolk, 
about two miles from Kast Harling, the seat 
of tlie ?iarl of Albemarle. 

In the reign of King Henry II., the manor 
belonged to William de Quiddenham; before 
whose time there appears to l>e but little 
known in regard to it with any degree of cer- 
tainty. Blomefield says, — **Cuid^nham, or 
Quiihlenham^ undoubtedly signifies Villa 
Ouidoni»y or the country seat of one Guide, 
or Guy, but who he was we know not." 

Somewhere about the year 1!^00, the estate 
devolved to Sir Edmund Bedingfeld, Knight 
of tlie Batli, in right of Margaret, the 
daughter and heiress of Sir Robert Tuden- 
ham, Kt. In 1572 it was sold by Humphrey 
Bedingfeld to John Holland, Esq., who, in a 
work called the " Excellent Art of Painting,*' 
is styled *' an ingenious painter.** The estate, 
finidly passing into the hands of two sisters 
of this name, was by them sold to Mr. 
Bristol, a merchant, of whom it was bought, 
in 1702, by George, third Earl of Albe- 
marle, the descendant of a noble Dutch 
family that came over to England with King 
WUliam III. 

Tlie house is large and principally built of 
brick. The park front comprises five divi- 
sions ; the two wings project with a slight 
curve, and the centre is thrown back, tlie 
lower part lieing brought parallel to the rest 
of the front by a stone portico, of the Doric 
order, surmounted with balustrades. The 
garden front also consists of a centre and two 
wings. — tlie centre having four Ionic columns 
that support an entablature and pediment, 
while at the end of either wing are two cor- 
responding pUasiers. 

As a curious and characteristic piece of 
Church hiiitory, Blomefield tells us tnat *' in 
the parsonage window is an eagle snatching a 
piece of a sacrifice, with some of tne fire sticking 
to it, which, l>eing carried to her netit, fires 



it, and bums her young. Under the flaming 
nest is this : — 

' So l«t him faare. whoe'er he b#, that Av 
Purloin God's ttihaM uid Um Cburcfa's ebAre.* 

And round the oval is this : — 

*It ii dettnietiTe to derotir Uiat which ii hoi;.** 

KILCLOOHZB CAniB, in theco. of Galway, 
fifteen miles north-east from the town of thai 
name, the seat of James Christopher Fitz- 
gerald Kenny, Esq., J. P., M.R.I.A., Ac. 

The name Kilclogher is a corruption of the 
Irish CoiU an Clocair, which signifies *• tin* 
church among the rocks,** an apitelladon 
descriptive of the locality, and of the ctm* 
ventual pile which stood here at an eariy 
period, but of which all traces have long sinc«* 
disappeared : — 

** ObltTion't awftil atoniu iwionnd, 
Ihe meMive colomnii fall around. 
And dariuiess veiU Uieir dwtiny.** 

About half a mile north-west from the mo- 
dem mansion now in the course of envtion. 
stand the ruins of the ancient cast)e ; and «t 
no great distance, in the same townland, i< a 
field highly interesting to the geologist. It in 
covered with boulder lime-stones, from the 
disposition of which upon the slope of tlie 
hill, we may infer they were left by the 8«1»* 
siding waters of the deluge, as it rolled si-a- 
ward from the height above Knockroe, but 
with their force and volume too much 
exhausted for them to carry so vast a 
burthen to the summit The lands bebiw 
the hill will afford equal attractions, thoiif^ of 
another kind, to the poet, the romancer, anti 
the historian, from the legendary association^ 
connected with them. Here was the batth*- 
field on which the heroic Almeric Tristam. 
ancestor of the Earl of Howth, met hi^ 
powerful enemy, O'Connor, King of Con- 
naught, and was defeated with Uie loss of 
life. In the great inequality of the opposing 
forces, and the desperation with which the 
conflict was maintained by the weaker party, 
the affair bears no little resemblance to the 
more celebrated death-struggle of the 8partan!i 
at Thermopylae. 

Kilclogher — so spelt in the patents from 
the crown — is situated in the barony of 
Tiaquin, the ancient cantred 6f Sodnam. 
which was divided into six districts. Tht»se 
continued for a long time to be held bv the 
Milesian septs of CVMannin (chief of the 
whole cantretl). Mac Ward, (VSciurv, (Vl4»n- 
nan, OTaisin, O'CJealan, and 0*^fagin; of 
whom the Irish baid, 0*Dugan, says tlu^ 
were: — 

** Chleft not to he forgoUen ; 
Bnre are tb<> prvdaiory boeta 
That rale over Uie spett^raiMd SodbMk* 

They posM^ssed the castles of Monivea, Cush- 
laundarragh, Cloncurreen, Garbally, Men- 
logh, and Kilcloglier, which last was tht-ir 



. ' ■ 1 



J 



SEATS OF GBEAT BRITAIN AND IBELANO. 



163 



prindTOLl Btronghold, Here O'Mannin held 
sway ml about 1362, when 0*Kelly, king or 
cbief of the Hi-Many, stormed tbe castle, and 
hanged its gallant possessor, a summary mode 
of proceeding by no means rare in those wild 
times. The sept then retreated to the castle 
of Menlagh, about five miles to the east of the 
fortress which had just been taken from 
them. 

The change of hands brought with it no 
additional security to the castle. Ferdaragh 
O'Kelly, then chief of the family founded by 
the last-named conqueror, engaged in rebellion 
against the English, and thereby incurred the 
forfeiture of his lands ; he had, however, the 
good fortune to regain them by a pardon,, 
under letters patent, from King James I. Nor 
was the supremacy of Cromwell, in the triumph 
of the Independents, less disastrous to thia 
stronghold. Thye Protector, invincible every- 
where, battered the place with Ids heavy guns 
till he demolished no small portion of it, leav- 
ing di^ointed walls and smoking ruins to warn 
othere of the danger of resisting. What he 
spared was afterwards attacked by lightning, 
and suffered severely in one of those furious 
tempests which from time to time have ravaged 
Ireland. Finally the lands of Kilclogher, or 
Glogher, with othere, were forfeited bv Colo- 
nel Richard O'Kellv, and panted, with those 
of Monivea, &o., which culjoin, to the Bame- 
wall^. Lords Ihimleston. The colonel, whose 
immediate line is extinct, is generally sup- 
posed to have died in France, while his brother, 
William, of whom we shall speak presently, 
established himself in Wexford. 

Mathias Lord Tnmleston died in the castle 
of Monivea, as his tomb in Kilconnell Abbey 
beare mention. Having sold that castle and 
its lands before the middle ofthe 18th century 
to the family of French, the Lords Trimleston 
returned to their original seat in Leinster, 
and about the close of the same century the 
then Lord sold the castle of Kilclogher, with 
about three thousand acres of adjoining land, 
to William Kenney, Esq., of Ballytarusney, 
CO. Wexford, who was also seised of Carra- 
geen, Keelogues, &c., in the co. Galway, Long- 
wood, &c., CO. Meath, and resided in JDublin. 
His mother, Catherine, was the daughter of 
Captain Thomas O'Kelly, son of William, the 
brother of that Colonel Richard O'Kelly by 
whom the family estates were forfeited. Hence 
Kilclogher is possessed by the Kenneys in the 
third generation paternally, and in right of 
the female descent nas been held by them ever 
sinoe the taking of the castle by O'Kelly, in 
or near 1352, as before related, except the 
interval of possession by the Trimlestons, 
which noble house also is connected with 
the Kenneys, or Kennys (the spelling latterly 
adopted by the William Kenney above men- 
tioned, and used also in the original deed, 
now in possession of the present J. C. F. 



Kenney, his grandson, dated 8th Deo., 1630, 
"betweene tne most excellent prince and 
dread Soveraigne Lord, Charles I., and 
Henery Kenny, Gent.,*'), by the marriage 
of Anne Kenney with EcGtnund, son of 
Bamewall, of Dunbroe. She died in Decem- 
ber, 1636. 

William Kenney, who thus obtained Kil- 
clogher, descended from an ancient family 
highly favoured by the English government, 
having obtained lands in Wexibrd, Meath, 
Cork, Tipperary, Tyrone, Queen's County, 
Kildare, Leitrim, Sligo, and Galway, in which 
last coimty the Abbey of Athenry, with its 
lands of Gloves, Ballydavy, &c., were granted, 
by patent, 29th Jan., 1623, to Henry Kenney, 
Esq., M.P. (grea^grea^great grandfather of 
said William), who married Frances, sister 
of Lord Santjy, and was son of Nicholas 
Keuney, Esq., of Kenney's Hall and Eder- 
mine, co. Wexford, Escheator and Feodary 
General of all Ireland to Queen Ehzabetb,and 
descended froih the family of Kenne, of Kenne 
Court, Somersetshire. 

The family of Kenney, or Kenny, of Kil- 
clogher, descends in sixteen distinct ways from 
the royal house of Plantagenet. First, through 
the ancient family of Taylor, of Swords, — 
deriving through the Lord Howth, — one 
branch of which was represented by the 
William Kenney just recorded; secondly, 
through the united lines of Fitzgerald, of 
Bathrone and Ticroghan, — ^rejpresented by 
James F. Kenney, Esq., of Kilclogher and 
Merrion-square, son and heir of this William 
and Bridget Fitzgerald Dalv ; and, thirdly, 
through the marriage of said James Kenney 
with Jane Ohvia, only daughter of William 
T. Nugent, Esq., of FaUas, called Lord 
Bivereton, of which is issue the present J. 
C. F. Kenney, Esq., of Kilclogher and Mer- 
rion-square. The streams ascend to Kings 
Edward I. and Edward III. of England. 

See Burke's "Peerage," tit. Westmeath, 
-** Royal Families," and " Landed Gentry." 

XVOCKDBIV OASnS, co. Westmeath, the 
seat of Sir Richard Levinge, Bart 

Near the site of the present residence are 
the remains of a very ancient castle, two 
towera of which, with parts of the old walls, 
are still standing, and which, from their ap- 
pearance, would denote great strength as well 
as antiquity, and were erected in the reign of 
King John. 

The family of Tuite possessed the estate 
for several centuries, probably from the settle- 
ment of that family, who came over with the 
Earl of Tembroke (Stiongbow). 

The estates were ibrleited by Walter Tuite, 
and were purchased by the Right Hon. Sir 
Richard Leviuge, who also acquired estates 
in the counties of Louth, Armagh, and Kil- 
dare. He died in 1724, having previously 



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I I • 



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t . 



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1=3 !, 



164 



BEATS OF GREAT BRITAIN AMD IRELAND. 



built the second residence, which was colled 
High Park, but Sir Charles, the fifth baronet, 
abandoned it, and lired at Parwich, in Derby- 
ahire, which had been the family residence 
for fiye centuries. 

The present structure, Knookdrin Castle, 
was erected by Sir Richard Leringe, the 
sixth baronet It is a magnificent pile of 
building ; the oak-earrings are fine, and the 
staircase one of the best specimens of the 
kind in the United Kingdom, vicing with the 
far-famed one at Crewe UalL 

The terraces and pleasure-grounds are laid 
out with great taste, and are in unison with 
the style of the architecture of the buildinff. 

The demesne is beautifully diversified wim 
wood and water, and extends over 1,828 acres. 
Knockdrin : the principal hill, which rises in 
the centre of the oemesne, and is 5d4feet above 
the level of the sea, and clothed from the water^s 
ed^ to its summit with oak of great anti- 
qmty. The view from it extends over four- 
teen counties, and the beau^ and dlversi^ 
of the grounds, lakes, and dnves, cause them 
to be the resort of tourists. The grounds are 
always thrown open to strangers By the pre- 
sent owner. 

imAMSmiX, Hants, the fine old seat of 
the Rev. Sir William H. Cope, Bart, situated 
in the parish of Eversley, and on the borders 
of Berkshire, was built by Edward Lord 
Zouche about the year Idl2, and still stands 
as it stood two hundred years ago, a little 
more weather^yed perhaps, but still the 
same. We have already given, on a former 
occasion, ample details of this most interest- 
ing English home* and recorded how Queen 
Victoria, with her Prince Consort, made a 
royal progress to BramshiU in 1846. 

eiTm PLACI, near the villaoe of the 
same name, and a little more than three miles 
from Lewes, in the oo. of Sussex, the seat of 
the Honourable Henry Brand. 

At an early period tiiis manor belonged to 
the lords of Glynde, whose heiress, Dionesa, 
brought it in marriage to the Walleys. For 
five generations the estate remained in the 
last-named family, till Joan, daughter and 
coheir of Sir John Walleys, of Glynde, Kt, 
married Nicholas Morley, of Winnington, in 
Lancashire, and thus conferred upon him the 
manorial riffhts of Glyiide. About the year 
1680, Glynde passed, in marriage with the 
widow of Willum Morley, to John Trevor, 
eldest son of Sir John Trevor, secretary of 
sUte to Charles II. In 174d, John Trevor, 
dying without issue, bequeathed Glynde to 
his first cousin, who afterwards oecame 
Bishop of Durham. From this family it 
passed to Major-General the Hon. Henry 
Otway Brand, who took the name of Trevor. 

Glynde is an Elizabethan mansion, built 



upon an eligible site that commands an ex- 
tensive view of the Weald. The ttoui looka 
towards the east, and exhibitB numerous bay 
windows, with other ancient ornaments. 
From an inscription over the inner courtrgate 
of the western front, carved under a coat of 
arms, it would seem that the mansion was 
erected in 1560, but it was greatly improved 
by the Bishop of Durham while residing here. 
He added the large stabling, as well as other 
buildings. 

POTVTOVEALL, in the oo. palatine of 
Chester, about five miles from Stockport, the 
seat of Lord Vernon. 

The manor of Poynton, with the barony of 
Stockport, psssed, m the reign of Edward 
III., to the warrens, by the marriage of Ed- 
ward de Warren to CeciUa, daughter of Sir 
Nicholas de Eton, of Stockport, Kt In 
1018, the greater part of this immense pro* 
perty was dissipated by Lawrence de Warren, 
Dut was restored to its former value and ex- 
tent by his son and heir. Sir Edward, whc 
rebuilt the family mansion, and planted witi 
a liberal hand in the park. The direct mal 
line of the Warrens ended with Sir Geory 
Warren, whose daughter, the Viscountet^ 
Bulkdey, came into possession of Poynton